יוֹצֵא דֹפֶן, אֵין יוֹשְׁבִין עָלָיו יְמֵי טֻמְאָה וִימֵי טָהֳרָה, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו קָרְבָּן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה כְיָלוּד. כָּל הַנָּשִׁים מִטַּמְּאוֹת בַּבַּיִת הַחִיצוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ט״ו:י״ט), דָּם יִהְיֶה זֹבָהּ בִּבְשָׂרָהּ. אֲבָל הַזָּב וּבַעַל קֶרִי, אֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִים, עַד שֶׁתֵּצֵא טֻמְאָתָן לַחוּץ:
For a Caesarean section, one does not sit for the days of impurity or the days of purity, and one is not liable to bring a sacrifice on its account. Rabbi Shimon says: it is like one who was birthed [regularly]. All women render impurity [from when the blood is] in the outer chamber, as the verse says (Leviticus 15), "Blood will be her flow within her flesh." But a zav [a male who has certain types of atypical genital discharges, which render him impure] and a ba'al keri [a male who has had a seminal emission but has yet to purify himself by immersion in a mikveh] do not render impurity until their impurity emerges to the outside.
הָיָה אוֹכֵל בַּתְּרוּמָה וְהִרְגִּישׁ שֶׁנִּזְדַּעְזְעוּ אֵבָרָיו, אוֹחֵז בָּאַמָּה וּבוֹלֵעַ אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. וּמְטַמְּאִים בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא, אֲפִלּוּ כְעֵין הַחַרְדָּל וּבְפָחוֹת מִכָּן:
If a man was eating terumah [a portion of a crop given to the priests which can only be consumed by priests or their household] and he felt his limbs tremble violently [i.e. he had a seminal emission], he should hold his member [to prevent the discharge] and swallow the terumah [already in his mouth, since one is forbidden to consume terumah while impure]. And they [the discharges of a zav or a ba'al keri] render impurity in any amount, even the size of a mustard seed, or smaller than that.
תִּינוֹקֶת בַּת יוֹם אֶחָד, מִטַּמְּאָה בְנִדָּה. בַּת עֲשָׂרָה יָמִים, מִטַּמְּאָה בְזִיבָה. תִּינוֹק בֶּן יוֹם אֶחָד, מִטַּמֵּא בְזִיבָה, וּמִטַּמֵּא בִנְגָעִים, וּמִטַּמֵּא בִטְמֵא מֵת, וְזוֹקֵק לְיִבּוּם, וּפוֹטֵר מִן הַיִּבּוּם, וּמַאֲכִיל בַּתְּרוּמָה, וּפוֹסֵל מִן הַתְּרוּמָה, וְנוֹחֵל וּמַנְחִיל. וְהַהוֹרְגוֹ, חַיָּב. וַהֲרֵי הוּא לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ וּלְכָל קְרוֹבָיו כְּחָתָן שָׁלֵם:
A baby girl one day old can become impure as a niddah. At ten days old she can become impure as a zavah [a female who has certain types of atypical genital discharges, distinct from her menses, which render her impure]. A baby boy one day old can become impure as a zav, or impure by having nega'im [diseased patches on skin, clothes, or houses that create impurity], or impure through [contact with] the impurity of a corpse; and he creates a bond for yibum [the obligation to perform Levirate marriage]; and he can exempt one from requiring yibum [i.e. if his father dies, he counts as a son to except any of his uncles from having to do yibum]; and he can feed terumah [i.e. his existence can render terumah permissible to one for whom it was formerly forbidden]; and he can render terumah to be forbidden [to one who was formerly permitted to eat it]; and he can inherit or cause others to inherit [portions of an estate]; and one who kills him is liable [for murder]; and he is thereby fully like a son-in-law to his father and to his mother and for all his relatives.
בַּת שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד, מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת בְּבִיאָה. וְאִם בָּא עָלֶיהָ יָבָם, קְנָאָהּ. וְחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, וּמְטַמְּאָה אֶת בּוֹעֲלָהּ לְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב תַּחְתּוֹן כָּעֶלְיוֹן. נִשֵּׂאת לְכֹהֵן, תֹּאכַל בַּתְּרוּמָה. בָּא עָלֶיהָ אַחַד מִן הַפְּסוּלִים, פְּסָלָהּ מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה. בָּא עָלֶיהָ אַחַד מִכָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה, מוּמָתִין עַל יָדָהּ, וְהִיא פְטוּרָה. פָּחוֹת מִכָּן, כְּנוֹתֵן אֶצְבַּע בָּעָיִן:
A girl three years and one day old can become sanctified [for marriage, i.e. engaged] through intercourse; and if she had relations with a yavam [one obligated to perform leverite marriage], he has acquired her [as his wife]; and one is liable for [having relations with] a married woman on her account [if she is married]; and she renders one who sleeps with her impure [if she is a niddah] such that he renders impure that which he sits upon, the lower [layer of bedding, even if he does not touch it directly], just like the upper [layer of bedding]. If she marries a priest, she can eat terumah. If someone invalid [for the priesthood] had relations with her, she becomes invalid for the priesthood. If any one of the illicit relatives stated in the Torah had relations with her, they are put to death on her account, but she is exempt. If she is younger than that, it is like putting a finger in an eye.
בֶּן תֵּשַׁע שָׁנִים וְיוֹם אֶחָד שֶׁבָּא עַל יְבִמְתּוֹ, קְנָאָהּ. וְאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן גֵּט עַד שֶׁיַּגְדִּיל. וּמִטַּמֵּא בְנִדָּה, לְטַמֵּא מִשְׁכָּב תַּחְתּוֹן כָּעֶלְיוֹן. וּפוֹסֵל וְאֵינוֹ מַאֲכִיל בַּתְּרוּמָה. וּפוֹסֵל אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְנִסְקֶלֶת עַל יָדוֹ. וְאִם בָּא עַל אַחַת מִכָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה, מוּמָתִים עַל יָדוֹ, וְהוּא פָטוּר:
If a boy of nine years and one day has relations with his yevamah [a widow of his childless brother], he acquires her [as his wife]. And he does not [need to] give her a bill of divorce until he grows up. And he can be rendered impure by a niddah, such that he renders impure that which hes sits upon, the lower [layer, even if he does not touch it directly], just as the upper [layer]; and he can render one [with whom he had relations] invalid [from being able eat terumah]; and he cannot feed one terumah [i.e. cause someone to be permitted to eat it on his account]; and he can render an animal invalid from [being able to be sacrificed] upon the alter [i.e. if he had relations with it, that is sufficient to render it invalid as a sacrifice], and it is stoned on his account. And if he had relations with any of the illicit relatives stated in the Torah, they are killed on his account, and he is exempt.
בַּת אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, נְדָרֶיהָ נִבְדָּקִין. בַּת שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, נְדָרֶיהָ קַיָּמִין. וּבוֹדְקִין כָּל שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה. בֶּן שְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, נְדָרָיו נִבְדָּקִים. בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וְיוֹם אֶחָד, נְדָרָיו קַיָּמִין. וּבוֹדְקִין כָּל שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה. קֹדֶם לַזְּמַן הַזֶּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ יוֹדְעִין אָנוּ לְשֵׁם מִי נָדָרְנוּ, לְשֵׁם מִי הִקְדָּשְׁנוּ, אֵין נִדְרֵיהֶם נֶדֶר וְאֵין הֶקְדֵּשָׁן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. לְאַחַר הַזְּמַן הַזֶּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין לְשֶׁם מִי נָדָרְנוּ, לְשֶׁם מִי הִקְדָּשְׁנוּ, נִדְרָן נֶדֶר וְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן הֶקְדֵּשׁ:
Regarding a girl of eleven years and one day, her vows are examined [i.e she is questioned in order to determine if her vows are valid]. At twelve years and one day, her vows stand. And we examine [her vows] for the entire twelfth [year]. Regarding a boy of twelve years and one day, his vows are examined [to determine if they are valid]. At thirteen years and one day, his vows stand. And we examine [his vows] for the entire thirteenth [year]. Prior to this time [i.e. eleven years and one day for a girl and twelve years and one day for a boy], even if they said, "We know in whose name we vowed, and in whose name we sanctified," their vows are not vows and their sanctifications are not sanctified property. After this time, even if they say, "We do not know in whose name we vowed, and in whose name we sanctified," their vows are vows and their sanctifications are santified property.
מָשָׁל מָשְׁלוּ חֲכָמִים בָּאִשָּׁה. פַּגָּה, בֹּחַל וְצֶמֶל. פַּגָּה, עוֹדָהּ תִּינוֹקֶת. בֹּחַל, אֵלּוּ יְמֵי נְעוּרֶיהָ. בָּזוֹ וּבָזוֹ, אָבִיהָ זַכַּאי בִּמְצִיאָתָהּ וּבְמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ וּבַהֲפָרַת נְדָרֶיהָ. צֶמֶל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּגְרָה, שׁוּב אֵין לְאָבִיהָ רְשׁוּת בָּהּ:
The Sages analogized women through a parable: an unripe fig, a fig in its early ripening stage, and a fully ripe fig. An unripe fig [refers to] while she is still a child. A fig in its early ripening stage [refers to] while she is in her adolescence. During this and that [stage], her father is entitled to that which she finds, and to her handiwork, and [the right] to the annulment of her vows. A fully ripe fig [refers to] once she matures, her father has no longer any right over her.
אֵיזֶהוּ סִימָנֶיהָ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲלֶה הַקֶּמֶט תַּחַת הַדָּד. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁיַּטּוּ הַדַּדִּים. בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁתַּשְׁחִיר הַפִּטֹּמֶת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹתֵן יָדוֹ עַל הָעֹקֶץ וְהוּא שׁוֹקֵעַ וְשׁוֹהֶה לַחֲזֹר:
What are her signs [which indicate that she has matured]? Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: once the fold appears beneath the breast. Rabbi Akiva says: once the breasts drop. Ben Azzai says: once the areola darkens. Rabbi Yose says: [when the breasts develop] such that if one puts one's hand on the nipple it sinks and gradually returns.
בַּת עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת, תָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהִיא בַת עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה, וְהִיא אַיְלוֹנִית, לֹא חוֹלֶצֶת וְלֹא מִתְיַבֶּמֶת. בֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת, יָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהוּא בֶן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה, וְהוּא סָרִיס, לֹא חוֹלֵץ וְלֹא מְיַבֵּם, אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, זֶה וָזֶה בְּנֵי שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הַזָּכָר כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל, וְהַנְּקֵבָה כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי, שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה מְמַהֶרֶת לָבֹא לִפְנֵי הָאִישׁ:
A woman of twenty years who did not produce two [pubic] hairs, should bring evidence that she is twenty years old, and she is an aiylonit [a woman with arrested sexual development who cannot bear children]: she does not take part in chalitzah [the ceremony performed as an alternative way to release the widow of childless man from the obligation to wait for Levirate marriage], nor yibum. A man of twenty years who did not produce two [pubic] hairs, should bring evidence that he is twenty years old, and he is a eunuch: he does not take part in chalitzah, nor yibum, according to Beit Hillel. Beit Shammai say: this and that one both [are considered to be infertile if they have not produced hairs] at the age of eighteen. Rabbi Eliezer says: regarding the male it is in accordance with Beit Hillel, and regarding the female it is in accordance with Beit Shammai, since a woman arrives [at maturity] earlier than a man.