פָּרַת חַטָּאת שֶׁשְּׂרָפָהּ חוּץ מִגִּתָּהּ, וְכֵן שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ שֶׁהִקְרִיבוֹ בַחוּץ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז), וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ. כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָבֹא אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו:
[If] a red heifer was burned outside of its specific spot [on the Mount of Olives], and similarly [if] the [special] goat sent away [to the desert wilderness outside of Jerusalem on Yom Kippur] was offered outside [the Temple precincts], [these acts] do not make one liable, as it says (Leviticus 17:4) "And to the opening of the Tabernacle he did not bring it" [if] something is not fit to be brought to the door of the Tabernacle, one is not liable [for offering it outside].
הָרוֹבֵעַ, וְהַנִּרְבָּע, וְהַמֻּקְצֶה, וְהַנֶּעֱבָד, וְהָאֶתְנָן, וְהַמְּחִיר, וְהַכִּלְאַיִם, וְהַטְּרֵפָה, וְיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, שֶׁהִקְרִיבָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז), לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן ה', כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָבֹא לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן ה', אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו. בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִים, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין עוֹבְרִים, שֶׁהִקְרִיבָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִים, פָּטוּר, וּבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין עוֹבְרִין, עוֹבְרִין בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. תּוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנָּן, שֶׁהִקְרִיבָן בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בְּנֵי יוֹנָה שֶׁעָבַר זְמַנָּן, פָּטוּר. וְתוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ זְמַנָּן, בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ וּמְחֻסַּר זְמָן, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה בְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לָבֹא לְאַחַר זְמָן, הֲרֵי זֶה בְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה וְאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת, אֵין בּוֹ בְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה:
[If] one offered outside [the Temple precincts] an animal that had relations with a woman, or with whom a man had relations, or that was designated for idolatry, or which was worshiped, or that was used to pay a prostitute, or which was exchanged for a dog, or was a mixed breed, or was a Terefah [an animal with a mortal condition such that it will die within one year], or an animal born through Caesarean section, he is exempt as it says (Leviticus 17:4) "Before the Tabernacle", one is not liable for anything which is not fit to be brought in the Tabernacle. [If one offered outside] blemished animals he is exempt, regardless of whether they had a permanent blemish or a temporary blemish. Rabbi Shimon says: One is exempt [for offering outside] permanently blemished animals, but he violates a negative commandment [by offering outside an animal with] a temporary blemish. One is exempt for offering outside turtle-doves that are not yet old enough [to be sacrificed] or pigeons that are too old [to be sacrificed]. Rabbi Shimon says: One is exempt for pigeons that are too old, but he violates a negative commandment [by offering outside] turtle-doves that are not yet old enough. One is exempt [for offering outside] an animal and its young [on the same day], or for [offering an animal] which is not old enough [being not yet eight days old]. Rabbi Shimon says: These are [violations] of negative commandments, for Rabbi Shimon was wont to say: One [violates] a negative commandment for anything which may be brought after a certain time, but one [is not punished with] Karet [excision at the hands of Heaven]; but the Sages say, anything for which one is not subject to Karet, one [also is not considered to have violated] a negative commandment.
מְחֻסַּר זְמָן, בֵּין בְּגוּפוֹ בֵּין בִּבְעָלָיו. אֵיזֶה הוּא מְחֻסַּר זְמָן בִּבְעָלָיו. הַזָּב, וְהַזָּבָה, וְיוֹלֶדֶת, וּמְצֹרָע, שֶׁהִקְרִיבוּ חַטָּאתָם וַאֲשָׁמָם בַּחוּץ, פְּטוּרִין. עוֹלוֹתֵיהֶן וְשַׁלְמֵיהֶן בַּחוּץ, חַיָּבִין. הַמַּעֲלֶה מִבְּשַׂר חַטָּאת, מִבְּשַׂר אָשָׁם, מִבְּשַׂר קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, מִבְּשַׂר קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, וּמוֹתַר הָעֹמֶר, וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, וּשְׁיָרֵי מְנָחוֹת, הַיּוֹצֵק, הַבּוֹלֵל, הַפּוֹתֵת, הַמּוֹלֵחַ, הַמֵּנִיף, הַמַּגִּישׁ, הַמְסַדֵּר אֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְהַמֵּטִיב אֶת הַנֵּרוֹת, וְהַקּוֹמֵץ, וְהַמְקַבֵּל דָּמִים בַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר. אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו לֹא מִשּׁוּם זָרוּת, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם טֻמְאָה, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלָיִם:
"Before its time" [can refer to] either an animal [which is too young] or its owner [who brings the sacrifice too soon]. What [are cases where] the owner [acts] before his time? A Zav [a man suffering from gonorrhea], or a Zavah [a woman with a menstrual-type flow occurring at a time other than her normal period], or a woman who has given birth, or a Metzora [one rendered severely impure from an unsightly skin disease. Upon recovery and purification he must bring offerings], who offer their chata'ot [offerings generally brought to expiate sin] or their Ashamim [offerings generally brought to alleviate guilt] [too early] outside [the Temple], are exempt. But [if they offer] their Olot [offerings that are entirely burnt] or their Shelamim [offerings whose various parts are consumed by its owners, the Kohanim and the fire on the altar] outside [the Temple precincts] they are liable. One who offers up meat from a Chatat, [or] meat from an Asham, [or] meat from a Kodshai Kodashim [sacrifices of the highest degree of sanctity; they may be slaughtered only on the north-west corner of the altar, and consumed only within the Temple compound by male priests, or burnt entirely], [or] meat from a Kodashim Kalim [sacrifices of a lesser degree of sanctity; they may be slaughtered anywhere in the Temple courtyard and consumed by most anyone, anywhere in Jerusalem], or if [he offered] the remainder of the Omer [the special barley offering offered on the sixteenth of Nisan which permits grain harvested in the last year to be eaten], or the Shtei HaLechem [two leavened loaves of wheat brought as offerings on Shavuot which permitted using the new grain for holy offerings], or the Lechem HaPanim [twelve specially shaped unleavened loaves offered each Shabbat on the golden table in the Temple], or the remainders of the meal-offerings, [or] one who pours [oil onto a meal-offering], [or] one who mixes [the flour with the oil], [or] one who breaks [the meal-offering into pieces], [or] one who salts [an offering], [or] one who waves [an offering], [or] one who [brings the meal-offering to the altar], [or] one who arranges the table [with the Lechem HaPanim], or one who prepares the candles [of the Menorah - the Temple candelabrum], or one who takes the handful [of flour from a meal-offering], or one who receives the blood outside [the Temple precincts], is exempt. He is not liable due to his not belonging to the priestly class, nor due to his impurity, nor due to his lack of [priestly] garments, nor because he has [not] washed [his] hands or feet.
עַד שֶׁלֹּא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת. מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל:
Before the Tabernacle was constructed, the Bamot [personal altars, permitted only during certain periods of Jewish history, and then, only for certain types of offerings] were permitted, and the services were performed by the first-borns. Once the Tabernacle was constructed, the Bamot were forbidden, and the services were performed by the Kohanim [the priestly caste, a subgroup of the tribe of Levi, uniquely responsible for maintaining and carrying out the sacrificial services in the Temple]. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the [Tabernacle] curtains, and Kodashim Kalim [were eaten] anywhere in the camp of Israel.
בָּאוּ לַגִּלְגָּל, וְהֻתְּרוּ הַבָּמוֹת. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל מָקוֹם:
Once they [the nation] came to Gilgal, the Bamot were permitted. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains, [and] Kodashim Kalim [were eaten] anywhere.
בָּאוּ לְשִׁילֹה, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת. לֹא הָיָה שָׁם תִּקְרָה, אֶלָּא בַיִת שֶׁל אֲבָנִים מִלְּמַטָּן וִירִיעוֹת מִלְמַעְלָן, וְהִיא הָיְתָה מְנוּחָה. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, בְּכָל הָרוֹאֶה:
When they came to Shiloh, Bamot were forbidden. [The Tabernacle there] had no [fixed] roof, but was a structure of stone [walls] beneath, and curtains above them. It was [considered] "the Resting Place" (of Devarim 12:9). Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains, [and] Kodashim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni [the second tithe of produce which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there, were eaten] anywhere within sight [of Shiloh].
בָּאוּ לְנוֹב וּלְגִבְעוֹן, הֻתְּרוּ הַבָּמוֹת. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
When they came to Nov and to Giv'on, the Bamot were permitted. Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains, [and] Kodashim Kalim were eaten in any Israelite city.
בָּאוּ לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת, וְלֹא הָיָה לָהֶם עוֹד הֶתֵּר, וְהִיא הָיְתָה נַחֲלָה. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה:
When they came to Jerusalem, the Bamot were forbidden, and they were never permitted again. It was [considered] "the Inheritance" (of Devarim 12:9). Kodshai Kodashim were eaten within the curtains [which were walls in the Temple], [and] Kodashim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni [were eaten] within the walls [of Jerusalem].
כָּל הַקֳּדָשִׁים שֶׁהִקְדִּישָׁן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת, וְהִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת בַּחוּץ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, וְחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת. הִקְדִּישָׁן בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר בָּמוֹת, וְהִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַעֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶן כָּרֵת. הִקְדִּישָׁן בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר בָּמוֹת וְהִקְרִיבָן בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר בָּמוֹת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בַעֲשֵׂה וְאֵין בָּהֶם בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה:
[Individuals] who consecrated sacrifices when the Bamot were forbidden, and [who] offered these sacrifices outside [the Tabernacle] when the Bamot were forbidden, violated a positive commandment and a negative commandment, and were subject Karet because of them. If [individuals] consecrated them when the Bamot were permitted, and sacrificed these when the Bamot were prohibited, they [thereby] violated a positive commandment and a negative commandment, but they were not subject to Karet because of them. If [individuals] consecrated them when the Bamot were prohibited, and sacrificed these when the Bamot were permitted, they [thereby] violated a positive commandment, but not a negative commandment.
אֵלּוּ קָדָשִׁים קְרֵבִים בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר, קְרֵבִין בַּמִּשְׁכָּן. וְקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד, בְּבָמָה. קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁהֻקְדְּשׁוּ לַמִּשְׁכָּן, יִקְרְבוּ בַמִּשְׁכָּן. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָן בְּבָמָה, פָּטוּר. מַה בֵּין בָּמַת יָחִיד לְבָמַת צִבּוּר, סְמִיכָה, וּשְׁחִיטַת צָפוֹן, וּמַתַּן סָבִיב, וּתְנוּפָה, וְהַגָּשָׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין מִנְחָה בְבָמָה. וְכִהוּן, וּבִגְדֵי שָׁרֵת, וּכְלֵי שָׁרֵת, וְרֵיחַ נִיחוֹחַ, וּמְחִצָּה בַדָּמִים, וּרְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלָיִם. אֲבָל הַזְּמָן, וְהַנּוֹתָר, וְהַטָּמֵא, שָׁוִים בָּזֶה וּבָזֶה:
These are the sacrifices that must be sacrificed in the Tabernacle[even when the Bamot were permitted]: Sacrifices consecrated [specifically] for the Tabernacle. Communal sacrifices were sacrificed at the Tabernacle, and personal sacrifices [could be offered] at the Bamot. Personal sacrifices that were consecrated [specifically] for the Tabernacle, [had to be] sacrificed at the Tabernacle, and if [the individual] sacrificed them at a Bamah, he is exempt. What differentiates a personal Bamah from a communal Bamah? Laying the hands [on the animal], and slaughtering it in the north [of the altar], and dashing [the blood] around [the altar, on the corners], and waving [certain sacrifices], and bringing [the meal-offering]. Rabbi Yehudah says: The meal-offering cannot [be brought at a Bamah], nor are Kohanim [necessary there], nor are priestly garments, nor are service vessels, nor is the pleasing aroma, nor is a dividing blood line [the red marking on the altar indicating where blood should be dashed], nor is washing the hands and feet [necessary there]. But [the Tabernacle and the Bamot] are similar with regard to time, and Notar [a sacrifice that becomes unfit due to being unconsumed past the permitted time], and impurity.