בַּמֶּה בְּהֵמָה יוֹצְאָה וּבַמָּה אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה. יוֹצֵא הַגָּמָל בְּאַפְסָר, וְנָאקָה בַחֲטָם, וְלֻבְדְּקִיס בִּפְרֻמְבְּיָא, וְסוּס בְּשֵׁיר, וְכָל בַּעֲלֵי הַשֵּׁיר יוֹצְאִים בַּשֵּׁיר וְנִמְשָׁכִים בַּשֵּׁיר, וּמַזִּין עֲלֵיהֶן וְטוֹבְלִין בִּמְקוֹמָן:
Due to the mitzva to rest one’s animals on Shabbat, one’s animal may not go out into the public domain bearing a burden. However, an object designated to protect the animal or to prevent it from fleeing is not considered a burden; therefore, an animal bearing objects that serve that purpose may go out into the public domain.
The mishna asks: With what may an animal go out into the public domain on Shabbat and with what may it not go out? A camel may go out on Shabbat with an afsar, and a naka may go out with a ḥatam, and a luvdekim may go out with a perumbiya. All these terms will be defined in the Gemara. And a horse may go out with a chain around its neck. And, in general, all animals that typically have a chain around their necks when they go out to the public domain may go out with a chain on Shabbat and may be pulled by the chain. If these chains contracted ritual impurity, one may sprinkle waters of purification on them and immerse them in their place on the animal, and they need not first be removed.
חֲמוֹר יוֹצֵא בְמַרְדַּעַת, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא קְשׁוּרָה לוֹ. זְכָרִים יוֹצְאִין לְבוּבִין. רְחֵלוֹת יוֹצְאוֹת שְׁחוּזוֹת, כְּבוּלוֹת וּכְבוּנוֹת. הָעִזִּים יוֹצְאוֹת צְרוּרוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹסֵר בְּכֻלָּן, חוּץ מִן הָרְחֵלִין הַכְּבוּנוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עִזִּים יוֹצְאוֹת צְרוּרוֹת לְיַבֵּשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא לְחָלָב: A donkey may go out on Shabbat with a saddlecloth that protects it from the cold when it is tied to the animal, and there is no room for concern lest it fall. Rams may go out levuvin. Ewes may go out sheḥuzot, kevulot, and kevunot. All of these terms are discussed and explained in the Gemara. She-goats may go out with their udders bound. Rabbi Yosei prohibits the animals from going out with all of these items, as he considers them burdens, except for the ewes that are kevunot. Rabbi Yehuda says: Goats may go out on Shabbat with their udders bound to dry their milk supply and discontinue their lactation, in order to facilitate conception. In that case, they are tied with a tight, permanent knot, and there is no concern lest it fall in the public domain. However, they may not go out with their udders bound to conserve their milk, as in that case they are bound loosely.
וּבַמָּה אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה. לֹא יֵצֵא גָמָל בִּמְטוּטֶלֶת, לֹא עָקוּד וְלֹא רָגוּל, וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַבְּהֵמוֹת. לֹא יִקְשֹׁר גְּמַלִּים זֶה בָזֶה וְיִמְשֹׁךְ. אֲבָל מַכְנִיס חֲבָלִים לְתוֹךְ יָדוֹ וְיִמְשֹׁךְ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִכְרֹךְ: And with what may an animal not go out into the public domain on Shabbat? A camel may not go out with a saddlecloth, nor may it go out akud or ragul, which are different ways of tying its legs together, as will be explained in the Gemara. And likewise, tying all other animals in those manners is prohibited. And likewise, one may not tie camels one to the other and pull the lead camel, thereby pulling the others after it. However, he may place the ropes tied to each of the camels in his hand and pull them all, provided that he does not intertwine the ropes.
אֵין חֲמוֹר יוֹצֵא בְמַרְדַּעַת בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵינָהּ קְשׁוּרָה לוֹ, וְלֹא בְזוֹג, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא פָקוּק, וְלֹא בְסֻלָּם שֶׁבְּצַוָּארוֹ, וְלֹא בִרְצוּעָה שֶׁבְּרַגְלוֹ. וְאֵין הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִין יוֹצְאִין בְּחוּטִין, וְלֹא בִרְצוּעוֹת שֶׁבְּרַגְלֵיהֶם. וְאֵין הַזְּכָרִים יוֹצְאִין בַּעֲגָלָה שֶׁתַּחַת הָאַלְיָה שֶׁלָּהֶן. וְאֵין הָרְחֵלִים יוֹצְאוֹת חֲנוּנוֹת. וְאֵין הָעֵגֶל יוֹצֵא בְגִימוֹן. וְלֹא פָרָה בְּעוֹר הַקֻּפָּר, וְלֹא בִרְצוּעָה שֶׁבֵּין קַרְנֶיהָ. פָּרָתוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה הָיְתָה יוֹצְאָה בִרְצוּעָה שֶׁבֵּין קַרְנֶיהָ, שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים: This mishna lists additional objects with which an animal may not go out into the public domain on Shabbat: A donkey may neither go out with the saddlecloth when it is not tied to its back, nor with a bell even if it is plugged to prevent it from ringing, nor with a ladder that is around its neck, nor with a strap that is around its leg. And the roosters may not go out with strings and not with a strap on their feet, which are tied there as a sign of ownership. And the rams may not go out with a small wagon under their tails, as it was common practice to put a small wagon under the tails of grown sheep so that the tail would not be injured by dragging on the ground. And ewes may not go out ḥanunot, nor may a calf go out with a gimon, nor may a cow go out with the skin of a hedgehog [kupar], nor with a strap between its horns. The mishna relates that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s cow would go out on Shabbat with a strap between its horns, contrary to the will of the Sages.