3ג׳
1 א

וְאֵלּוּ מְגַלְּחִין בַּמּוֹעֵד, הַבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם, וּמִבֵּית הַשִּׁבְיָה, וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִין, וְהַמְנֻדֶּה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים, וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַל לְחָכָם וְהֻתַּר, וְהַנָּזִיר, וְהַמְּצֹרָע הָעוֹלֶה מִטֻּמְאָתוֹ לְטָהֳרָתוֹ:

And these may shave during the festival: one coming back from a trip abroad, or one coming out from a place of captivity, or coming out of prison, or one excommunicated whom the sages have released. And similarly one who asked a sage [to be released from a vow] and was released, and a nazirite or a leper on emerging from his state of impurity to his state of purification.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ מְכַבְּסִין בַּמּוֹעֵד, הַבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם, וּמִבֵּית הַשִּׁבְיָה, וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְהַמְנֻדֶּה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים, וְכֵן מִי שֶׁנִּשְׁאַל לְחָכָם וְהֻתַּר, מִטְפְּחוֹת הַיָּדַיִם וּמִטְפְּחוֹת הַסַּפָּרִים וּמִטְפְּחוֹת הַסְּפָג, הַזָּבִין וְהַזָּבוֹת וְהַנִּדּוֹת וְהַיּוֹלְדוֹת, וְכָל הָעוֹלִין מִטֻּמְאָה לְטָהֳרָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין. וּשְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם, אֲסוּרִין:

These may launder [their clothes] during the festival: one coming back from a trip abroad, or one coming out from a place of captivity, or coming out of prison, or one excommunicated whom the sages have released. And similarly one who asked a sage [to be released from a vow] and was released. Hand-towels, barber’s towels and bath-towels [may be laundered]. Zavim and zavot, menstruants, and women who have given birth, and anyone going from a state of purity to impurity, are permitted [to launder their clothes]. But everyone else is prohibited.

3 ג

וְאֵלּוּ כּוֹתְבִין בַּמּוֹעֵד, קִדּוּשֵׁי נָשִׁים, גִּטִּין וְשׁוֹבָרִין, דְּיָתֵיקֵי, מַתָּנָה וּפְרוֹזְבּוּלִין, אִגְּרוֹת שׁוּם וְאִגְּרוֹת מָזוֹן, שִׁטְרֵי חֲלִיצָה וּמֵאוּנִים, וְשִׁטְרֵי בֵרוּרִין, וּגְזֵרוֹת בֵּית דִּין, וְאִגְּרוֹת שֶׁל רָשׁוּת:

They may write the following documents during the festival: Betrothal of women [documents], divorce documents and receipts, wills of a dying person, bequests and prosbols; evaluation certificates and orders for support, documents of halitzah and of repudiation [of marriage] and arbitration records; decrees of the court and correspondence.

4 ד

אֵין כּוֹתְבִין שִׁטְרֵי חוֹב בַּמּוֹעֵד. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מַאֲמִינוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַה יֹּאכַל, הֲרֵי זֶה יִכְתֹּב. אֵין כּוֹתְבִין סְפָרִים, תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת, בַּמּוֹעֵד, וְאֵין מַגִּיהִין אוֹת אַחַת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּסֵפֶר (הָעֲזָרָה) עֶזְרָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כּוֹתֵב אָדָם תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת לְעַצְמוֹ, וְטוֹוֶה עַל יְרֵכוֹ תְּכֵלֶת לְצִיצִיתוֹ:

They may not write loan documents during the festival; but if he [the creditor] does not trust him or he does not have food to eat, he may write. They may not write [Torah] scrolls, tefillin and mezuzot during the festival, nor may they correct [even] a single letter, even in the [ancient] Temple-scroll. Rabbi Judah says: a man may write tefillin and mezuzot for himself. And one may spin on his thigh the blue-wool for his fringe.

5 ה

הַקּוֹבֵר אֶת מֵתוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים קֹדֶם לָרֶגֶל, בָּטְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ גְּזֵרַת שִׁבְעָה. שְׁמֹנָה, בָּטְלָה הֵימֶנּוּ גְּזֵרַת שְׁלֹשִׁים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ, שַׁבָּת עוֹלָה וְאֵינָהּ מַפְסֶקֶת, רְגָלִים מַפְסִיקִין וְאֵינָן עוֹלִין:

One who buries his dead three days before a festival, the decrees of shiva are annulled from him; [One he buries his dead] eight days before a festival, the decrees of the shloshim [thirty days] are annulled from him. Because they [the sages] said that Shabbat counts but does not interrupt, while festivals interrupt and do not count.

6 ו

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, עֲצֶרֶת כְּשַׁבָּת. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, כָּרְגָלִים. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא כְדִבְרֵי זֶה וְלֹא כְדִבְרֵי זֶה, אֶלָּא עֲצֶרֶת כָּרְגָלִים, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים כְּשַׁבָּת:

Rabbi Eliezer says: From the time the Temple was destroyed, Atzeret (Shavuot) is like Shabbat. Rabban Gamaliel says: Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are like festivals. The sages say: [the rule is] not according to the words of this one nor that one, rather Atzeret is like the festivals and Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are like Shabbat.

7 ז

אֵין קוֹרְעִין, וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין, וְאֵין מַבְרִין, אֶלָּא קְרוֹבָיו שֶׁל מֵת, וְאֵין מַבְרִין אֶלָּא עַל מִטָּה זְקוּפָה. אֵין מוֹלִיכִין לְבֵית הָאֵבֶל לֹא בְּטַבְלָא וְלֹא בְאִסְקוּטְלָא וְלֹא בְקָנוֹן, אֶלָּא בְסַלִּים. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים בַּמּוֹעֵד, אֲבָל עוֹמְדִין בְּשׁוּרָה וּמְנַחֲמִין וּפוֹטְרִין אֶת הָרַבִּים:

They do not rend [their clothes] or bare [their shoulders], or provide a meal [for the mourners] except for the relatives of the dead. And they do not provide a meal except on an upright couch. They do not bring [food] to the house of mourning on an [ornamental] tray, platter, or flat basket, but in plain baskets. And they do not say the mourners’ blessing during the festival. But they may stand in a row and comfort [the mourners] and [the mourners] may formally dismiss the community. Section one: When one heard that a close relative had died, one would rend whatever clothes they were wearing. Baring the shoulder was also a sign of mourning. The mourner was provided by the community with the first meal after the funeral. On Hol Hamoed only a close relative would perform these practices. Others would not. I should note that today only close relatives do these actions in any case. The circle of mourners was bigger in the Talmudic period. Section two: It was customary to overturn the bed during mourning and then sit on the bed as a sign of mourning. But one does not overturn the bed during Hol Hamoed. This practice fell into disuse sometime after the Talmudic period. Section three: This halakhah is true in all cases. When bringing food to the mourner, they should bring it in plain baskets. A source in the Talmud relates that originally people would use fancy silver and gold vessels, but poor people would be embarrassed that they could not afford such fancy funerals and mourning homes. As a response the rabbis decreed that everyone must bring in a simple vessel. The mourning home is not a place where one should be showing off one’s wealth. Section four: The mourners’ blessing was stated on return from burial. They would stand in a line and comfort the mourner with this blessing. It may have also been recited at other points as well. But it is a public sign of mourning and should not be done on Hol Hamoed. Section five: While the blessing is not recited on Hol Hamoed, burial is. Along with the burial, they may have the formal line of comforters that would accompany the mourners on their way home. The same goes true for the official words that the mourner seems to have said to the comforters, to allow them to go home without accompanying the mourner all the way home.

8 ח

אֵין מַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמִּטָּה בָּרְחוֹב, שֶׁלֹּא לְהַרְגִּיל אֶת הַהֶסְפֵּד, וְלֹא שֶׁל נָשִׁים לְעוֹלָם, מִפְּנֵי הַכָּבוֹד. נָשִׁים בַּמּוֹעֵד מְעַנּוֹת, אֲבָל לֹא מְטַפְּחוֹת. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, הַסְּמוּכוֹת לַמִּטָּה, מְטַפְּחוֹת:

They do not place the bier on the thruway [during the festival] so as not to encourage eulogizing. And the bier of women is never [set down on the thruway] for the sake of propriety. Women may raise a wail during the festival, but not clap [their hands in grief]. Rabbi Ishmael says: those that are close to the bier clap [their hands in grief].

9 ט

בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים, בַּחֲנֻכָּה וּבְפוּרִים, מְעַנּוֹת, וּמְטַפְּחוֹת בָּזֶה וּבָזֶה, אֲבָל לֹא מְקוֹנְנוֹת. נִקְבַּר הַמֵּת, לֹא מְעַנּוֹת וְלֹא מְטַפְּחוֹת. אֵיזֶהוּ עִנּוּי, שֶׁכֻּלָּן עוֹנוֹת כְּאֶחָת. קִינָה, שֶׁאַחַת מְדַבֶּרֶת וְכֻלָּן עוֹנוֹת אַחֲרֶיהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ט), וְלַמֵּדְנָה בְנֹתֵיכֶם נֶהִי, וְאִשָּׁה רְעוּתָהּ קִינָה. אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא הוּא אוֹמֵר (ישעיה כה), בִּלַּע הַמָּוֶת לָנֶצַח, וּמָחָה ה' אֱלֹהִים דִּמְעָה מֵעַל כָּל פָּנִים וְגוֹ':

On Rosh Hodesh, on Hannukah and on Purim they may wail and clap [their hands in grief]. Neither on the former nor on the latter occasions may they offer a lamentation. After the dead has been buried they neither wail nor clap [their hands in grief]. What is meant by wailing? When all wail in unison. What is meant by a lament? When one speaks and all respond after her, as it is said: “And teach your daughters wailing and one another [each] lamentation” (Jeremiah 9:19). But as to the future, it says: “He will destroy death forever, and the Lord God will wipe away the tears from all faces” (Isaiah 25:9).