4ד׳
1 א

יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ תוֹקְעִים, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. מְשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהוּ תּוֹקְעִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ בֵית דִּין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, לֹא הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי אֶלָּא בְיַבְנֶה בִּלְבָד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֶחָד יַבְנֶה וְאֶחָד כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ בֵית דִּין:

The festival day of Rosh Hashanah which coincided with Shabbat: they would blow [the shofar] in the Temple, but not in the [rest of the] country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai, ordained that they should blow in every place in which there is a court. Rabbi Eleizer said, "Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai only made this ordinance with respect to Yavneh alone." [The Sages] said [back] to him, "It was the same for Yavneh as for any other place in which there was a court."

2 ב

וְעוֹד זֹאת הָיְתָה יְרוּשָׁלַיִם יְתֵרָה עַל יַבְנֶה, שֶׁכָּל עִיר שֶׁהִיא רוֹאָה וְשׁוֹמַעַת וּקְרוֹבָה וִיכוֹלָה לָבֹא, תּוֹקְעִין. וּבְיַבְנֶה לֹא הָיוּ תוֹקְעִין אֶלָּא בְּבֵית דִּין בִּלְבָד:

And also in this [respect], was Jerusalem greater than Yavneh: every city, [whose inhabitants] could see [Jerusalem] and hear [it], and [were] near [to it] and could get to [it], would blow [the shofar]; but in Yavneh, they would not blow [the shofar] except in the court alone.

3 ג

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה הַלּוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שִׁבְעָה, וּבַמְּדִינָה יוֹם אֶחָד. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי שֶׁיְהֵא לוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמְּדִינָה שִׁבְעָה זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְשֶׁיְּהֵא יוֹם הָנֵף כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר:

At first, the palm branch [along with its accompanying species] was held [and waved] in the Temple seven [days, meaning throughout Sukkot], and in [the rest of the] country one day. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai ordained that the palm branch should be held [and waved] in [the rest of] the country seven [days], in commemoration of [what was done in] the Temple; and [also], that the whole day of the henef[the ritual of waving of barley sheaves which thereby permits the consumption of new grain] should be prohibited [regarding eating from the new grain].

4 ד

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין עֵדוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ כָּל הַיּוֹם. פַּעַם אַחַת נִשְׁתַּהוּ הָעֵדִים מִלָּבֹא, וְנִתְקַלְקְלוּ הַלְוִיִּם בַּשִּׁיר. הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מְקַבְּלִין אֶלָּא עַד הַמִּנְחָה. וְאִם בָּאוּ עֵדִים מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה, נוֹהֲגִין אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וּלְמָחָר קֹדֶשׁ. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהוּ מְקַבְּלִין עֵדוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ כָּל הַיּוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, וְעוֹד זֹאת הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ רֹאשׁ בֵּית דִּין בְּכָל מָקוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ הָעֵדִים הוֹלְכִין אֶלָּא לִמְקוֹם הַוָּעַד:

At first, testimony regarding the new moon was received the whole day [on the thirtieth day of Elul which would then become Rosh Hashanah if the testimony was accepted; but as it] once [happened that] the witnesses delayed in coming, and the Levites confounded the Song [of the day at the afternoon sacrifice], it was ordained that witnesses should be admitted only until [the time of] the afternoon sacrifice, and if witnesses came from [the time of] the afternoon sacrifice and onwards, that day and the morrow would be treated with sanctity [as if the first day were also Rosh Hasahnah]. After the destruction of the temple, Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai ordained that testimony regarding the new moon could be received the whole day [of the thirtieth of Elul once again]. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korcha said, "This too did Rabban Yochanan ben Zakai ordain: even if the head of the court would be in any [other] place, the witnesses need not go anywhere [else], but to the place of meeting [of the court]."

5 ה

סֵדֶר בְּרָכוֹת, אוֹמֵר אָבוֹת וּגְבוּרוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם, וְכוֹלֵל מַלְכוּיוֹת עִמָּהֶן, וְאֵינוֹ תוֹקֵעַ. קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם, וְתוֹקֵעַ. זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲבוֹדָה וְהוֹדָאָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אִם אֵינוֹ תוֹקֵעַ לַמַּלְכוּיוֹת, לָמָּה הוּא מַזְכִּיר. אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר אָבוֹת וּגְבוּרוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם, וְכוֹלֵל מַלְכוּיוֹת עִם קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם, וְתוֹקֵעַ. זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲבוֹדָה וְהוֹדָאָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים:

The order of the blessings [to be said during the silent prayer of musaf - the additional prayer service - on Rosh Hashanah is as follows]: one says avot [the first blessing of the silent prayer, which focuses on the forefathers], and gevurot [the second blessing, which focuses on the power of God] and kedushat Hashem [the third blessing, which focuses on the holiness of God], and includes malkhiot‎ [a series of texts relating to the kingship of God] with them, and does not blow [the shofar; then] kedushat hayom [the standard middle blessing, which focuses on the holiness of the day], and [then] he blows; [then] zikhronot [texts relating to the kind remembrance of God to his creatures], and [then] he blows; [then] the ‏shofarot‎ [texts in which the sounding of the shofar is mentioned], and [then] he blows [a third time]; and [then] he says, avodah [the first of the concluding blessings, which focuses on the service to God], and hodaah [the second of the concluding blessings, which focuses on thanksgiving to God], and birkat Kohanim ‏[the blessing given to the congregation by the priests, who are from the tribe of Levi and are responsible for the Temple service] - so says Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri. Rabbi Akiva said [back] to him, "If he does not blow [the shofar after] malkhiot‎, why is it mentioned? Rather, [the proper order is as follows:] ‎ one says avot and gevurot and kedushat Hashem, and [then] includes malkhiot with kedushat hayom, and [then] blows [the shofar; then] zikhronot and [then] he blows; [then] the ‏shofarot‎ and [then] he blows [a third time]; and [then] he says, avodah and hodaah and birkat Kohanim."

6 ו

אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מֵעֲשָׂרָה מַלְכוּיוֹת, מֵעֲשָׂרָה זִכְרוֹנוֹת, מֵעֲשָׂרָה שׁוֹפָרוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, אִם אָמַר שָׁלשׁ שָׁלשׁ מִכֻּלָּן, יָצָא. אֵין מַזְכִּירִין זִכָּרוֹן מַלְכוּת וְשׁוֹפָר שֶׁל פֻּרְעָנוּת. מַתְחִיל בַּתּוֹרָה וּמַשְׁלִים בַּנָּבִיא. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם הִשְׁלִים בַּתּוֹרָה, יָצָא:

We may not have less then ten [verses] of malkhiot‎, ten of zikhronot‎ and ten of shofarot‎‎. Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri says, "If one said three [verses] from each [category], he has fulfilled [his obligation]." We may not mention [verses] of zikaron, malkhut‎, ‎ or shofar, [associated with] calamity. One begins [the set of verses] with [verses] from the Torah and completes [the set] with [verses] from the Prophets." Rabbi Yose says, "It he completes [the set] with [a verse] from the Torah, he has fulfilled [his obligation]."

7 ז

הָעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, הַשֵּׁנִי מַתְקִיעַ. וּבִשְׁעַת הַהַלֵּל, רִאשׁוֹן מַקְרֵא אֶת הַהַלֵּל:

He who [stands] before the reading-desk [to lead the prayers] on the festival of Rosh Hashanah; [it is] the second one [who does so, in order to lead the musaf service,] that leads the blowing [of the shofar; while on a day that Hallel is recited, it is] the first one [who stands before the reading-desk, in order to lead the morning service,] that leads the reading of the Hallel.

8 ח

שׁוֹפָר שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, אֵין מַעֲבִירִין עָלָיו אֶת הַתְּחוּם, וְאֵין מְפַקְּחִין עָלָיו אֶת הַגַּל, לֹא עוֹלִין בְּאִילָן, וְלֹא רוֹכְבִין עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה, וְלֹא שָׁטִין עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין אוֹתוֹ בֵּין בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת, וּבֵין בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מִשּׁוּם לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. אֲבָל אִם רָצָה לִתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם אוֹ יַיִן, יִתֵּן. אֵין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מִלִּתְקוֹעַ, אֲבָל מִתְעַסְּקִין עִמָּהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּלְמְדוּ. וְהַמִּתְעַסֵּק, לֹא יָצָא, וְהַשּׁוֹמֵעַ מִן הַמִּתְעַסֵּק, לֹא יָצָא:

[For the purpose of sounding] the shofar on Rosh Hashanah, we may not go beyond the ‏techum‎ [the area around a person or community within which it is permissible to travel on Shabbat], and we may not excavate it from a heap [of stones], we may not climb a tree, and we may not ride on the back of an animal, and we may not swim over the waters [to get a shofar], and we may not cut it; neither with any thing [that may not be used] on account of a shevut [‏restrictions established by the Sages regarding Shabbat to prevent violation of Torah-level Shabbat prohibitions, and to increase its sanctity], nor with any thing [that may not be used] on account of a of a negative commandment [of the Torah]. But if one wants, he may put water or wine into it. We may not prevent children from blowing, but [on the contrary,] we may occupy ourselves with them until they learn [how to blow the shofar]; one who occupies himself [by blowing the shofar without the intention to fulfill the commandment,] has not [thereby] fulfilled [his obligation], and one who listens [to shofar blows] from one who occupies himself [by blowing the shofar without the intention to fulfill the commandment, also] has not [thereby] fulfilled [his obligation].

9 ט

סֵדֶר תְּקִיעוֹת, שָׁלשׁ, שֶׁל שָׁלשׁ שָׁלשׁ. שִׁעוּר תְּקִיעָה כְּשָׁלשׁ תְּרוּעוֹת. שִׁעוּר תְּרוּעָה כְּשָׁלשׁ יְבָבוֹת. תָּקַע בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּמָשַׁךְ בַּשְּׁנִיָּה כִשְׁתַּיִם, אֵין בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא אֶחָת. מִי שֶׁבֵּרַךְ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַנָּה לוֹ שׁוֹפָר, תּוֹקֵעַ וּמֵרִיעַ וְתוֹקֵעַ שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁשְּׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר חַיָּב, כָּךְ כָּל יָחִיד וְיָחִיד חַיָּב. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר מוֹצִיא אֶת הָרַבִּים יְדֵי חוֹבָתָן:

The order of sounding the shofar is [that] three [sets] of three blows [are sounded] thrice; the required amount [of time] of the tekiah [long uninterrupted blow], is like [that of] three teruot [interrupted blows], and that of each tekiah is like [that of] three short blows [understood to be like sighs or cries]. If one blew the first tekiah, and prolonged the second, [so as to be] like two, he only has one [tekiah credited to him]. He who has blessed [all the blessings] of the musaf prayer, and [only] afterwards [obtained] a shofar, must blow [the sequence of] tekiah, teruah, and tekiah three times. Just like the [prayer leader] is obligated [to recite the prayers of the day for himself], so is every individual obligated [to do so]. Rabban Gamliel says, "The [prayer leader] releases the public from their obligation [by reciting the prayers out loud for them]."