2ב׳
1 א

סֵדֶר תַּעֲנִיּוֹת כֵּיצַד, מוֹצִיאִין אֶת הַתֵּבָה לִרְחוֹבָהּ שֶׁל עִיר, וְנוֹתְנִין אֵפֶר מִקְלֶה עַל גַּבֵּי הַתֵּבָה, וּבְרֹאשׁ הַנָּשִׂיא וּבְרֹאשׁ אַב בֵּית דִּין, וְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד נוֹתֵן בְּרֹאשׁוֹ. הַזָּקֵן שֶׁבָּהֶן אוֹמֵר לִפְנֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי כִבּוּשִׁין, אַחֵינוּ, לֹא נֶאֱמַר בְּאַנְשֵׁי נִינְוֵה, וַיַּרְא הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת שַׂקָּם וְאֶת תַּעֲנִיתָם, אֶלָּא (יונה ג) וַיַּרְא הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם, כִּי שָׁבוּ מִדַּרְכָּם הָרָעָה. וּבַקַּבָּלָה הוּא אוֹמֵר (יואל ב) וְקִרְעוּ לְבַבְכֶם וְאַל בִּגְדֵיכֶם:

What is the order of the [prayer service of the] fast-days? We take out the ark to the square of the city, and we place ashes of burnt [substances] on the heads of the Nasie and of the chief of the tribunal of justice, and other persons shall also put ashes on their heads; the eldest among them shall then address them in heart-moving terms: "My brethren, consider that it is not written in respect to [the repentance of] the Ninevites, that God regarded their having wrapped themselves in sackcloth, and considered their fast-days, but that 'God saw their acts, and that they had turned from their evil ways' (Jonah 3:10), and the tradition of the prophets also is, 'Tear your hearts, and not your garments' (Joel 2:13).

2 ב

עָמְדוּ בִתְפִלָּה, מוֹרִידִין לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה זָקֵן וְרָגִיל, וְיֶשׁ לוֹ בָנִים, וּבֵיתוֹ רֵיקָם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא לִבּוֹ שָׁלֵם בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְאוֹמֵר לִפְנֵיהֶם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע בְּרָכוֹת, שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם, וּמוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶן עוֹד שֵׁשׁ:

They stand to pray. We bring in front of the ark (meaning, to be the chazzan) an elderly man who is regular [to function as chazzan], who has children, and whose house is empty (meaning, he is poor), so that his heart may be entirely [devoted] to his prayer, and he says before them twenty-four blessings: the eighteen that are [said] every day, and he adds upon them another six.

3 ג

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְשׁוֹפָרוֹת, אֶל ה' בַּצָּרָתָה לִּי קָרָאתִי וַיַּעֲנֵנִי (תהלים קכ), אֶשָּׂא עֵינַי אֶל הֶהָרִים וְגוֹ' (שם קכא), מִמַּעֲמַקִּים קְרָאתִיךָ ה' (שם קל), תְּפִלָּה לְעָנִי כִי יַעֲטֹף (שם קב). רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר זִכְרוֹנוֹת וְשׁוֹפָרוֹת, אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר תַּחְתֵּיהֶן, רָעָב כִּי יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ (מלכים ב ח), דֶּבֶר כִּי יִהְיֶה וְגוֹ', אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר ה' אֶל יִרְמְיָהוּ עַל דִּבְרֵי הַבַּצָּרוֹת (ירמיה יד). וְאוֹמֵר חוֹתְמֵיהֶן:

These [extra blessings] are as follows: (1) [The blessing of] Remembrances, (2) [The blessing of] Shofars, (3) [Psalm 120,] "Hashem is my G-d in times of distress to me," (4) [Psalm 121,] "I lift my eyes up to the mountains," (5) [Psalm 130,] "From the depths I have called to you, O G-d," (6) [Psalm 102,] "A prayer of the impoverished, when he wraps himself [in a Tallit]. Rabbi Yehudah says, "It was not necessary to say [the blessings of] Remembrances and Shofars‎, but rather he says in their place, "When there is famine in the land, when there is pestilence in the land (I Kings 8:37)," and, "The word of the Lord that came to Jeremiah concerning the droughts (Jer. 14:1)." And he says their conclusions:

4 ד

עַל הָרִאשׁוֹנָה הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אַבְרָהָם בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' גּוֹאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל הַשְּׁנִיָּה הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עַל יַם סוּף, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע קוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' זוֹכֵר הַנִּשְׁכָּחוֹת. עַל הַשְּׁלִישִׁית הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּגִּלְגָּל, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע קוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּרוּעָה. עַל הָרְבִיעִית הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת שְׁמוּאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' שׁוֹמֵעַ צְעָקָה. עַל הַחֲמִישִׁית הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אֵלִיָּהוּ בְּהַר הַכַּרְמֶל, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' שׁוֹמֵעַ תְּפִלָּה. עַל הַשִּׁשִּׁית הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת יוֹנָה מִמְּעֵי הַדָּגָה, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הָעוֹנֶה בְּעֵת צָרָה. עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית הוּא אוֹמֵר, מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת דָּוִד וְאֶת שְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה, בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' הַמְרַחֵם עַל הָאָרֶץ:

Upon the first blessing he shall say [in conclusion], "He who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, may He answer you, and listen to your cry on this day. Blessed art thou, O Lord, Redeemer of Israel!" Upon the second he shall say, "He who answered our ancestors on the Red Sea, may He answer you, and listen to your cry on this day. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who remembers the [things] forgotten [by man]!" Upon the third he shall say, "He who answered Yejoshua in Gilgal, may He answer you, and listen this day to your cry. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who deigns to listen to the sound of the shofar!" Upon the fourth he shall say, "He who answered Samuel in Mizpah, may He answer you, and listen to your cry on this day. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who hearkens to [our] cry!" Upon the fifth he shall say, "He who answered Elijah on Mount Carmel, may He answer you, and listen to your cry on this day. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who hearkens to prayer!" Upon the sixth he shall say, "He who answered Jonah in the entrails of the fish, may He answer you, and listen to your cry on this day. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who answers in the time of distress!" Upon the seventh he shall say, "He who answered David, and his son Solomon, in Jerusalem, may He answer you, and listen to your cry on this day. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who has compassion on the earth!"

5 ה

מַעֲשֶׂה בִימֵי רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן תְּרַדְיוֹן, שֶׁעָבַר אֶחָד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וְגָמַר אֶת הַבְּרָכָה כֻלָּהּ, וְלֹא עָנוּ אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן. תִּקְעוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים תְּקָעוּ. מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. הָרִיעוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הָרִיעוּ. מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עַל יַם סוּף, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. וּכְשֶׁבָּא דָבָר אֵצֶל חֲכָמִים, אָמְרוּ, לֹא הָיִינוּ נוֹהֲגִין כֵּן אֶלָּא בְשַׁעַר מִזְרָח וּבְהַר הַבָּיִת:

It happened in the times of Rabbi Halaphta and Rabbi Hanina ben Teradion, that a minister advanced to the reading-desk and finished the whole of the blessing without any [of the congregation] answering thereupon, "Amen:" [a minister called], "Sound, O priests! sound!" [the minister who said the prayers continued], "May he who answered our father Abraham on Mount Moriah answer you, and listen [favourably] to your prayer this day:" [a minister called] "Sound an alarm, sons of Aaron! sound an alarm!" [the minister who said the prayers continued], "May he who answered our ancestors on the Red Sea answer you, and listen [favourably] to your cry this day." When the sages were informed of this, they said, "This was not our custom, except at the eastern door [of the Temple], and on the Temple-mountain [Mount Moriah]."

6 ו

שָׁלשׁ תַּעֲנִיּוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר מִתְעַנִּין וְלֹא מַשְׁלִימִין, וְאַנְשֵׁי בֵית אָב לֹא הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין כְּלָל. שָׁלשׁ שְׁנִיּוֹת, אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר מִתְעַנִּין וּמַשְׁלִימִין, וְאַנְשֵׁי בֵית אָב מִתְעַנִּין וְלֹא מַשְׁלִימִין. שֶׁבַע אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ מִתְעַנִּין וּמַשְׁלִימִין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שָׁלשׁ תַּעֲנִיּוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ לֹא הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין כְּלָל. שָׁלשׁ שְׁנִיּוֹת, אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר מִתְעַנִּין וְלֹא מַשְׁלִימִין, וְאַנְשֵׁי בֵית אָב לֹא הָיוּ מִתְעַנִּין כְּלָל. שֶׁבַע אַחֲרוֹנוֹת, אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר מִתְעַנִּין וּמַשְׁלִימִין, וְאַנְשֵׁי בֵית אָב מִתְעַנִּין וְלֹא מַשְׁלִימִין:

On the three first fasts, the priests who had the weekly watch of the Temple fasted, but not the whole day; and the ministering priests did not fast at all. On the second three fasts, the priests on the weekly duty fasted the whole day; and the ministering priests fasted, but not the whole day. But on the last seven, both classes of priests fasted the whole day. Such is the opinion of R. Joshua; but the sages say, "The three first fasts were not kept by any of the said priests: on the second three, the priests who had the weekly duty used to fast, but not the whole day; and the officiating priests did not fast at all. On the last seven, the priests on the weekly duty fasted the whole day; and the officiating priests fasted, but not the whole day."

7 ז

אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר מֻתָּרִים לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן בַּלֵּילוֹת, אֲבָל לֹא בַיָּמִים. וְאַנְשֵׁי בֵית אָב, לֹא בַיּוֹם וְלֹא בַלָּיְלָה. אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר וְאַנְשֵׁי מַעֲמָד אֲסוּרִין מִלְּסַפֵּר וּמִלְּכַבֵּס, וּבַחֲמִישִׁי מֻתָּרִין מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹד הַשַּׁבָּת:

The priests on the weekly duty may drink wine at night, but not during the day; the officiating priests may not drink it either by day or night. The priests of the weekly watch, and the standing men are prohibited from shaving their beards, and washing their clothes; but, on Thursday, they are allowed to do so, in honour of the [approaching] Sabbath.

8 ח

כֹּל הַכָּתוּב בִּמְגִלַּת תַּעֲנִית דְּלֹא לְמִסְפַּד, לְפָנָיו אָסוּר, לְאַחֲרָיו מֻתָּר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו אָסוּר. דְּלֹא לְהִתְעַנָּאָה בְהוֹן, לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו מֻתָּר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְפָנָיו אָסוּר, לְאַחֲרָיו מֻתָּר:

Wherever it is mentioned in "The Roll of Fasts," that "no lamentation and mourning is to be made" on certain days, it is also prohibited to do so on the day preceding, but allowed on the day following them; but Rabbi Yose says, "It is prohibited to do so on the day preceding, and on the day following; where it is said, that 'no fasts are to be kept thereon,' it is allowed to fast on the day preceding and following days." Rabbi Yose says, "It is prohibited on the preceding, but allowed on the following day."

9 ט

אֵין גּוֹזְרִין תַּעֲנִית עַל הַצִּבּוּר בַּתְּחִלָּה בַּחֲמִישִׁי, שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְקִיעַ הַשְּׁעָרִים, אֶלָּא שָׁלשׁ תַּעֲנִיּוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת שֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי וְשֵׁנִי, וְשָׁלשׁ שְׁנִיּוֹת חֲמִישִׁי שֵׁנִי וַחֲמִישִׁי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת בַּחֲמִישִׁי, כָּךְ לֹא שְׁנִיּוֹת וְלֹא אַחֲרוֹנוֹת:

Public fasts are not to be ordered to commence on a Thursday, in order not to raise the price of victuals in the markets; but the first fasts are to be on Monday, Thursday, and [the following] Monday; but the second three fasts may follow on Thursday, Monday, and [the following] Thursday. Rabbi Yose says, "Even as the first fasts are not to be commenced on Thursday, so also are the second and last fasts not to commence on that day."

10 י

אֵין גּוֹזְרִין תַּעֲנִית עַל הַצִּבּוּר בְּרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ, בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים, וְאִם הִתְחִילוּ, אֵין מַפְסִיקִין, דִּבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אֵין מַפְסִיקִין, מוֹדֶה הָיָה שֶׁאֵין מַשְׁלִימִין. וְכֵן תִּשְׁעָה בְאָב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת:

Public fasts are not to be ordered to take place on the feast of new moon, nor on that of dedication and of lots [pureem]; but if the fast has been already commenced thereon, it need not be broken. Such is the opinion of Rabbon Gamaliel. Rabbi Meir says, "Although Rabbon Gamaliel has said that the fast need not be broken, he agrees that on these days they are not to fast the whole of the day; and thus is it with the [fast of the] ninth of Av, when it happens on a Friday."