מַעְיָן שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֹּׁקֶת, פָּסוּל. הֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי שָׂפָה כָל שֶׁהוּא, כָּשֵׁר חוּצָה לָהּ, שֶׁהַמַּעְיָן מְטַהֵר בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא. הֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי בְרֵכָה וְהִפְסִיקוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא כְמִקְוֶה. חָזַר וְהִמְשִׁיכוֹ, פָּסוּל לַזָּבִים וְלַמְצֹרָעִים וּלְקַדֵּשׁ מֵהֶן מֵי חַטָּאת, עַד שֶׁיֵּדַע שֶׁיָּצְאוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים:
Regarding a spring that was led to pass over a [man-made] trough, it [a mikveh filled from its waters] is invalid. If any [even minimal] amount [of water] was led to pass over its edge, it is valid [for immersion] outside of it [anywhere outside of the trough, and even on its edge], since a spring purifies [even] with a minimal amount. If it was led to pass over a pool and [then] it was stopped, it [the spring water in the pool] is thereby [considered to be] like a mikveh [a gathering of water collected by natural means and immersed in for purification]. If one went back and drew it [the spring] to continue [flowing into the pool again], it is invalid for [the purification of] zavim [males who had certain types of atypical genital discharges which render them impure, and who require immersion in naturally flowing water], and for lepers, and to sanctify chatat waters from them [with the ashes of a red heifer, as part of a purification ritual], until the original waters have departed.
הֶעֱבִירוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי סַפְסָל, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא כְמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא כְמִקְוֶה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַטְבִּיל עַל גַּבֵּי הַסַּפְסָל:
If it [the spring] was led to pass over vessels or over a bench, Rabbi Yehuda says: it is thereby [still] as it was [i.e. the status of the spring is unchanged]. Rabbi Yose says: it is thereby like a mikveh, so long as one does not immerse over the bench.
מַעְיָן שֶׁהוּא מָשׁוּךְ כְּנָדָל, רִבָּה עָלָיו וְהִמְשִׁיכוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא כְמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה. הָיָה עוֹמֵד וְרִבָּה עָלָיו וְהִמְשִׁיכוֹ, שָׁוֶה לְמִקְוֶה לְטַהֵר בְּאַשְׁבֹּרֶן, וּלְמַעְיָן לְהַטְבִּיל בּוֹ בְּכָל שֶׁהוּא:
A spring that flows like a centipede [i.e. with many smaller tributaries], if one added [drawn waters] upon it and it continued flowing, it is thereby [still] as it was. If it [the spring's water] was standing, and one added [drawn waters] upon it and it continued flowing, it is equivalent to a mikveh in that it purifies [only] while gathered in one place, and to a spring in that one can immerse [objects] in it in any amount [of water].
כָּל הַיַּמִּים כְּמִקְוֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א), וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל כְּמִקְוֶה. לֹא נֶאֱמַר יַמִּים, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ מִינֵי יַמִּים הַרְבֵּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַיַּמִּים מְטַהֲרִים בְּזוֹחֲלִין, וּפְסוּלִין לַזָּבִין וְלַמְצֹרָעִים, וּלְקַדֵּשׁ מֵהֶם מֵי חַטָּאת:
All the seas are like a mikveh, as the verse says (Genesis 1:10) "And the gathering [literally: mikveh] of water, he called seas," according to Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: the great sea [i.e. the Mediterranean, alone] is like a mikveh; the verse only says "seas" [in the plural] because it contains many types of seas. Rabbi Yose says: all the seas purify [even] when they are flowing, and they are invalid for zavim, and for lepers, and to sanctify chatat waters from them.
הַזּוֹחֲלִין, כְּמַעְיָן. וְהַנּוֹטְפִים, כְּמִקְוֶה. הֵעִיד רַבִּי צָדוֹק עַל הַזּוֹחֲלִין שֶׁרַבּוּ עַל הַנּוֹטְפִים, שֶׁהֵם כְּשֵׁרִים. וְנוֹטְפִים שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן זוֹחֲלִין, סוֹמֵךְ אֲפִלּוּ מַקֵּל, אֲפִלּוּ קָנֶה, אֲפִלּוּ זָב וְזָבָה, יוֹרֵד וְטוֹבֵל, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא מְקַבֵּל טֻמְאָה, אֵין מַזְחִילִין בּוֹ:
Flowing [water] sources are like a spring, and dripping [water] sources are like a mikveh. Rabbi Tzadok testified regarding flowing sources that [their waters] were greater than [those of] dripping sources [in a case where the two became mixed], that they are valid. And regarding a dripping source that was made into a flowing source [i.e. if it was somehow breached], one may put even a stick, or even a reed, or even a zav or a zavah beside it [the breach, in order to seal it off], and one may [then] descend and immerse [as into a mikveh of gathered waters], according to Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yose says: anything which can be rendered impure, one cannot use it to stop the flowing.
גַּל שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ וּבוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, וְנָפַל עַל הָאָדָם וְעַל הַכֵּלִים, טְהוֹרִים. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, טוֹבְלִין וּמַטְבִּילִין. מַטְבִּילִין בַּחֲרִיצִין וּבִנְעָצִים וּבְפַרְסַת הַחֲמוֹר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בַּבִּקְעָה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין בְּחַרְדָּלִית. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁהוּא גוֹדֵר כֵּלִים וְטוֹבֵל בָּהֶם. וְכֵלִים שֶׁגָּדַר בָּהֶם, לֹא הֻטְבְּלוּ:
Regarding a wave which became detached [from the sea], and which contains forty se'ah [a specific unit of volume], if it fell on a person or on vessels, they are pure. Any place which has forty se'ah, one may immerse, and cause [other objects] to be immersed. One may immerse [objects] in trenches, and in ditches, and in the [hollowed out] tracks of donkeys mixed in [and connected, though small openings in the mountainside, to a mikveh containing forty se'ah that is also in] the valley. Beit Shammai say: one may immerse [objects] in runoff streams. Beit Hillel say: one may not immerse in them. And they agree that one can fence-off [the runoff waters] with vessels and immerse in them. And the vessels with which one fenced-off [the runoff waters] were not immersed.