7ז׳
1 א

אַרְבַּע מִיתוֹת נִמְסְרוּ לְבֵית דִּין, סְקִילָה, שְׂרֵפָה, הֶרֶג, וָחֶנֶק. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׂרֵפָה, סְקִילָה, חֶנֶק, וָהֶרֶג. זוֹ מִצְוַת הַנִּסְקָלִין:

Four [forms] of capital punishment were given over to the courts: stoning, burning, decapitation, and strangulation. Rabbi Shimon says, burning, stoning, strangulation, and decapitation. This is the law [i.e. procedure] concerning those to be stoned.

2 ב

מִצְוַת הַנִּשְׂרָפִין, הָיוּ מְשַׁקְּעִין אוֹתוֹ בַזֶּבֶל עַד אַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו וְנוֹתְנִין סוּדָר קָשָׁה לְתוֹךְ הָרַכָּה וְכוֹרֵךְ עַל צַוָּארוֹ. זֶה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֶצְלוֹ וְזֶה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֶצְלוֹ עַד שֶׁפּוֹתֵחַ אֶת פִּיו, וּמַדְלִיק אֶת הַפְּתִילָה וְזוֹרְקָהּ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו וְיוֹרֶדֶת לְתוֹךְ מֵעָיו וְחוֹמֶרֶת אֶת בְּנֵי מֵעָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הוּא אִם מֵת בְּיָדָם לֹא הָיוּ מְקַיְּמִין בּוֹ מִצְוַת שְׂרֵפָה, אֶלָּא פוֹתְחִין אֶת פִּיו בִּצְבָת שֶׁלֹּא בְטוֹבָתוֹ וּמַדְלִיק אֶת הַפְּתִילָה וְזוֹרְקָהּ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו וְיוֹרֶדֶת לְתוֹךְ מֵעָיו וְחוֹמֶרֶת אֶת בְּנֵי מֵעָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן צָדוֹק, מַעֲשֶׂה בְּבַת כֹּהֵן אַחַת שֶׁזִּנְּתָה, וְהִקִּיפוּהָ חֲבִילֵי זְמוֹרוֹת וּשְׂרָפוּהָ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בֵית דִּין שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה בָּקִי:

The law [i.e. procedure] concerning those to be burned [is as follows]: They would set him into manure up to his knees, and put a stiff scarf inside a soft one, and wrap it around his neck. One would pull [one end] towards him and one would pull [the other end] towards him, until he [who was being executed] opened his mouth. Then [one] would light a wick and throw it into his mouth, and it would descend into his bowels and burn his entrails. Rabbi Yehudah says, if he died by their hands [e.g. were he strangled by the cloth], they would not have fulfilled the commandment of [execution by] burning; rather [the procedure should be carried out as follows]: they open his mouth with pincers by force, and light the wick, and throw it into his mouth, and it would descend into his bowels and burn his entrails. Rabbi Eliezer ben Tzadok said, there was once a priest's daughter who committed adultery; they placed bundles of branches around her and burned her. The [Sages] said to him, [this happened] because the court at that time was not expert.

3 ג

מִצְוַת הַנֶּהֱרָגִים, הָיוּ מַתִּיזִין אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ בְסַיִף כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַמַּלְכוּת עוֹשָׂה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נִוּוּל הוּא זֶה, אֶלָּא מַנִּיחִין אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ עַל הַסַּדָּן וְקוֹצֵץ בְּקוֹפִיץ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין מִיתָה מְנֻוֶּלֶת מִזּוֹ. מִצְוַת הַנֶּחֱנָקִין, הָיוּ מְשַׁקְּעִין אוֹתוֹ בַזֶּבֶל עַד אַרְכֻּבּוֹתָיו וְנוֹתְנִין סוּדָר קָשָׁה לְתוֹךְ הָרַכָּה וְכוֹרֵךְ עַל צַוָּארוֹ, זֶה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֶצְלוֹ וְזֶה מוֹשֵׁךְ אֶצְלוֹ, עַד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ יוֹצְאָה:

The law [i.e. procedure] concerning those to be decapitated [is as follows]: they would cut off his head with a sword as the government does. Rabbi Yehudah says, this is disgraceful; rather [the procedure should be carried out as follows]: they rest his head on a block and cut it with a hatchet. The [Sages] said to him, there is no death more disgraceful than that. The law [i.e. procedure] concerning those to be strangled [is as follows]: They would set him into manure up to his knees, and put a stiff scarf inside a soft one, and wrap it around his neck. One would pull [one end] towards him and one would pull [the other end] towards him, until his soul departed.

4 ד

אֵלּוּ הֵן הַנִּסְקָלִין, הַבָּא עַל הָאֵם, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת הָאָב, וְעַל הַכַּלָּה, וְעַל הַזְּכוּר, וְעַל הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה הַמְבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהַמְגַדֵּף, וְהָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַנּוֹתֵן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ, וּבַעַל אוֹב וְיִדְּעוֹנִי, וְהַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְהַמְקַלֵּל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, וְהַבָּא עַל נַעֲרָה הַמְאֹרָסָה, וְהַמֵּסִית, וְהַמַּדִּיחַ, וְהַמְכַשֵּׁף, וּבֵן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה. הַבָּא עַל הָאֵם, חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם אֵם וּמִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אָב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם הָאֵם בִּלְבָד. הַבָּא עַל אֵשֶׁת אָב חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אָב וּמִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, בֵּין בְּחַיֵּי אָבִיו בֵּין לְאַחַר מִיתַת אָבִיו, בֵּין מִן הָאֵרוּסִין בֵּין מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין. הַבָּא עַל כַּלָּתוֹ, חַיָּב עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם כַּלָּתוֹ וּמִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, בֵּין בְּחַיֵּי בְנוֹ בֵּין לְאַחַר מִיתַת בְּנוֹ, בֵּין מִן הָאֵרוּסִין בֵּין מִן הַנִּשּׂוּאִין. הַבָּא עַל הַזְּכוּר וְעַל הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה הַמְבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה, אִם אָדָם חָטָא, בְּהֵמָה מֶה חָטָאת, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁבָּאת לָאָדָם תַּקָּלָה עַל יָדָהּ, לְפִיכָךְ אָמַר הַכָּתוּב תִּסָּקֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא בְּהֵמָה עוֹבֶרֶת בַּשּׁוּק וְיֹאמְרוּ זוֹ הִיא שֶׁנִּסְקַל פְּלוֹנִי עַל יָדָהּ:

These are [executed by] stoning: [a male] who sleeps with his mother, with the wife of his father, with his daughter-in-law, with a male, [or] with an animal; a woman who causes an animal to sleep with her; the blasphemer; the idolater; one who gives of his children to Molekh [a particular form of idolatry], the ba'al 'ov [necromancer] and yid'oni [soothsayer]; one who desecrates the Sabbath; one who curses his father or mother; one who sleeps with a betrothed maiden; the mesit [one who entices an individual to commit idolatry]; the mediach [one who entices a city to commit idolatry]; the sorcerer; and the wayward and rebellious son. One who sleeps with his mother - [he] is liable [for violating two prohibitions, for the prohibition of sleeping with his] mother and for [the prohibition of sleeping with] his father's wife. Rabbi Yehudah says, he is only liable for [sleeping with] his mother. One who sleeps with his father's wife- [he] is liable for his father's wife and for a married woman, whether [the act occurs] in his father's lifetime or after his father's death, whether [she is his father's wife] through betrothal or through completed marriage. One who sleeps with his daughter-in-law- [he] is liable for his daughter-in-law and for a married woman, whether in his sons's lifetime or after his son's death, whether [she is his son's wife] through betrothal or through completed marriage. One who sleeps with a male or with an animal, or a woman who causes an animal to sleep with her- [even] if a person has sinned, how has the animal sinned [such that it also receives execution by stoning]? Rather, since [the animal] caused a person to commit an offense, Scripture therefore said, [the animal] should be stoned. Another explanation: [the animal is stoned] so that the animal not be passing through the market-place and [lead people to] say, "This is the one that caused so-and-so to be stoned."

5 ה

הַמְגַדֵּף אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּפָרֵשׁ הַשֵּׁם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, בְּכָל יוֹם דָּנִין אֶת הָעֵדִים בְּכִנּוּי יַכֶּה יוֹסֵי אֶת יוֹסֵי. נִגְמַר הַדִּין, לֹא הוֹרְגִים בְּכִנּוּי, אֶלָּא מוֹצִיאִים כָּל אָדָם לַחוּץ וְשׁוֹאֲלִים אֶת הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ אֱמֹר מַה שֶּׁשָּׁמַעְתָּ בְּפֵרוּשׁ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר, וְהַדַּיָּנִים עוֹמְדִין עַל רַגְלֵיהֶן וְקוֹרְעִין וְלֹא מְאַחִין. וְהַשֵּׁנִי אוֹמֵר אַף אֲנִי כָּמוֹהוּ, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי אוֹמֵר אַף אֲנִי כָּמוֹהוּ:

The blasphemer - [he] is not liable until he [explicitly] utters the name [of God]. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korchah said, every day the witnesses testify using a substitute name [in place of the actual Divine Name uttered by the blasphemer]: "May Yossi smite Yossi." Once the verdict has been reached, they would not execute [the defendant] [on the basis of testimony] using a substitute name. Rather, [the judges] send everyone outside, and inquire of the greatest [witness] among them, saying to him: "State explicitly what you heard," and he states [the blasphemy verbatim]. And the judges stand upon their feet and render [their clothing]. And they may not [ever] mend [the rendered clothing]. And the second [witness] says, "I also [heard] like him," and the third [witness] says, "I also [heard] like him."

6 ו

הָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אֶחָד הָעוֹבֵד, וְאֶחָד הַזּוֹבֵחַ, וְאֶחָד הַמְקַטֵּר, וְאֶחָד הַמְנַסֵּךְ, וְאֶחָד הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, וְאֶחָד הַמְקַבְּלוֹ עָלָיו לֶאֱלוֹהַּ, וְהָאוֹמֵר לוֹ אֵלִי אָתָּה. אֲבָל הַמְגַפֵּף וְהַמְנַשֵּׁק וְהַמְכַבֵּד וְהַמְּרַבֵּץ וְהַמַּרְחִיץ, הַסָּךְ, הַמַּלְבִּישׁ וְהַמַּנְעִיל, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. הַנּוֹדֵר בִּשְׁמוֹ וְהַמְקַיֵּם בִּשְׁמוֹ, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. הַפּוֹעֵר עַצְמוֹ לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר, זוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ. הַזּוֹרֵק אֶבֶן לְמַרְקוּלִיס, זוֹ הִיא עֲבוֹדָתוֹ:

The idolator - [this includes the following:] one who worships, sacrifices, offers incense, pours libations, bows, accepts it as a god, and one who says to it, "You are my god." But one who embraces, kisses, sweeps, sprinkles, washes, anoints, dresses, or puts shoes on it, [merely] transgresses a negative commandment [that does not warrant capital punishment]. One who takes a vow in its name or takes an oath in its name [merely] transgresses a negative commandment [that does not warrant capital punishment]. One who relieves himself to Ba'al Be'or [is liable, for] such is its worship. One who throws a stone at Merkulis [is liable, for] such is its worship.

7 ז

הַנּוֹתֵן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּמְסֹר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְיַעֲבִיר בָּאֵשׁ. מָסַר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא הֶעֱבִיר בָּאֵשׁ, הֶעֱבִיר בָּאֵשׁ וְלֹא מָסַר לַמֹּלֶךְ, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב, עַד שֶׁיִּמְסֹר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְיַעֲבִיר בָּאֵשׁ. בַּעַל אוֹב זֶה פִתּוֹם הַמְדַבֵּר מִשֶּׁחְיוֹ, וְיִדְּעוֹנִי זֶה הַמְדַבֵּר בְּפִיו, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִסְקִילָה, וְהַנִּשְׁאָל בָּהֶם בְּאַזְהָרָה:

One who gives of his children to Molekh - he is not liable until he gives over [the child] to Molekh and passes [the child] through the fire. [If he] gave over [the child] to Molekh, but did not pass [the child] through the fire; [or he] passed [the child] through the fire, but did not give [the child] over to Molekh, the man is not liable; [for he is not liable] until he gives over [the child] and passes [the child] through the fire. A ba'al 'ov- this is the magician who [causes the dead] to speak from his armpit; a yid'oni- this is the one who [causes the dead] to speak through his own mouth. These are executed by stoning, and one who consults them is [merely liable for] a negative commandment [that does not warrant capital punishment].

8 ח

הַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, בְּדָבָר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עַל זְדוֹנוֹ כָרֵת וְעַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ חַטָּאת. הַמְקַלֵּל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיְּקַלְּלֵם בַּשֵּׁם. קִלְּלָם בְּכִנּוּי, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְחַיֵּב וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין:

One who desecrates the Sabbath- through an act for which a wanton violation renders him liable to spiritual excision, and a violation in error obligates him [to sacrifice] a sin-offering. One who curses his mother or father- he is not liable unless he curses them using the name [of God]. If he curses them using a substitute name, Rabbi Meir [maintains he is] liable, but the Sages exempt him.

9 ט

הַבָּא עַל נַעֲרָה הַמְאֹרָסָה, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא נַעֲרָה בְתוּלָה מְאֹרָסָה וְהִיא בְבֵית אָבִיהָ. בָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם, הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּסְקִילָה וְהַשֵּׁנִי בְּחֶנֶק:

One who sleeps with a betrothed maiden- he is not liable unless she is a maiden, a virgin, betrothed, and in her father's household. If two sleep with her, the first is [executed] by stoning, and the second is [executed] by strangulation.

10 י

הַמֵּסִית, זֶה הֶדְיוֹט. הַמֵּסִית אֶת הַהֶדְיוֹט, אָמַר לוֹ יֵשׁ יִרְאָה בְמָקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, כָּךְ אוֹכֶלֶת, כָּךְ שׁוֹתָה, כָּךְ מֵטִיבָה, כָּךְ מְרֵעָה. כָּל חַיָּבֵי מִיתוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה אֵין מַכְמִינִין עֲלֵיהֶם, חוּץ מִזּוֹ. אָמַר לִשְׁנַיִם וְהֵן עֵדָיו, מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין וְסוֹקְלִין אוֹתוֹ. אָמַר לְאֶחָד, הוּא אוֹמֵר יֶשׁ לִי חֲבֵרִים רוֹצִים בְּכָךְ. אִם הָיָה עָרוּם וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְדַבֵּר בִּפְנֵיהֶם, מַכְמִינִין לוֹ עֵדִים אֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ אֱמֹר מַה שֶּׁאָמַרְתָּ לִּי בְיִחוּד, וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר לוֹ, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ הֵיאַךְ נַנִּיחַ אֶת אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם וְנֵלֵךְ וְנַעֲבֹד עֵצִים וַאֲבָנִים. אִם חוֹזֵר בּוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה מוּטָב. וְאִם אָמַר כָּךְ הִיא חוֹבָתֵנוּ וְכָךְ יָפֶה לָנוּ, הָעוֹמְדִין מֵאֲחוֹרֵי הַגָּדֵר מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין וְסוֹקְלִין אוֹתוֹ. הָאוֹמֵר אֶעֱבֹד, אֵלֵךְ וְאֶעֱבֹד, נֵלֵךְ וְנַעֲבֹד. אֲזַבֵּחַ, אֵלֵךְ וַאֲזַבֵּחַ, נֵלֵךְ וּנְזַבֵּחַ. אַקְטִיר, אֵלֵךְ וְאַקְטִיר, נֵלֵךְ וְנַקְטִיר. אֲנַסֵּךְ, אֵלֵךְ וַאֲנַסֵּךְ, נֵלֵךְ וּנְנַסֵּךְ. אֶשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, אֵלֵךְ וְאֶשְׁתַּחֲוֶה, נֵלֵךְ וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה. הַמַּדִּיחַ, זֶה הָאוֹמֵר, נֵלֵךְ וְנַעֲבֹד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:

The mesit - this is a layman who entices a layman, saying to him, "There is a deity in such-and-such place; it eats thus, it drinks thus, it does good thus, it does evil thus." [Regarding] all [transgressions that] incur capital punishment in the Torah, we do not conceal [witnesses to coax the defendant into transgressing], except for this one. If he said [i.e. enticed] to two, they are his witnesses, and they bring him to court and stone him. If he said to one, [the witness] says, "I have friends who are interested." If [the mesit] is cunning and cannot speak before them, they conceal witnesses behind the fence, and [the original witness] says to [the mesit], "Say [again] what you said to me in seclusion." [If] this one [the mesit] says it to him, [the witness] says, "How can we forsake our God in Heaven and go and worship wood and stone!" If [the mesit] retracts, all is good [i.e. he is not culpable]. [But] if he says, "This is our obligation and this is good for us," those standing behind the fence bring him to court and stone him. One who says [any of the following is liable as a mesit:], "I will serve"; "I will go and I will serve"; "we will go and we will serve"; "I will sacrifice"; "I will go and I will sacrifice"; "we will go and we will sacrifice"; "I will offer incense"; "I will go and I will offer incense"; "we will go and we will offer incense"; "I will pour libations"; "I will go and I will pour libations"; "we will go and we will pour libations," "I will bow"; "I will go and I will bow"; "we will go and we will bow." The mediach - this is one who says, "We will go and we will worship idols."

11 יא

הַמְכַשֵּׁף הָעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה חַיָּב, וְלֹא הָאוֹחֵז אֶת הָעֵינָיִם. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שְׁנַיִם לוֹקְטִין קִשּׁוּאִין, אֶחָד לוֹקֵט פָּטוּר וְאֶחָד לוֹקֵט חַיָּב, הָעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה חַיָּב, הָאוֹחֵז אֶת הָעֵינַיִם פָּטוּר:

The sorcerer - if he does an act of sorcery, he is liable, but not one who [merely] tricks the eyes. Rabbi Akiva says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua, two people harvesting cucumbers, one harvests and is liable, while the other harvests and is exempt. The one who [gathers the cucumbers through] an act of sorcery is liable, [while] the one who [gathers cucumbers in the natural manner and merely] tricks the eyes is exempt.