Chapter 3ג׳
1 א
הַגַּלְגַּלִים הֵם הַנִּקְרָאִים שָׁמַיִם וְרָקִיעַ וּזְבוּל וַעֲרָבוֹת. וְהֵם תִּשְׁעָה גַּלְגַּלִּים. גַּלְגַּל הַקָּרוֹב מִמֶּנּוּ הוּא גַּלְגַּל הַיָּרֵחַ. וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ הוּא גַּלְגַּל שֶׁבּוֹ הַכּוֹכָב הַנִּקְרָא כּוֹכָב. וְגַלְגַּל שְׁלִישִׁי שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁבּוֹ נֹגַהּ. וְגַלְגַּל רְבִיעִי שֶׁבּוֹ חַמָּה. וְגַלְגַּל חֲמִישִׁי שֶׁבּוֹ מַאֲדִים. וְגַלְגַּל שִׁשִּׁי שֶׁבּוֹ כּוֹכַב צֶדֶק. וְגַלְגַּל שְׁבִיעִי שֶׁבּוֹ שַׁבְּתַי. וְגַלְגַּל שְׁמִינִי שֶׁבּוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁנִּרְאִים בָּרָקִיעַ. וְגַלְגַּל תְּשִׁיעִי הוּא גַּלְגַּל הַחוֹזֵר בְּכָל יוֹם מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב וְהוּא הַמַּקִּיף וּמְסַבֵּב אֶת הַכּל. וְזֶה שֶׁתִּרְאֶה כָּל הַכּוֹכָבִים כְּאִלּוּ הֵם כֻּלָּם בְּגַלְגַּל אֶחָד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה. מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַגַּלְגַּלִּים טְהוֹרִים וְזַכִּים כִּזְכוּכִית וּכְסַפִּיר לְפִיכָךְ נִרְאִים הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁבַּגַּלְגַּל הַשְּׁמִינִי מִתַּחַת גַּלְגַּל הָרִאשׁוֹן: As to the Orbs, these are called Shamayim Heaven, Rakiah the Expansion, Zebul the Habitation, and Araboth the Darkness (of the Ether). Now these consist of nine Orbs; the orb that is nearest to us is the orb of the Moon; the second orb, immediately above, is the orb in which is the planet called Cohab Mercury; the third orb [immediately] above this, is the one, in which is Nogah Venus; the fourth orb, is that, in which is Chamah the Sun; the fifth is that, in which is Maadim Mars; the sixth orb is that, in which is the planet Zedek Jupiter, the seventh orb, is that, in which is Sabathi Saturn; the eighth orb, is that, in which are all the other stars that are seen in the firmament; and the ninth is the orb which revolves daily from the East to the West, and which also encompasses and surrounds the whole. The reason why, you see all the stars as if they were all of them in the same orb, though some among them are one above the other is, because the orbs are pure and transparent, like crystal and sapphire; therefore, the stars which are in the eighth orb are seen beneath the first orb.
2 ב
כָּל גַּלְגַּל וְגַלְגַּל מִשְּׁמוֹנָה הַגַּלְגַּלִּים שֶׁבָּהֶן הַכּוֹכָבִים נֶחְלָק לְגַלְגַּלִּים הַרְבֵּה זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה כְּמוֹ גִּלְדֵי בְּצָלִים. מֵהֶן גַּלְגַּלִּים סוֹבְבִים מִמַּעֲרָב לְמִזְרָח. וּמֵהֶן סוֹבְבִים מִמִּזְרָח לְמַעֲרָב כְּמוֹ הַגַּלְגַּל הַתְּשִׁיעִי הַחוֹזֵר מִמִּזְרָח לְמַעֲרָב. וְכֻלָּן אֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם מָקוֹם פָּנוּי: Every one of the eight orbs, in which are the planets, contains many more orbs, one above the other, like the skins of onions: some of them are orbs which revolve from the West to the East, and some of them, which revolve from the East to the West, as is the ninth orb, which revolves from the East to the West. Moreover none of them have any empty space between them.
3 ג
כָּל הַגַּלְגַּלִּים אֵינָן לֹא קַלִּים וְלֹא כְּבֵדִים וְאֵין לָהֶם לֹא עַיִן אָדֹם וְלֹא עַיִן שָׁחֹר וְלֹא שְׁאָר עֵינוֹת. וְזֶה שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִין אוֹתָם כְּעֵין הַתְּכֵלֶת לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן בִּלְבַד הוּא לְפִי גֹּבַהּ הָאֲוִיר. וְכֵן אֵין לָהֶם לֹא טַעַם וְלֹא רֵיחַ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אֵלּוּ הַמְאֹרָעִין מְצוּיִין אֶלָּא בַּגּוּפוֹת שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מֵהֶן: All these orbs are neither light nor heavy; neither have they a red colour, nor a black colour, nor any other colour. But that we see in them a colour like that of blue, is a mere optical illusion, arising from the height of the atmosphere; moreover they have neither flavour nor odour, these being properties belonging to those bodies only which are beneath them.
4 ד
כָּל הַגַּלְגַּלִּים הָאֵלּוּ הַמַּקִּיפִין אֶת הָעוֹלָם הֵן עֲגֻלִּין כְּכַדּוּר וְהָאָרֶץ תְּלוּיָה בָּאֶמְצַע. וְיֵשׁ לְמִקְצָת מִן הַכּוֹכָבִים גַּלְגַּלִּים קְטַנִּים שֶׁהֵן קְבוּעִים בָּהֶן וְאֵין אוֹתָם הַגַּלְגַּלִּים מַקִּיפִין אֶת הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא גַּלְגַּל קָטָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַקִּיף קָבוּעַ בַּגַּלְגַּל הַגָּדוֹל הַמַּקִּיף: All these orbs, which encompass the world, are circular, like a globe, and the Earth is suspended in the midst of them; but some of the planets have again smaller orbs, which are fixed in them, and which do not encompass the earth, each of them being a smaller and not encompassing orb, fixed in a greater and encompassing orb.
5 ה
מִסְפַּר כָּל הַגַּלְגַּלִּים הַמַּקִּיפִין אֶת כָּל הָעוֹלָם שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר. וּמִסְפַּר הַגַּלְגַּלִּים הַקְּטַנִּים שֶׁאֵינָן מַקִּיפִין שְׁמוֹנָה. וּמִמַּהֲלַךְ הַכּוֹכָבִים וִידִיעַת שִׁעוּר סְבִיבָתָן בְּכָל יוֹם וּבְכָל שָׁעָה וּמִנְּטִיָּתָן מֵרוּחַ דָּרוֹם לְרוּחַ צָפוֹן וּמֵרוּחַ צָפוֹן לְרוּחַ דָּרוֹם וּמִגָּבְהָן מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ וּקְרִיבָתָן יִוָדַּע מִסְפַּר כָּל אֵלּוּ הַגַּלְגַּלִּים וְצוּרַת הֲלִיכָתָן וְדֶרֶךְ הַקָּפָתָן. וְזוֹ הִיא חָכְמַת חֶשְׁבּוֹן תְּקוּפוֹת וּמַזָּלוֹת. וּסְפָרִים רַבִּים חִבְּרוּ בָּהֶן חַכְמֵי יָוָן: The orbs, which encompass the world, are eighteen and the smaller orbs, which do not encompass, are eight in number; and it is by the course of the stars, by knowing the rate of their daily and hourly revolutions, by their declension from the South to the North, or from the North to the South, and by their height, or proximity to the earth, that the number of all these orbs, the form of their paths, and the direction of their revolutions may be known; which is the science of the calculation of the revolutions and of the planets (Astronomy), and on which many books were composed by the sages of Greece.
6 ו
גַּלְגַּל הַתְּשִׁיעִי שֶׁהוּא מַקִּיף אֶת הַכּל חִלְּקוּהוּ הַחֲכָמִים הַקַּדְמוֹנִים לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֲלָקִים. כָּל חֵלֶק וְחֵלֶק הֶעֱלוּ לוֹ שֵׁם עַל שֵׁם צוּרָה זוֹ שֶׁתֵּרָאֶה בּוֹ מִן הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁהֵם מְכֻוָּנִים תַּחְתָּיו. וְהֵם הַמַּזָּלוֹת שֶׁשְּׁמוֹתָם טָלֶה. שׁוֹר. תְּאוֹמִים. סַרְטָן. אַרְיֵה. בְּתוּלָה. מֹאזְנַיִם. עַקְרָב. קֶשֶׁת. גְּדִי. דְּלִי. דָּגִים: As to the ninth orb, which encompasses the whole, the sages of old have divided it into twelve parts, and to each part they have given a name, after the name of the figure perceived in it, reflected by the stars which are directly beneath it, and these are the signs of the Zodiac; the names of which are Teleh The Ram, Shor The Bull, Theomim The Twins, Sartan The Crab, Aryah The Lion, Bethulah The Virgin, Moznayim The Scales, Akrab The Scorpion, Kesheth The Archer, Gedi The Kid, Deli The Pail, Dagim The Fishes.
7 ז
גַּלְגַּל הַתְּשִׁיעִי עַצְמוֹ אֵין בּוֹ לֹא חֲלוּקָה וְלֹא צוּרָה מִכָּל הַצּוּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ וְלֹא כּוֹכָב. אֶלָּא בְּחִבּוּר הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁבַּגַּלְגַּל הַשְּׁמִינִי הוּא שֶׁיֵּרָאֶה בְּכוֹכָבִים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁבּוֹ תַּבְנִית הַצּוּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ אוֹ קָרוֹב מֵהֶן. וְאֵלּוּ הַשְּׁנֵים עָשָׂר צוּרוֹת לֹא הָיוּ מְכֻוָּנוֹת כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתָן הַחֲלָקִים אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן הַמַּבּוּל שֶׁאָז הֶעֱלוּ לָהֶן שֵׁמוֹת אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה כְּבָר סָבְבוּ מְעַט. לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַכּוֹכָבִים שֶׁבְּגַלְגַּל שְׁמִינִי כֻּלָּם סוֹבְבִים כְּמוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהַיָּרֵחַ אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵן סוֹבְבִין בִּכְבֵדוּת. וְחֵלֶק שֶׁיִּתְהַלֵּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהַיָּרֵחַ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד יֵלֵךְ כְּנֶגְדּוֹ כָּל כּוֹכָב מֵהֶן בְּקֵרוּב מִשִּׁבְעִים שָׁנָה: However in the ninth orb itself there is neither division nor any of those figures, nor even any star; and, it is only by joining together the stars which are in the eighth orb, that the large stars contained in the same will represent those figures or something like them. Now these twelve figures coincided with those parts only at the time of the flood, when these names were also given to them; but at this time they are removed a little, for all the stars, that are in the eighth orb revolve just the same as the sun and the moon do, only they revolve slowly; so that the part of a circle through which the sun and the moon move in a day, any one of those stars moves through in about seventy years.
8 ח
כָּל הַכּוֹכָבִים הַנִּרְאִים יֵשׁ מֵהֶן כּוֹכָבִים קְטַנִּים שֶׁהָאָרֶץ גְּדוֹלָה מֵאֶחָד מֵהֶן. וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן כּוֹכָבִים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶן גָּדוֹל מִן הָאָרֶץ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים. וְהָאָרֶץ גְּדוֹלָה מִן הַיָּרֵחַ כְּמוֹ אַרְבָּעִים פְּעָמִים. וְהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ גְּדוֹלָה מִן הָאָרֶץ כְּמוֹ מֵאָה וְשִׁבְעִים פְּעָמִים. נִמְצָא הַיָּרֵחַ אֶחָד מִשֵּׁשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּשְׁמוֹנֶה מֵאוֹת מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בְּקֵרוּב. וְאֵין בְּכָל הַכּוֹכָבִים כּוֹכָב גָּדוֹל מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלֹא קָטָן מִכּוֹכָב שֶׁבַּגַּלְגַּל הַשֵּׁנִי: As to the planets which we see, there are some among them which are small planets, such that the earth is greater than any one of them; and again there are among them some great planets, such that any one of them is greater than the earth by many times; now the earth is greater than the moon by about forty times, and the sun is again greater than the earth by about a hundred and seventy times; consequently the moon is about a six thousand and eight hundredth part of the sun; but there is no one among the planets which is greater than the sun, nor is there any planet smaller than Cochab Mercury, which is in the second orb.
9 ט
כָּל הַכּוֹכָבִים וְהַגַּלְגַּלִּים כֻּלָּן בַּעֲלֵי נֶפֶשׁ וְדֵעָה וְהַשְׂכֵּל הֵם. וְהֵם חַיִּים וְעוֹמְדִים וּמַכִּירִין אֶת מִי שֶׁאָמַר וְהָיָה הָעוֹלָם. כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לְפִי גָּדְלוֹ וּלְפִי מַעֲלָתוֹ מְשַׁבְּחִים וּמְפָאֲרִים לְיוֹצְרָם כְּמוֹ הַמַּלְאָכִים. וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁמַּכִּירִין הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כָּךְ מַכִּירִין אֶת עַצְמָן וּמַכִּירִין אֶת הַמַּלְאָכִים שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵהֶן. וְדַעַת הַכּוֹכָבִים וְהַגַּלְגַּלִּים מְעוּטָה מִדַּעַת הַמַּלְאָכִים וּגְדוֹלָה מִדַּעַת בְּנֵי אָדָם: All the planets and orbs are beings possessed of soul, mind and understanding. Moreover they are alive, they exist, and know Him who spake the word and the Universe existed. All of them, in proportion to their magnitude and to their degree, praise and glorify their Creator, just as the Angels do; and in the same way as they know the Holy One, blessed be He! so do they also know themselves; they also know the angels that are above them. Now the knowledge of the planets and of the orbs is less than the knowledge of the angels, yet it is greater than the knowledge of the sons of men.
10 י
בָּרָא הָאֵל לְמַטָּה מִגַּלְגַּל הַיָּרֵחַ גּלֶם אֶחָד שֶׁאֵינוֹ כְּגלֶם הַגַּלְגַּלִּים. וּבָרָא אַרְבַּע צוּרוֹת לְגלֶם זֶה וְאֵינָן כְּצוּרַת הַגַּלְגַּלִּים וְנִקְבַּע כָּל צוּרָה וְצוּרָה בְּמִקְצָת גּלֶם זֶה. צוּרָה רִאשׁוֹנָה צוּרַת הָאֵשׁ נִתְחַבְּרָה בְּמִקְצָת גּלֶם זֶה וְנִהְיָה מִשְּׁנֵיהֶן גּוּף הָאֵשׁ. וְצוּרָה שְׁנִיָּה צוּרַת הָרוּחַ נִתְחַבְּרָה בְּמִקְצָתוֹ וְנִהְיָה מִשְּׁנֵיהֶן גּוּף הָרוּחַ. וְצוּרָה שְׁלִישִׁית צוּרַת הַמַּיִם נִתְחַבְּרָה בְּמִקְצָתוֹ וְנִהְיָה מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם גּוּף הַמַּיִם. וְצוּרָה רְבִיעִית צוּרַת הָאָרֶץ נִתְחַבְּרָה בְּמִקְצָתוֹ וְנִהְיָה מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם גּוּף הָאָרֶץ. נִמְצָא לְמַטָּה מִן הָרָקִיעַ אַרְבָּעָה גּוּפִין מֻחְלָקִין זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מַקִּיף אֶת שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ מִכָּל רוּחוֹתָיו כְּמוֹ גַּלְגַּל. הַגּוּף הָרִאשׁוֹן הַסָּמוּךְ לְגַלְגַּל הַיָּרֵחַ הוּא גּוּף הָאֵשׁ. לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ גּוּף הָרוּחַ. לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ גּוּף הַמַּיִם. לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ גּוּף הָאָרֶץ. וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם מָקוֹם פָּנוּי בְּלֹא גּוּף כְּלָל: God has created, beneath the orb of the moon, a matter which is not like the matter of the orbs: and He has also created four qualities, suitable to this matter, which are not like the qualities of the orbs; and every quality is fixed in a part of this matter. The first quality is the quality of fire; this was joined to a part of this matter, and so there resulted from both of them the body of fire. The second quality is the quality of air; this was joined to a part of it, viz. to a part of the matter, and so there resulted from both of them the body of air. The third quality is the quality of water, this was joined to a part of it, and so there resulted from both of them the body of water; and the fourth quality is the quality of earth; this was joined to a part of it, and so there resulted from both of them the body of earth. Consequently there are beneath the firmament four different bodies, one above the other, and every one [of them] encompasses the one which is beneath it, on all its sides, like a wheel. The first body, which is nearest to the orb of the moon, is the body of fire; beneath this is the body of air; again, beneath this is the body of water; and again beneath this is the body of earth; however there is not between them any space void, and altogether, without matter.
11 יא
אַרְבָּעָה גּוּפוֹת הָאֵלּוּ אֵינָם בַּעֲלֵי נֶפֶשׁ וְאֵינָם יוֹדְעִים וְלֹא מַכִּירִים אֶלָּא כְּגוּפִים מֵתִים. וְיֵשׁ לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם מִנְהָג שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדְעוֹ וְלֹא מַשִּׂיגוֹ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְשַׁנּוֹתוֹ. וְזֶה שֶׁאָמַר דָּוִד (תהילים קמח ז) "הַלְלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ תַּנִּינִים וְכָל תְּהֹמוֹת" (תהילים קמח ח) "אֵשׁ וּבָרָד שֶׁלֶג וְקִיטוֹר". וּבֵאוּר עִנְיַן הַדְּבָרִים הַלְלוּהוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם מִגְּבוּרוֹתָיו שֶׁתִּרְאוּ בָּאֵשׁ וּבַבָּרָד וּבִשְׁאָר בְּרוּאִים שֶׁתִּרְאוּ לְמַטָּה מִן הָרָקִיעַ שֶׁגְּבוּרָתָם תָּמִיד נִכֶּרֶת לַקָּטָן וְלַגָּדוֹל: Now these four bodies are not beings possessed of soul, on the contrary, they have no understanding and no perception, but are like inanimate bodies; yet every one of them has a tendency which it neither knows nor comprehends, nor has the power of altering; and this is what David says: Praise the Lord from the earth, ye dragons and all deeps. Fire and hail, snow and vapours, (Ps. 148. 7, 8); the meaning of these words being this: Praise Him ye sons of men, from His power which ye perceive in the fire, and in the hail, and in the other things created, which are seen beneath the firmament; for the power of these may at all times be perceived both by small and great.