14י״ד
1 א

פָּרַת חַטָּאת שֶׁשְּׂרָפָהּ חוּץ מִגִּתָּהּ, וְכֵן שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ שֶׁהִקְרִיבוֹ בַחוּץ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז), וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ. כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָבֹא אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו:

If one slaughtered the hatat cow [the red heifer] outside its appointed place, and likewise if one offered the scapegoat [of Yom Kippur] outside, he is not liable, because it says, “And has not brought it unto the door of the Tent of Meeting,” (Leviticus 17:4): whatever is not eligible to come to the door of the Tent of Meeting, one is not liable on its account.

2 ב

הָרוֹבֵעַ, וְהַנִּרְבָּע, וְהַמֻּקְצֶה, וְהַנֶּעֱבָד, וְהָאֶתְנָן, וְהַמְּחִיר, וְהַכִּלְאַיִם, וְהַטְּרֵפָה, וְיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, שֶׁהִקְרִיבָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז), לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן ה', כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָבֹא לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן ה', אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו. בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִים, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין עוֹבְרִים, שֶׁהִקְרִיבָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִים, פָּטוּר, וּבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין עוֹבְרִין, עוֹבְרִין בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. תּוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנָּן, שֶׁהִקְרִיבָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בְּנֵי יוֹנָה שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנָּן, פָּטוּר. וְתוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן, בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ וּמְחֻסַּר זְמָן, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה בְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לָבֹא לְאַחַר זְמָן, הֲרֵי זֶה בְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה וְאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת, אֵין בּוֹ בְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה:

[As for an ox] that had sexual relations with a woman or one with whom a man had sexual relations; or an animal set aside [for idolatry], or that had been worshipped [as an idol]; or that was the fee of a whore, or [a dog's] exchange; or that was kilayim; or a terefah; or an animal born through caesarean section, if one offered any of these outside, he is not liable, because it says, “Before the Tabernacle of the Lord” (Leviticus 17:4): whatever is not eligible to come before the Tabernacle of the Lord, one is not liable on its account. [As for] blemished animals, whether with permanent blemishes or with passing blemishes, if one offers them outside, he is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says: [if one offers] animals with permanent blemishes, he is exempt; [if one offers] animals with passing blemishes, he violates a negative commandment. [As for] turtledoves before their time and young pigeons after their time, if one offered them outside, he is exempt. Rabbi Shimon says: [if one offers] young pigeons after their time, he is exempt; turtledoves before their time, he violates a negative commandment. [One who offers] an animal together with its young [on the same day], and [one who offers] an animal before its time, is not liable. Rabbi Shimon says: he violates a negative commandment. For Rabbi Shimon would say: whatever is eligible to come [onto the altar] later entails a negative commandment, but does not entail karet. But the sages say: whatever does not entail karet also does not entail a negative commandment.

3 ג

מְחֻסַּר זְמָן, בֵּין בְּגוּפוֹ בֵּין בִּבְעָלָיו. אֵיזֶה הוּא מְחֻסַּר זְמָן בִּבְעָלָיו. הַזָּב, וְהַזָּבָה, וְיוֹלֶדֶת, וּמְצֹרָע, שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ חַטָּאתָם וַאֲשָׁמָם בַּחוּץ, פְּטוּרִין. עוֹלוֹתֵיהֶן וְשַׁלְמֵיהֶן בַּחוּץ, חַיָּבִין. הַמַּעֲלֶה מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאת, מִבְּשַׂר אָשָׁם, מִבְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, מִבְּשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, וּמוֹתַר הָעֹמֶר, וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, וּשְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת, הַיּוֹצֵק, הַבּוֹלֵל, הַפּוֹתֵת, הַמּוֹלֵחַ, הַמֵּנִיף, הַמַּגִּישׁ, הַמְסַדֵּר אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְהַמֵּטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת, וְהַקּוֹמֵץ, וְהַמְקַבֵּל דָּמִים בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר. אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו לֹא מִשּׁוּם זָרוּת, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם טֻמְאָה, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלָיִם:

“Before time” applies both to [the animal] itself and to its owner. What is “before time” as applied to its owner? If a zav or a zavah, a woman after childbirth, or a metzora, offered their hatat or their asham outside [before the time in which they were obligated], they are exempt; [If they offered] their olah or their shelamims outside [before their time], they are liable. One who offers up flesh of a hatat, or flesh of an asham, or flesh of most holy sacrifices, or flesh of less holy sacrifices; or the remainder of the omer, or the two loaves, or the showbread, or the remainder of meal-offerings; Or if he pours [the oil on to the meal-offering], or mingles [it with flour], or breaks up [the meal-offering cakes], or salts [the meal-offering], or waves it, or presents it; or sets the table [with the showbread], or trims the lamps, or takes out the fistful, or receives the blood; [If he does any of these] outside, he is exempt. One is also not liable for any of these acts on account of not being a priest, or uncleanness, or lack of [priestly] vestments, or the non-washing of hands and feet.

4 ד

עַד שֶׁלֹּא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת. מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל:

Before the Tabernacle was set up bamot (local altars) were permitted and the service was performed by the firstborn. After the Tabernacle was set up bamot were forbidden and the service was performed by priests. Most holy sacrifices were [then] eaten within the curtains, and lesser sacrifices [were eaten] anywhere in the camp of the Israelites.

5 ה

בָּאוּ לַגִּלְגָּל, וְהֻתְּרוּ הַבָּמוֹת. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל מָקוֹם:

When they came to Gilgal, bamot (local altars) were [again] permitted. Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices [were eaten] anywhere.

6 ו

בָּאוּ לְשִׁילֹה, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת. לֹא הָיָה שָׁם תִּקְרָה, אֶלָּא בַיִת שֶׁל אֲבָנִים מִלְּמַטָּן וִירִיעוֹת מִלְמַעְלָן, וְהִיא הָיְתָה מְנוּחָה. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, בְּכָל הָרוֹאֶה:

When they came to Shiloh, bamot were forbidden. [The Tabernacle] there had no roof, but [consisted of] a base of stones with a ceiling of curtains, and that was the “resting place” [referred to in the Torah]. Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices and second tithe [were eaten] wherever [Shiloh] could be seen.

7 ז

בָּאוּ לְנוֹב וּלְגִבְעוֹן, הֻתְּרוּ הַבָּמוֹת. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:

When they came to Nov and to Givon, bamot were [again] permitted. Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices in all of the cities of Israel.

8 ח

בָּאוּ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת, וְלֹא הָיָה לָהֶם עוֹד הֶתֵּר, וְהִיא הָיְתָה נַחֲלָה. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה:

When they came to Jerusalem, bamot were forbidden and were never again permitted, and that was the ‘inheritance’. Most holy sacrifices were eaten within the curtains, and less holy sacrifices and second tithe within the walls [of Jerusalem].

9 ט

כָּל הַקֳּדָשִׁים שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת, וְהִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת בַּחוּץ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, וְחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת. הִקְדִּישָׁן בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר בָּמוֹת, וְהִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת. הִקְדִּישָׁן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת וְהִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר בָּמוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַעֲשֵׂה וְאֵין בָּהֶם בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה:

All sacrifices consecrated while bamot were forbidden and offered outside while bamot were forbidden involve the transgression of a positive and a negative commandment, and one is liable for karet on their account. If one consecrated them while bamot were permitted, but offered them without when bamot were forbidden, they involve the transgression of a positive and a negative commandment, but one is not liable for karet on their account. If one consecrated them when bamot were forbidden, and offered them when bamot were permitted, they involve the transgression of a positive commandment, but they do not involve the transgression of a negative commandment.

10 י

אֵלּוּ קָדָשִׁים קְרֵבִים בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר, קְרֵבִין בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. וְקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד, בְּבָמָה. קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, יִקְרְבוּ בַמִּשְׁכָּן. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָן בְּבָמָה, פָּטוּר. מַה בֵּין בָּמַת יָחִיד לְבָמַת צִבּוּר, סְמִיכָה, וּשְׁחִיטַת צָפוֹן, וּמַתַּן סָבִיב, וּתְנוּפָה, וְהַגָּשָׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין מִנְחָה בְבָמָה. וְכִהוּן, וּבִגְדֵי שָׁרֵת, וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת, וְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ, וּמְחִצָּה בַדָּמִים, וּרְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלָיִם. אֲבָל הַזְּמָן, וְהַנּוֹתָר, וְהַטָּמֵא, שָׁוִים בָּזֶה וּבָזֶה:

The following sacrifices were offered in the Tabernacle sacrifices consecrated for the Tabernacle: Public sacrifices were offered in the Tabernacle, and private sacrifices were offered at a bamah. If private sacrifices were consecrated for the Tabernacle, they must be offered in the Tabernacle; yet if one offered them at a bamah, he is not liable. What is the difference between the bamah of an individual and the bamah of the congregation? Laying [of hands], slaughtering in the north, sprinkling around [the altar], waving and presenting, (Rabbi Judah says: there were no meal-offerings at the bamah); priesthood, sacrificial vestments, ministering vessels, a sweet fragrance, a line of demarcation for [the sprinkling of] the blood, and the washing of hands and feet. But [the prohibitions of] time, remnant and defilement were the same in both.