Chapter 10י׳
1 א

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁשָּׁגַג בְּאַחַת מִמִּצְוֹתָיו פָּטוּר מִכְּלוּם. חוּץ מֵרוֹצֵחַ בִּשְׁגָגָה שֶׁאִם הֲרָגוֹ גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג עָלָיו. וְאֵין לוֹ עִיר מִקְלָט. אֲבָל בָּתֵּי דִּינֵיהֶן אֵין מְמִיתִין אוֹתוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשָׁגַג בְּאַחַת מִמִּצְוֹת וְעָבַר בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה. כְּגוֹן שֶׁבָּעַל אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ וְדִמָּה שֶׁהִיא אִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ פְּנוּיָה. אֲבָל אִם יָדַע שֶׁהִיא אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁהִיא אֲסוּרָה עָלָיו. אֶלָּא עָלָה עַל לִבּוֹ שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ. וְכֵן אִם הָרַג וְהוּא לֹא יָדַע שֶׁאָסוּר לַהֲרֹג. הֲרֵי זֶה קָרוֹב לְמֵזִיד וְנֶהֱרָג. וְלֹא תֵּחָשֵׁב זוֹ לָהֶם שְׁגָגָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִלְמֹד וְלֹא לָמַד:

A non-Jew who accidentally violates one of his (Seven) Commandments is exempt from punishment, except for an accidental murderer. For if a Blood Avenger kills him, he is not killed. He104The accidental murderer. has no City of Refuge and their courts do not execute him. To what do we refer? To someone who accidentally and without intention violates one of the commandments as, for example, if he had sexual intercourse with his friend’s wife and thought that she was his wife or that she was single. However, if he knew that she was his friend’s wife, but did not know that she was forbidden to him and thought this was permitted for him, or if he killed someone and he did not know that it is forbidden to kill, this is considered to be “close” to having committed the act “On Purpose”, and he is executed. This is not considered as an accidental sin for them since he should have learned what the Law is, and didn’t.

2 ב

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁאֲנָסוֹ אַנָּס לַעֲבֹר עַל אַחַת מִמִּצְוֹתָיו. מֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲבֹר. אֲפִלּוּ נֶאֱנַס לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה עוֹבֵד. לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן מְצֻוִּין עַל קִדּוּשׁ הַשֵּׁם. וּלְעוֹלָם אֵין עוֹנְשִׁין מֵהֶן לֹא קָטָן וְלֹא חֵרֵשׁ וְלֹא שׁוֹטֶה לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּנֵי מִצְוֹת:

A non-Jew may violate one of the Commandments if he is forced105By some violent and strong person. to do so. Even if he was forced to worship idols, he may do so, since non-Jews are not commanded to Sanctify the Name. A non-Jewish child or a deaf person or a mentally-deficient person may never be punished, since these people are not obligated in the Commandments.

3 ג

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר וּמָל וְטָבַל וְאַחַר כָּךְ רָצָה לַחְזֹר מֵאַחֲרֵי ה' וְלִהְיוֹת גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב בִּלְבַד כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִקֹּדֶם. אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. אֶלָּא יִהְיֶה כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל דָּבָר אוֹ יֵהָרֵג. וְאִם הָיָה קָטָן כְּשֶׁהִטְבִּילוּהוּ בֵּית דִּין. יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיַּגְדִּיל וְיִהְיֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב בִּלְבַד. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא מִחָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ שׁוּב אֵינוֹ מוֹחֶה אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הוּא גֵּר צֶדֶק. לְפִיכָךְ אִם בָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל קְטַנָּה שֶׁהִטְבִּילוּהָ בֵּית דִּין. כֶּסֶף כְּתֻבָּתָהּ אוֹ קְנָס אוֹנֵס אוֹ מְפַתֶּה יִהְיֶה הַכּל תַּחַת יַד בֵּית דִּין עַד שֶׁתַּגְדִּיל וְלֹא תִּמְחֶה בַּגֵּרוּת. שֶׁמָּא תִּטּל וְתַגְדִּיל וְתִמְחֶה וְנִמְצֵאת זוֹ אוֹכֶלֶת בְּגֵיוּתָהּ מָעוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהּ זְכוּת בָּהֶן אֶלָּא בְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:

We ignore the request of a non-Jew who had converted and was circumcised and immersed, and now wishes to turn away from G-d and change his status to Resident Convert as he was before. Rather, he is to conduct himself like any other Jew, or he will be executed. A child can annul his conversion when he grows up if he had been immersed by the Court when he was a minor. He may only become a Resident Convert. However, if he didn’t annul his conversion at that time106Immediately upon reaching the age of majority., he cannot do so later, and he becomes a Righteous Convert. Therefore, the money from the marriage contract of a minor girl107If she was married to or raped or seduced by a Jew. who the Court has immersed or the “rape fine” or the “seduction fine” will all be given to and held by the Court until she grows up and she does not reject her conversion. This is done lest she take the money, grow up, deny her conversion and utilize monies to which, as a non-Jewess, she has no rights, except by Jewish Law108I.e. unless she would be Jewish..

4 ד

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבֵּרֵךְ אֶת הַשֵּׁם אוֹ שֶׁעָבַד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אוֹ שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהָרַג חֲבֵרוֹ וְנִתְגַּיֵּר. פָּטוּר. הָרַג בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ שֶׁבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִתְגַּיֵּר חַיָּב וְהוֹרְגִין אוֹתוֹ עַל בֶּן יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְחוֹנְקִין אוֹתוֹ עַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבָּעַל שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּנָּה דִּינוֹ:

A non-Jew who “blessed” G-d or worshiped idols or had relations with a married woman or killed someone, and then converted, is exempt from punishment. If he killed a Jew or had relations with a married Jewish woman and converted, he is liable for punishment. He is executed109By the sword. for killing the Jew or strangled for having relations with a married Jewish woman, for here his verdict changes.

5 ה

כְּבָר בֵּאַרְנוּ שֶׁכָּל מִיתַת בְּנֵי נֹחַ בְּסַיִף. אֶלָּא אִם בָּעַל אֵשֶׁת יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹ נַעֲרָה מְאֹרָסָה יִסָּקֵל. וְאִם בְּעָלָהּ אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנְסָה לַחֻפָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּבָּעֵל יֵחָנֵק:

We have already explained that all death penalties for non-Jews are by the sword, except if he had relations with a married Jewish woman or with an engaged girl. In those cases he is executed by stoning. If he had relations with a woman after she had come under the marital canopy, but had not consummated her marriage, he is strangled to death.

6 ו

מִפִּי הַקַּבָּלָה שֶׁבְּנֵי נֹחַ אֲסוּרִין בְּהַרְבָּעַת בְּהֵמָה וּבְהַרְכָּבַת אִילָן בִּלְבַד. וְאֵין נֶהֱרָגִין עֲלֵיהֶן. וְעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁהִכָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ חָבַל בּוֹ כָּל שֶׁהוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִיתָה אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג:

By Tradition we know that non-Jews are also forbidden to have sexual relations with animals, and are not permitted to graft trees, only110That is, they are not forbidden in the other matters of commingling, such as Sha’atnez, etc.. They are not executed for these violations. A non-Jew who hits a Jew, even if he just injures him a bit, is not executed, even though he deserves it.

7 ז

הַמִּילָה נִצְטַוָּה בָּהּ אַבְרָהָם וְזַרְעוֹ בִּלְבַד. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יז, ט) "אַתָּה וְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ". יָצָא זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׁמָעֵאל שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כא, יב) "כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע". וְיָצָא עֵשָׂו שֶׁהֲרֵי יִצְחָק אָמַר לְיַעֲקֹב (בראשית כח, ד) "וְיִתֶּן לְךָ אֶת בִּרְכַּת אַבְרָהָם לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ". מִכְלַל שֶׁהוּא לְבַדּוֹ זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם הַמַּחֲזִיק בְּדָתוֹ וּבְדַרְכּוֹ הַיְשָׁרָה. וְהֵם הַמְחֻיָּבִין בְּמִילָה:

Circumcision was only commanded of Abraham and his descendents, as it says, “You and your descendents who will follow you throughout the generations” (Genesis 17:9). Ishmael’s descendents are excluded from this Commandment, as it says, “For through Isaac shall your descendents be called yours” (Genesis 21:12). Esau is excluded since Isaac said to Jacob, “and he shall give the blessing of Abraham to you and to your descendents” (Genesis 28:4). Since he, alone, was the descendent of Abraham who stood fast with his religion and his upright ways, it is his progeny who were commanded with circumcision.

8 ח

אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁבְּנֵי קְטוּרָה שֶׁהֵם זַרְעוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם שֶׁבָּא אַחַר יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְיִצְחָק חַיָּבִין בְּמִילָה. וְהוֹאִיל וְנִתְעָרְבוּ הַיּוֹם בְּנֵי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בִּבְנֵי קְטוּרָה יִתְחַיְּבוּ הַכּל בְּמִילָה בַּשְּׁמִינִי. וְאֵין נֶהֱרָגִין עָלֶיהָ:

Our Sages have said that the sons of Ketura, those who are the descendents of Abraham who came after Ishmael and Isaac, are obligated with (the Commandment of) circumcision. However, today, since the descendents of Ishmael have commingled with the children of Ketura, all of them are obligated with circumcision on the eighth day. However, they are not executed111If they fail to do so.

9 ט

עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁעָסַק בַּתּוֹרָה חַיָּב מִיתָה. לֹא יַעֲסֹק אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן בִּלְבַד. וְכֵן עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁשָּׁבַת אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם מִימוֹת הַחל אִם עֲשָׂאָהוּ לְעַצְמוֹ כְּמוֹ שַׁבָּת חַיָּב מִיתָה. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם עָשָׂה מוֹעֵד לְעַצְמוֹ. כְּלָלוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר אֵין מְנִיחִין אוֹתָן לְחַדֵּשׁ דָּת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוֹת לְעַצְמָן מִדַּעְתָּן. אֶלָּא אוֹ יִהְיֶה גֵּר צֶדֶק וִיקַבֵּל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת. אוֹ יַעֲמֹד בְּתוֹרָתוֹ וְלֹא יוֹסִיף וְלֹא יִגְרַע. וְאִם עָסַק בַּתּוֹרָה אוֹ שָׁבַת אוֹ חִדֵּשׁ דָּבָר. מַכִּין אוֹתוֹ וְעוֹנְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ וּמוֹדִיעִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב מִיתָה עַל זֶה. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ נֶהֱרָג:

A non-Jew who busied himself with Torah is liable with his life112From Heaven, because others will see him perform Mitzvohs and being engaged in Torah and will be deceived. They will think him a practicing Jew and err after him.. He must involve himself in their Seven Commandments only. Similarly, a non-Jew who “rested” as one would on Shabbos, even on a weekday, is liable with the death penalty. There is no reason to mention (that he is culpable) if he invented his own holiday. The principle here is that we do not permit them to make a new religion and create new commandments for themselves based on their own reasoning. They may only become Righteous Converts and accept upon themselves all the Commandments, or they must observe their own (Seven) Laws only, and not add or detract from them. If a non-Jew busied himself with Torah or made Shabbos or made up something new, we give him lashes and punish him and tell him that he is liable with the death penalty for doing this. But he is not executed.

10 י

בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁרָצָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה מִשְּׁאָר מִצְוֹת הַתּוֹרָה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר. אֵין מוֹנְעִין אוֹתוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָהּ כְּהִלְכָתָהּ. וְאִם הֵבִיא עוֹלָה מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ. נָתַן צְדָקָה מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין אוֹתָהּ לַעֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל. הוֹאִיל וְהוּא נִזּוֹן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמִצְוָה עֲלֵיהֶם לְהַחְיוֹתוֹ. אֲבָל הָעַכּוּ''ם שֶׁנָּתַן צְדָקָה מְקַבְּלִין מִמֶּנּוּ וְנוֹתְנִין אוֹתָהּ לַעֲנִיֵּי עַכּוּ''ם:

A non-Jew113One who had accepted the Seven Commandments, i.e. a Resident Convert. who wishes to perform another Torah Commandment114Other than learning Torah or observing Shabbos. (merely) in order to receive a reward is not prevented from so doing in the Halochically correct way. Thus, if he brings the Olah (burnt) offering, we accept it from him. If he gives charity, we accept it from him. It appears to me, however, that we give these monies to the Jewish poor since he (the Resident Convert) is sustained by Israel, and they have a commandment to keep them (the Jews) alive. However, if a non-Jew115One who didn’t accept the Seven Commandments. gives charity, we take it and give it to the non-Jewish poor116We take for the “sake of peace”, but give it back to them since it is a disgrace for Jews to have to receive charity from non-Jews..

11 יא

חַיָּבִין בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת שׁוֹפְטִים לְאֵלּוּ הַגֵּרִים הַתּוֹשָׁבִים לָדוּן לָהֶן עַל פִּי מִשְׁפָּטִים אֵלּוּ. כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁחֵת הָעוֹלָם. אִם רָאוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁיַּעֲמִידוּ שׁוֹפְטֵיהֶם מֵהֶן מַעֲמִידִין. וְאִם רָאוּ שֶׁיַּעֲמִידוּ לָהֶן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲמִידִין:

The Jewish Court must set up judges for the Resident Converts to judge them in accordance with these statutes. This is so that the world will not come to be destroyed117Or, morally corrupted.. If the Court sees that it can appoint judges from among them, then it should do so. If the Court sees that it must appoint Jewish judges118Since no non-Jew was qualified to be a judge., then it may do so.

12 יב

שְׁנֵי עַכּוּ''ם שֶׁבָּאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לָדוּן בְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְרָצוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן לָדוּן דִּין תּוֹרָה דָּנִין. הָאֶחָד רוֹצֶה וְהָאֶחָד אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה אֵין כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לָדוּן אֶלָּא בְּדִינֵיהֶן. הָיָה יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַכּוּ''ם אִם יֵשׁ זְכוּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּדִינֵיהֶן דָּנִין לוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם. וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ כָּךְ דִּינֵיכֶם. וְאִם יֵשׁ זְכוּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּדִינֵינוּ דָּנִין לוֹ דִּין תּוֹרָה וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ כָּךְ דִּינֵינוּ. וְיֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין כֵּן לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב אֶלָּא לְעוֹלָם דָּנִין לוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם. וְכֵן יֵרָאֶה לִי שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין עִם גֵּרֵי תּוֹשָׁב בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶרֶץ וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. שֶׁהֲרֵי אָנוּ מְצֻוִּין לְהַחֲיוֹתָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד, כא) "לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ". וְזֶה שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אֵין כּוֹפְלִין לָהֶן שָׁלוֹם בְּעַכּוּ''ם לֹא בְּגֵר תּוֹשָׁב. אֲפִלּוּ הָעַכּוּ''ם צִוּוּ חֲכָמִים לְבַקֵּר חוֹלֵיהֶם וְלִקְבֹּר מֵתֵיהֶם עִם מֵתֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּלְפַרְנֵס עֲנִיֵּיהֶם בִּכְלַל עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. הֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר (תהילים קמה, ט) "טוֹב ה' לַכּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו". וְנֶאֱמַר (משלי ג, יז) "דְּרָכֶיהָ דַרְכֵי נֹעַם וְכָל נְתִיבוֹתֶיהָ שָׁלוֹם":

Two non-Jews who appear before you to be judged in accordance with Jewish Law and wish to be judged in accordance with the Torah, are so judged. One wishes to be judged so and the other not, he is not forced to be judged except by their own laws. If a Jew and a non-Jew appear before us and we can learn merit for the Jew in accordance with their laws, we judge them in accordance with their laws and we say to him, ‘this is your law’. But if the Jew has merit in accordance with our Law, we judge him by Torah Law and tell him ‘this is our Law’. It appears to me that we do not do this with a Resident Convert, but we always judge him by his laws. And so it appears to me that we treat a Resident Convert as we would a Jew, that is with respect and loving-kindness, since we are commanded to keep him alive119Sustain and support him., as it says, “to the stranger who is within your gates you shall give, that he may eat of it” (Deut. 14:21). Our Sages have said that we do not double120Literally double by saying “Shalom. Shalom”. our saying of Shalom refers to the non-Jews121One who has not accept the Seven Commandments., but we do with a Resident Convert. And that that our Sages have commanded us to visit their sick and bury their dead along with Jewish dead, and sustain their poor along122But not alongside. with the poor of Israel is for the “sake of peace”, since it says, “G-d is good to all, and His mercies extend upon all his works” (Psalms 145:9) and it says, “her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace" (Proverbs 3:17).