מָעוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בֵּין הַשְּׁקָלִים לִנְדָבָה, קָרוֹב לַשְּׁקָלִים יִפְּלוּ לַשְּׁקָלִים, לַנְּדָבָה יִפְּלוּ לַנְּדָבָה, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לַנְּדָבָה. בֵּין עֵצִים לִלְבוֹנָה, קָרוֹב לָעֵצִים יִפְּלוּ לָעֵצִים, לַלְּבוֹנָה יִפְּלוּ לַלְּבוֹנָה, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לַלְּבוֹנָה. בֵּין קִנִּין לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה, קָרוֹב לַקִּנִּין יִפְּלוּ לַקִּנִּין. לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה יִפְּלוּ לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לְגוֹזְלֵי עוֹלָה. בֵּין חֻלִּין לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, קָרוֹב לַחֻלִּין יִפְּלוּ לַחֻלִּין, לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי יִפְּלוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה יִפְּלוּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. זֶה הַכְּלָל, הוֹלְכִים אַחַר הַקָּרוֹב (לְהָקֵל). מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה לְהַחְמִיר:
Money which is found between [the chests for] shekalim and free-will offerings, if it is closer to the [chest for] shekalim, it falls to the shekalim, if closer to the [chest for] free-will offerings, it falls to the free-will offerings, if it is in the middle, it falls to the free-will offerings. If it is found between the [chest for] wood and the [chest for] frankincense, if it is closer to the [chest for] wood, it falls to wood, if it is closer to the [chest for] frankincense it falls to frankincense, if it is in the middle it falls to frankincense. If it is found between the [chest for] nest offerings and the [chest for] young bird offerings, if it is closer to the [chest for] nest offerings, it falls to the nest offerings, if it is closer to the [chest for] young bird offerings it falls to the young bird offering, if it is in the middle it falls to the young bird offerings. If it is found between unconsecrated money and maaser sheini [in a person's possession], if it is closer to the unconsecrated money, it falls to the unconsecrated money, if it is closer to the maaser sheini it falls to the maaser sheini, if it is in the middle it falls to the maaser sheini. This is the general rule, the money goes to what is closer even to be more lenient. When it is in the middle, it goes to the more stringent.
מָעוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ לִפְנֵי סוֹחֲרֵי בְּהֵמָה, לְעוֹלָם מַעֲשֵׂר. בְּהַר הַבַּיִת, חֻלִּין. בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בִּשְׁעַת הָרֶגֶל, מַעֲשֵׂר. וּבִשְׁאָר כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, חֻלִּין:
Money that is found in front of animal dealers, it is always considered maaser [sheini]. On the Temple Mount, it is considered unconsecrated. In Jerusalem during a festival, it is maaser [sheini]. During the rest of the days of the year, it is unconsecrated.
בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּעֲזָרָה, אֵבָרִים, עוֹלוֹת. וַחֲתִיכוֹת, חַטָאוֹת. בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. זֶה וָזֶה תְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְיֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. נִמְצָא בַּגְּבוּלִין, אֵבָרִים, נְבֵלוֹת. חֲתִיכוֹת, מֻתָּרוֹת. וּבִשְׁעַת הָרֶגֶל שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר מְרֻבֶּה, אַף אֵבָרִים מֻתָּרִין:
If flesh was found in the Temple courtyard, and if it was [cut into] limbs, [they are assumed to be] burnt-offerings, but if it was [cut into] pieces [of flesh], they are assumed to be sin offerings. If found in Jerusalem, [they are assumed to be] peace-offerings. In either case, it must be left until its appearance changes [i.e., it becomes absolutely disqualified as an offering] and is then taken to the place of burning. If it was found in outlying areas, in limbs, [they are assumed to be] neveilah [improperly slaughtered]. If they are in pieces, they are permitted [to be eaten]. At the time of the [three pilgrimage] festivals, when meat is abundant, it is permitted, even when [cut into] limbs.
בְּהֵמָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְעַד מִגְדַּל עֵדֶר, וּכְמִדָּתָהּ לְכָל רוּחַ, זְכָרִים, עוֹלוֹת. נְקֵבוֹת, זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָרָאוּי לִפְסָחִים, פְּסָחִים קֹדֶם לָרֶגֶל שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם:
An animal that was found between Jerusalem and Migdal Eder, or a similar distance in any direction, the males are [considered] burnt offerings. The females are [considered] peace offerings. Rabbi Yehuda says, those which are fitting as a Pesach offering are [considered] Pesach offerings if it is thirty days before the festival.
בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מְמַשְׁכְּנִין אֶת מוֹצְאֶיהָ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא נְסָכֶיהָ. חָזְרוּ לִהְיוֹת מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָהּ וּבוֹרְחִין. הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין שֶׁיְּהוּ נְסָכֶיהָ בָּאִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר:
Originally they would take a pledge from the finder [of an animal], until he would bring its libation offering [i.e., wine that accompanies all offerings]. [The finders] began to leave [the animal] and flee. The [high] court decreed that its libation offering would come from the community.
אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין, וְזֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן, נָכְרִי שֶׁשִּׁלַּח עוֹלָתוֹ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וְשִׁלַּח עִמָּהּ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וְכֵן גֵּר שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ זְבָחִים, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וּתְנַאי בֵּית דִּין הוּא עַל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁתְּהֵא מִנְחָתוֹ קְרֵבָה מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁל יוֹרְשִׁין. וּשְׁלֵמָה הָיְתָה קְרֵבָה:
Rabbi Shimon says: The [high] court decreed seven things and this was one of them: a non-Jew who sends an offering [to be brought for him] from far away, and he sends its libations with it, they are brought from his [libation or money sent for it]. If he did not [send any libations], they are brought from public [funds]. Similarly, a convert who died and left behind [designated] offerings, if he has libations [to accompany them] they are brought from his [funds], but if not, they are brought from public [funds]. It is also a stipulation of the court that if the High Priest died, that his daily flour offering be brought from the public funds. Rabbi Yehudah says [the High Priest's offering] is brought from the funds of his heirs and it was brought in its entirety [at its next offering time].
עַל הַמֶּלַח וְעַל הָעֵצִים שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים נֵאוֹתִים בָּהֶן, וְעַל הַפָּרָה שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מוֹעֲלִין בְּאֶפְרָהּ, וְעַל הַקִּנִּין הַפְּסוּלוֹת שֶׁיְּהוּ בָאוֹת מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הַמְסַפֵּק אֶת הַקִּנִּין, מְסַפֵּק אֶת הַפְּסוּלוֹת:
The [high] court decreed: Concerning the salt and wood, the priests may make use of them, and concerning the red heifer, that the use of its ashes is exempt from the laws of misappropriation. And concerning nest offerings [bird-offerings], which became disqualified for sacrifice, that [their replacements] come from public funds. Rabbi Yosi says: The supplier of the nest offerings [bird-offerings] was bound to supply [replacements for] those found to be disqualified.