3ג׳
1 א

סֵדֶר תַּעֲנִיּוֹת אֵלוּ הָאָמוּר, בִּרְבִיעָה רִאשׁוֹנָה. אֲבָל צְמָחִים שֶׁשָּׁנוּ, מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִיָּד. וְכֵן שֶׁפָּסְקוּ גְשָׁמִים בֵּין גֶּשֶׁם לְגֶשֶׁם אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם, מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִיָּד, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מַכַּת בַּצֹּרֶת:

The order of public fasts mentioned above is enacted because of [lack of] the first rain, but if the crops have undergone [an unusual] change they sound a blast immediately. Similarly, if the rain has stopped for forty days between one rainfall and the next, they sound a blast immediately, because it is a plague of drought.

2 ב

יָרְדוּ לַצְּמָחִין אֲבָל לֹא יָרְדוּ לָאִילָן, לָאִילָן וְלֹא לַצְּמָחִים, לָזֶה וְלָזֶה אֲבָל לֹא לַבּוֹרוֹת לַשִּׁיחִין וְלַמְּעָרוֹת, מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶן מִיָּד:

If [rain] falls for crops but not for the trees, for the trees but not for crops, for both of these but not for cisterns, ditches and caves they sound a blast immediately.

3 ג

וְכֵן עִיר שֶׁלֹּא יָרְדוּ עָלֶיהָ גְשָׁמִים, דִּכְתִיב (עמוס ד) וְהִמְטַרְתִּי עַל עִיר אֶחָת וְעַל עִיר אַחַת לֹא אַמְטִיר, חֶלְקָה אַחַת תִּמָּטֵר וְגוֹ', אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר מִתְעַנָּה וּמַתְרַעַת, וְכָל סְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ, מִתְעַנּוֹת וְלֹא מַתְרִיעוֹת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מַתְרִיעוֹת וְלֹא מִתְעַנּוֹת:

And so too a city, upon which no rain has fallen as it is written, “And I caused it to rain upon one city, and I caused it not to rain upon another city; one piece was rained upon…” (Amos 4:7) that city fasts and they sound a blast, but those [in the places] around it fast but do not sound the alarm. Rabbi Akiva says: they sound the alarm but do not fast.

4 ד

וְכֵן עִיר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ דֶּבֶר אוֹ מַפֹּלֶת, אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר מִתְעַנָּה וּמַתְרַעַת, וְכָל סְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ מִתְעַנּוֹת וְלֹא מַתְרִיעוֹת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מַתְרִיעוֹת וְלֹא מִתְעַנּוֹת. אֵיזֶהוּ דֶבֶר, עִיר הַמּוֹצִיאָה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת רַגְלִי, וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנָּה שְׁלשָׁה מֵתִים בִּשְׁלשָׁה יָמִים זֶה אַחַר זֶה, הֲרֵי זֶה דֶבֶר. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן, אֵין זֶה דֶבֶר:

And so too a city which has a plague or [its buildings] collapse that city fasts and they sound a blast, but those [in the places] around it fast but do not sound the alarm. Rabbi Akiva says: they sound the alarm but do not fast. What constitutes a plague? If in a city that can supply five hundred foot-soldiers and three deaths occurred on three consecutive days, behold this constitutes a plague, less than this is not a plague.

5 ה

עַל אֵלּוּ מַתְרִיעִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם, עַל הַשִּׁדָּפוֹן וְעַל הַיֵּרָקוֹן, עַל הָאַרְבֶּה וְעַל הֶחָסִיל, וְעַל הַחַיָּה רָעָה וְעַל הַחֶרֶב, מַתְרִיעִין עָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מַכָּה מְהַלֶּכֶת:

For these they sound a blast in all places: for the drying up of crops (shidafon), for plant disease, for locusts, and for the hasil (a type of locust), for wild beasts and for the sword they sound a blast for these are plagues likely to spread.

6 ו

מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיָּרְדוּ זְקֵנִים מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְעָרֵיהֶם, וְגָזְרוּ תַעֲנִית עַל שֶׁנִּרְאָה כִמְלֹא פִי תַנּוּר שִׁדָּפוֹן בְּאַשְׁקְלוֹן. וְעוֹד גָּזְרוּ תַעֲנִית עַל שֶׁאָכְלוּ זְאֵבִים שְׁנֵי תִינוֹקוֹת בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לֹא עַל שֶׁאָכְלוּ, אֶלָּא עַל שֶׁנִּרְאָה:

It once happened that elders went down from Jerusalem to their own cities and ordered a fast because there was seen in Ashkelon a shidafon which affected as much grain as would fill an oven [with loaves]. They also decreed a fast because wolves devoured two children on the other side of the Jordan. Rabbi Yose says: not because they devoured [the children] but [merely] because they were seen.

7 ז

עַל אֵלּוּ מַתְרִיעִין בְּשַׁבָּת, עַל עִיר שֶׁהִקִּיפוּהָ גוֹיִם אוֹ נָהָר, וְעַל הַסְּפִינָה הַמִּטָּרֶפֶת בַּיָּם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְעֶזְרָה וְלֹא לִצְעָקָה. שִׁמְעוֹן הַתִּמְנִי אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל הַדֶּבֶר, וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:

For these matters they sound a blast even on Shabbat: if a city is besieged by Gentile [troops] or a river, or if a ship is foundering on the sea. Rabbi Yose says: [they sound a blast] for help but not for an outcry (for the sake of prayer). Shimon the Yemenite says: also for a plague, but the sages did not agree with him.

8 ח

עַל כָּל צָרָה שֶׁלֹּא תָבֹא עַל הַצִּבּוּר, מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶן, חוּץ מֵרוֹב גְּשָׁמִים. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁאָמְרוּ לוֹ לְחוֹנִי הַמְעַגֵּל, הִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים. אָמַר לָהֶם, צְאוּ וְהַכְנִיסוּ תַנּוּרֵי פְסָחִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִמּוֹקוּ. הִתְפַּלֵּל, וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים. מֶה עָשָׂה, עָג עוּגָה וְעָמַד בְּתוֹכָהּ, וְאָמַר לְפָנָיו, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, בָּנֶיךָ שָׂמוּ פְנֵיהֶם עָלַי, שֶׁאֲנִי כְבֶן בַּיִת לְפָנֶיךָ. נִשְׁבָּע אֲנִי בְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן, עַד שֶׁתְּרַחֵם עַל בָּנֶיךָ. הִתְחִילוּ גְּשָׁמִים מְנַטְּפִין. אָמַר, לֹא כָךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי בוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. הִתְחִילוּ לֵירֵד בְּזָעַף. אָמַר, לֹא כָךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי רָצוֹן, בְּרָכָה וּנְדָבָה. יָרְדוּ כְתִקְנָן, עַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְהַר הַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִתְפַּלַלְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ כָּךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ לָהֶן. אָמַר לָהֶן, צְאוּ וּרְאוּ אִם נִמְחֵת אֶבֶן הַטּוֹעִים. שָׁלַח לוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח, אִלְמָלֵא חוֹנִי אַתָּה, גּוֹזְרַנִי עָלֶיךָ נִדּוּי. אֲבָל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְּךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה מִתְחַטֵּא לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וְעוֹשֶׂה לְךָ רְצוֹנְךָ כְּבֵן שֶׁהוּא מִתְחַטֵּא עַל אָבִיו וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ רְצוֹנוֹ. וְעָלֶיךָ הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר (משלי כג), יִשְׂמַח אָבִיךָ וְאִמֶּךָ וְתָגֵל יוֹלַדְתֶּךָ:

For every trouble that should not come upon the community they sound a blast except on account of too much rain. It happened that they said to Honi the circle drawer: “Pray for rain to fall.” He replied: “Go and bring in the pesah ovens so that they do not dissolve.” He prayed and no rain fell. What did he do? He drew a circle and stood within it and exclaimed before Him: “Master of the universe, Your children have turned their faces to me because I am like one who was born in Your house. I swear by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children.” Rain then began to drip, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but rain [which can fill] cisterns, ditches and caves. The rain then began to come down with great force, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but pleasing rain of blessing and abudance.” Rain then fell in the normal way until the Jews in Jerusalem had to go up Temple Mount because of the rain. They came and said to him: “In the same way that you prayed for [the rain] to fall pray [now] for the rain to stop.” He replied: “Go and see if the stone of people claiming lost objects has washed away.” Rabbi Shimon ben Shetah sent to him: “Were you not Honi I would have excommunicated you, but what can I do to you, for you are spoiled before God and he does your will like a son that is spoiled before his father and his father does his request. Concerning you it is written, “Let your father and your mother rejoice, and let she that bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25).

9 ט

הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין וְיָרְדוּ לָהֶם גְּשָׁמִים קֹדֶם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, לֹא יַשְׁלִימוּ. לְאַחַר הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַשְׁלִימוּ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת לֹא יַשְׁלִימוּ, לְאַחַר חֲצוֹת יַשְׁלִימוּ. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁגָּזְרוּ תַעֲנִית בְּלוֹד, וְיָרְדוּ לָהֶם גְּשָׁמִים קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, צְאוּ וְאִכְלוּ וּשְׁתוּ וַעֲשׂוּ יוֹם טוֹב. וְיָצְאוּ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׁתוּ וְעָשׂוּ יוֹם טוֹב, וּבָאוּ בֵּין הָעַרְבַּיִם וְקָרְאוּ הַלֵּל הַגָּדוֹל:

If while they are fasting rain falls: If before sunrise they do not complete the fast, If after sunrise, they do complete the fast. Rabbi Eliezer says: if before noon they do not complete the fast, if after noon they do complete it. It happened that the rabbis decreed a fast in Lod and rain fell before noon. Rabbi Tarfon said to them: go, eat and drink and make a holiday. They went and ate and drank and observed the day as a holiday and at evening time they came and recited the Hallel Hagadol.