Chapter 10י׳
1 א

אֵין כּוֹרְתִין בְּרִית לְשׁבְעָה עֲמָמִין כְּדֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה עִמָּהֶן שָׁלוֹם וְנָנִיחַ אוֹתָם לַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז ב) "לֹא תִכְרֹת לָהֶם בְּרִית" אֶלָּא יַחְזְרוּ מֵעֲבוֹדָתָם אוֹ יֵהָרְגוּ. וְאָסוּר לְרַחֵם עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז ב) "וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם". לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָאָה מֵהֶם אוֹבֵד אוֹ טוֹבֵעַ בַּנָּהָר לֹא יַעֲלֶנּוּ. רָאָהוּ נָטוּי לָמוּת לֹא יַצִּילֶנּוּ. אֲבָל לְאַבְּדוֹ בְּיָדוֹ אוֹ לְדָחֳפוֹ לַבּוֹר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה אָסוּר מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה עִמָּנוּ מִלְחָמָה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים בְּשִׁבְעָה עֲמָמִין אֲבָל הַמּוֹסְרִים וְהָאֶפִּיקוֹרוֹסִין מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל הָיָה דִּין לְאַבְּדָן בְּיָד וּלְהוֹרִידָן עַד בְּאֵר שַׁחַת מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָיוּ מְצֵרִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְסִירִין אֶת הָעָם מֵאַחֲרֵי ה':

It is forbidden to make a covenant of peace with the seven Canaanite nations, such peace as would permit them to continue the worship of idolatry, even as it is said: "Thou shalt not make any covenant with them" (Deut. 7.2). They shall either repent themselves of their worship, or be slain. It is moreover, forbidden to have mercy upon them, as it is said: "Nor show mercy unto them" (Ibid.). Therefore, if one saw one of them lost or drowning, he should not bring him up; if he sees him dying, he should not save him; but to destroy wantonly or to push him into a pit, or the like is forbidden, as long as he wages no war. That is saying concerning the Seven Canaanite nations; but as for informers and infidels of those times the war was to destroy them by one's own hand and to lower them to the nethermost pit of destruction because they persecuted Israel, and turned the people from following God.1Ibid. 26a. C.

2 ב

מִכָּאן אַתָּה לָמֵד שֶׁאָסוּר לְרַפְּאוֹת עַכּוּ''ם אֲפִלּוּ בְּשָׂכָר. וְאִם הָיָה מִתְיָרֵא מֵהֶן אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה חוֹשֵׁשׁ מִשּׁוּם אֵיבָה מְרַפֵּא בְּשָׂכָר אֲבָל בְּחִנָּם אָסוּר. וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב הוֹאִיל וְאַתָּה מְצֻוֶּה לְהַחֲיוֹתוֹ מְרַפְּאִים אוֹתוֹ בְּחִנָּם:

Herefrom you are instructed that it is forbidden to give medical aid to an idolater even for hire. But if the doctor feared them, or if he feared their enmity, he may give them aid for hire, but free aid is forbidden. An alien inhabitant among the idolaters, because it is mandatory to afford him a living, the doctor may give free treatment.2Ibid. 65b. C.

3 ג

אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים וְשָׂדוֹת בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּבְסוּרְיָא מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים אֲבָל לֹא שָׂדוֹת. וּמַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשׂוּ שְׁכוּנָה וְאֵין שְׁכוּנָה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלֹשָׁה. וְאֵין מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם שָׂדוֹת. וּבְסוּרְיָא מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם שָׂדוֹת. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה הֶחְמִירוּ בְּשָׂדֶה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שְׁתַּיִם, מַפְקִיעָהּ מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת וְנוֹתֵן לָהֶם חֲנִיָּה בַּקַּרְקַע. וּמֻתָּר לִמְכֹּר לָהֶם בָּתִּים וְשָׂדוֹת בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ אַרְצֵנוּ:

No houses or fields shall be sold to them in Eretz Yisrael, but in Syria houses may be sold to them but not fields. It is permitted to lease houses to them in Eretz Yisrael, provided no idolatrous settlement is established by them, and no settlement is considered such if there are no three houses therein; but it is forbidden to lease fields unto them. In Syria it is permitted to lease to them fields too. Wherefore has a field been considered the major? Because therein are found two reasons: (a) the idolater removes the obligation of tithes therefrom, and (b) the Israelite shows mercy in giving land to an idolater. But an Israelite who owns land without Eretz Yisrael may sell them there both, house and fields, because it is not the Promised Land.3Ibid. 20b–21a. C.

4 ד

אַף בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְהַשְׂכִּיר לֹא לְבֵית דִּירָה הִתִּירוּ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַכְנִיס לְתוֹכָהּ עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים וְנֶאֱמַר (דברים ז כו) "לֹא תָבִיא תוֹעֵבָה אֶל בֵּיתֶךָ". אֲבָל מַשְׂכִּיר לָהֶן בָּתִּים לַעֲשׂוֹתָן אוֹצָר. וְאֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶן פֵּרוֹת וּתְבוּאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בַּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע. אֲבָל מוֹכֵר הוּא מִשֶּׁיָקֹץ אוֹ מוֹכֵר לוֹ עַל מְנָת לָקֹץ וְקוֹצֵץ. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז ב) "וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם" לֹא תִּתֵּן לָהֶם חֲנִיָּה בַּקַּרְקַע שֶׁאִם לֹא יִהְיֶה לָהֶם קַרְקַע יְשִׁיבָתָן יְשִׁיבַת עַרְאַי הִיא. וְכֵן אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר בְּשִׁבְחָן וַאֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר כַּמָּה נָאֶה עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים זֶה בְּצוּרָתוֹ. קַל וָחֹמֶר שֶׁיְּסַפֵּר בְּשֶׁבַח מַעֲשָׂיו אוֹ שֶׁיְּחַבֵּב דָּבָר מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וְלֹא תְחָנֵּם לֹא יִהְיֶה לָהֶם חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁגּוֹרֵם לְהִדַּבֵּק עִמּוֹ וְלִלְמֹד מִמַּעֲשָׂיו הָרָעִים. וְאָסוּר לִתֵּן לָהֶם מַתְּנַת חִנָּם אֲבָל נוֹתֵן הוּא לְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד כא) "לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי", בִּמְכִירָה וְלֹא בִּנְתִינָה:

Even in the places where the leasing of houses to them is permitted, it is not for dwelling purposes that the permission was granted, as it would bring the abomination of idolatry into it, against which it is said: "Thou shalt bring no abomination into thy house" (Deut. 7.26); but one may lease houses to them for storage. It is forbidden to sell them fruit on the trees, or grain on the stalk; but he may sell it after it be harvested, or sell to one on condition that he harvest it, and when he does harvest it the purchase is binding. But wherefore is it forbidden to sell it to them? Because it is said: "Nor show mercy unto them" (Ibid. 7.2)—given them no permanency on land, for by having no land their settlement will be but a temporary one.5The Talmud here interprets the word of the root Hano, resting. G. It is also forbidden to speak in praise of idolatry, even to say: "How beautiful is this idol's facial features". From this minor premise the major premise can be deducted that it is forbidden to speak in praise of the performance of idolatry, or to love any of its parts even as it is said: "Nor show mercy unto them" (Ibid.), they should have no grace in thine eyes,6Here the word is interpreted to mean grace, from the noun Hein. G. for it will be a cause to cleave to it and learn its evil deeds. It is, moreover, forbidden to give them a present outright, but it is permitted to give a present outright to an alien sojourner, even as it is said: "Unto the stranger that is in thy gates canst thou give it, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto an alien" (Deut.121.) — to an alien by selling it to him, and not by presenting it to him.7Ibid. 19a–20b. C.

5 ה

מְפַרְנְסִים עֲנִיֵּי עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים עִם עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין מְמַחִין בִּידֵי עֲנִיֵּי עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים בְּלֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וְשׁוֹאֲלִים בִּשְׁלוֹמָם וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם חַגָּם מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וְאֵין כּוֹפְלִין לָהֶן שָׁלוֹם לְעוֹלָם. וְלֹא יִכָּנֵס לְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים בְּיוֹם חַגּוֹ לָתֵת לוֹ שָׁלוֹם. מְצָאוֹ בַּשּׁוּק נוֹתֵן לוֹ שָׁלוֹם בְּשָׂפָה רָפָה וּבְכֹבֶד רֹאשׁ:

The poor of among the idolaters are supported alike with the poor of Israel as a peaceful measure. The idolatrous poor should not be disturbed when gathering the gleanings, or a forgotten sheaf from, or the corners of the field, also as a peaceful measure.8See Lev. 19. 9. G.. It is also proper to greet them, even on their holiday, as a measure of peace, Never should the greetings be repeated twice, or call in the house of an idolater on his holiday to extend greetings to him. When meeting him on the street, greetings should be extended to him softly and seriously.9Gittin, 59b–62a. C.

6 ו

אֵין כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלּוּ אֲמוּרִים אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁגָּלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבֵין הָעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים אוֹ שֶׁיַּד עַכּוּ''ם תַּקִּיפָה עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁיַּד יִשְׂרָאֵל תַּקִּיפָה עֲלֵיהֶם אָסוּר לָנוּ לְהַנִּיחַ עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים בֵּינֵינוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ יוֹשֵׁב יְשִׁיבַת עַרְאַי אוֹ עוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם בִּסְחוֹרָה לֹא יַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצֵנוּ אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת שֶׁנִּצְטַוּוּ בְּנֵי נֹחַ שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג לג) "לֹא יֵשְׁבוּ בְּאַרְצְךָ" אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי שָׁעָה. וְאִם קִבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁבַע מִצְוֹת הֲרֵי זֶה גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. וְאֵין מְקַבְּלִין גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַיּוֹבֵל נוֹהֵג אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא בִּזְמַן הַיּוֹבֵל אֵין מְקַבְּלִין אֶלָּא גֵּר צֶדֶק בִּלְבַד:

All of these liberal treatments are not ordained save when Israelites are sojourning among idolaters or when the idolaters have overpowered Israel in his own land; but if the government of his land be in his own hand, it is forbidden to permit idolaters to settle therein, for even if one of them merely desires to sojourn or pass from place to place with merchandise he must not pass through Eretz Yisrael before he obligates himself to live up to the seven Noaitic commandments,10Existence of God, 2 idolatry, 3 murder, 4 incest, 5 flesh of a live animal, 6 robbery, 7 right of property. G. even as it is said: "They shall not dwell in thy land lest they make thee sin against Me" (Ex. 23.33)—not even dwell therein temporarily. If an idolater obligated himself to observe the Seven Noaitic commandments he is a sojourning alien. The tribunal does not accept a sojourning alien save during the Jubilee year, but during the interval none save a just proselyte is accepted.12Arakin, 29b. C.