4ד׳
1 א

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, מְלַקֵּט אָדָם עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים וַעֲשָׂבִים מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהוּא מְלַקֵּט מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אֶת הַגַּס הַגָּס. מִשֶּׁרַבּוּ עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא זֶה מְלַקֵּט מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁל זֶה, וְזֶה מְלַקֵּט מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁל זֶה, שֶׁלֹּא בְטוֹבָה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁיְּקַצֵּץ לָהֶם מְזוֹנוֹת:

At first they said: a man may gather wood, stones and grasses from his field, just as he was allowed to do from the field of his fellow, the large ones. When the transgressors increased, they decreed that this one may gather from this one’s field and this one may gather from this one’s field, but not as a [mutual] favor. It doesn’t need to be said that no stipulation can be made for food.

2 ב

שָׂדֶה שֶׁנִּתְקַוְּצָה, תִּזָּרַע בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית. שֶׁנִּטַּיְּבָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּדַּיְּרָה, לֹא תִזָּרַע בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית. שָׂדֶה שֶׁנִּטַּיְּבָה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין אוֹכְלִין פֵּרוֹתֶיהָ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אוֹכְלִין. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין אוֹכְלִין פֵּרוֹת שְׁבִיעִית בְּטוֹבָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אוֹכְלִין בְּטוֹבָה וְשֶׁלֹּא בְטוֹבָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, חִלּוּף הַדְּבָרִים, זוֹ מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל:

A field from which thorns had been removed may be sown in the eighth year. But if it had been improved upon, or cattle had been allowed to live upon it, it may not be sown in the eighth year. A field which had been improved upon in the seventh year: Bet Shammai says: they may not eat its produce in the seventh year, But Bet Hillel says: they may eat. Bet Shammai says: they may not eat produce of the sabbatical year with an expression of thanks. But Bet Hillel says: they may eat [sabbatical year produce] with an expression for thanks and without an expression of thanks. Rabbi Judah says: the statements must be reversed, for this is one of the instances where Bet Shammai is lenient and Bet Hillel is stringent.

3 ג

חוֹכְרִין נִירִין מִן הַנָּכְרִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אֲבָל לֹא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וּמַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי נָכְרִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אֲבָל לֹא יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְשׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹמָן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם:

They may rent newly plowed land from a Gentile in the seventh year, but not from an Israelite. And they may encourage Gentiles during the seventh year, but not Israelites. They may exchange greetings with them because of the ways of peace.

4 ד

הַמֵּדֵל בַּזֵּיתִים, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יָגוֹם. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, יְשָׁרֵשׁ. וּמוֹדִים בְּמַחֲלִיק, עַד שֶׁיָּגוֹם. אֵיזֶה הוּא הַמֵּדֵל, אֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם. הַמַּחֲלִיק, שְׁלֹשָׁה, זֶה בְצַד זֶה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, אֲבָל מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אַף הַמַּחֲלִיק, יְשָׁרֵשׁ:

One who thins out his olive-trees [in the seventh year]: Bet Shammai says: he cuts them down to the ground. Bet Hillel says: he may completely uproot them. They agree that if one levels his field, he can only cut them down to the ground. What is considered “thinning out”? One or two plants. And what is considered “leveling”? Three plants next to each other. This applies to his own property only, but from the property of another, even he that levels may uproot.

5 ה

הַמַּבְקִיעַ בַּזַּיִת, לֹא יְחַפֵּהוּ בְעָפָר, אֲבָל מְכַסֶּה הוּא בַּאֲבָנִים אוֹ בְקַשׁ. הַקּוֹצֵץ קוֹרוֹת שִׁקְמָה, לֹא יְחַפֵּהוּ בְעָפָר, אֲבָל מְכַסֶּה הוּא בַּאֲבָנִים אוֹ בְקַשׁ. אֵין קוֹצְצִין בְּתוּלַת שִׁקְמָה בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא עֲבוֹדָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כְּדַרְכָּהּ, אָסוּר, אֶלָּא אוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, אוֹ גוֹמֵם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ:

One who cuts down branches of an olive tree, he may not cover up [the stump] with earth, but he may cover it with stones or straw. One who cuts down branches of a sycamore tree, he may not cover up [the stump] with earth, but he may cover it with stones or straw. One may not cut down from a virgin sycamore in the seventh year, for this would constitute actual labor. Rabbi Judah says: in its usual manner, it is forbidden. Rather he either cuts it ten handbreadths above [the soil], or he cuts it down to ground level.

6 ו

הַמְזַנֵּב בִּגְפָנִים וְהַקּוֹצֵץ קָנִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, יַרְחִיק טֶפַח. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, קוֹצֵץ כְּדַרְכּוֹ, בַּקַּרְדֹּם אוֹ בַמַּגָּל, וּבַמְּגֵרָה, וּבְכָל מַה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. אִילָן שֶׁנִּפְשַׁח, קוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, לֹא שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיף:

One who trims grape vines, or cuts reeds: Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: he must leave [uncut at least] one handbreadth. But Rabbi Akiba says: he may cut them in the usual manner, with the axe, sickle or saw, or with whatever he pleases. A tree that had split may be tied up in the seventh year, not that it may heal, but only that it should not widen.

7 ז

מֵאֵימָתַי אוֹכְלִין פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, הַפַּגִּים מִשֶּׁיַּזְרִיחוּ, אוֹכֵל בָּהֶם פִּתּוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה. בִּחֲלוּ, כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם בִּשְׁאָר שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעַ, חַיָּב בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת:

From when may one begin to eat of the fruit of the trees in the seventh year? With unripe figs as soon as they assume a rosy appearance, one may eat them in the field with his bread. Once they have begun to ripen, he may take them home. And similarly in the other years of the sabbatical cycle [when this latter stage has been reached] they are subject to tithes.

8 ח

הַבֹּסֶר, מִשֶּׁהֵבִיא מַיִם, אוֹכֵל בּוֹ פִּתּוֹ בַּשָּׂדֶה. הִבְאִישׁ, כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ בִּשְׁאָר שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעַ, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת:

Unripe grapes: as soon as they contain juice he may eat them with bread in the field. When they have begun to ripen, he may take them home. And similarly in the other years of the sabbatical cycle [when they have reached this latter stage] they are subject to tithes.

9 ט

זֵיתִים, מִשֶּׁיַּכְנִיסוּ רְבִיעִית לִסְאָה, פּוֹצֵעַ וְאוֹכֵל בַּשָּׂדֶה. הִכְנִיסוּ חֲצִי לֹג, כּוֹתֵשׁ וְסָךְ בַּשָּׂדֶה. הִכְנִיסוּ שְׁלִישׁ, כּוֹתֵשׁ בַּשָּׂדֶה וְכוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם בִּשְׁאָר שְׁנֵי שָׁבוּעַ, חַיָּבִים בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת. וּשְׁאָר כָּל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָן, כְּעוֹנָתָן לַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, כֵּן עוֹנָתָן לַשְּׁבִיעִית:

Olives, as soon as they can produce a quarter log [of oil] for each se'ah, they may be split and eaten in a field. When they produce a half-log, then he may crush them in a field and use their oil. When they have reached a third [of their overall potential], they may be crushed in the field and brought home. And similarly in the other years of the sabbatical cycle [when they have reached this latter stage] they are subject to tithes. With all other fruit of trees [the season when they become due to be tithed] is the season when they are permitted in the seventh year.

10 י

מֵאֵימָתַי אֵין קוֹצְצִין אֶת הָאִילָן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, כָּל הָאִילָן מִשֶּׁיּוֹצִיא. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הֶחָרוּבִין מִשֶּׁיְּשַׁלְשֵׁלוּ, וְהַגְּפָנִים מִשֶּׁיְּגָרְעוּ, וְהַזֵּיתִים מִשֶּׁיָּנֵצוּ, וּשְׁאָר כָּל אִילָן מִשֶּׁיּוֹצִיא. וְכָל הָאִילָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא לְעוֹנַת הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, מֻתָּר לְקָצְצוֹ. כַּמָּה יְהֵא בַזַּיִת וְלֹא יְקֻצֶּנּוּ, רֹבַע. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל לְפִי הַזַּיִת:

From when may they no longer cut down trees in the seventh year? Bet Shammai says: every tree, after it has produced [fruit]. Bet Hillel says: carob trees after [the carobs] begin to droop, vines after the berries begin to be moist, olive-trees after they had blossomed, any other tree after it has produced [fruit]. And any tree as soon as it reaches the season for tithes it may be cut down. How much should be on an olive tree such that it may not be cut down? A quarter [kav]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: all depends on the olive-tree.