8ח׳
1 א

כָּל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר וְהַיָּחִיד בָּאִים מִן הָאָרֶץ וּמִחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, מִן הֶחָדָשׁ וּמִן הַיָּשָׁן, חוּץ מִן הָעֹמֶר וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִים אֶלָּא מִן הֶחָדָשׁ וּמִן הָאָרֶץ. וְכֻלָּן אֵינָן בָּאִים אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּבְחָר. וְאֵיזֶהוּ מֻבְחָר. מִכְמָס וּמְזוֹנִיחָה, אַלְפָא לַסֹּלֶת. שְׁנִיָּה לָהֶם, חֲפָרַיִם בַּבִּקְעָה. כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָיוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת, אֶלָּא מִכָּאן הָיוּ מְבִיאִים:

All the sacrifices communal or individual may be offered from [produce grown] in the Land [of Israel] or outside the Land, from new [produce] or from the old, except for the omer and the two loaves, which must be offered only from new produce and from [produce grown] in the land. All [offerings] must be offered from the choicest produce. And which is the choicest? That from Michmas and Zanoha are “alpha” for the quality of their fine flour; second to them is Hafaraim in the valley. The [produce of the] whole land was valid, but they used to bring it from these places.

2 ב

אֵין מְבִיאִין לֹא מִבֵּית הַזְּבָלִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הָאִילָן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, נָרָהּ שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה זוֹרְעָהּ קֹדֶם לַפֶּסַח שִׁבְעִים יוֹם, וְהִיא עוֹשָׂה סֹלֶת מְרֻבָּה. כֵּיצַד הוּא בוֹדֵק. הַגִּזְבָּר מַכְנִיס אֶת יָדוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ. עָלָה בָהּ אָבָק, פְּסוּלָה, עַד שֶׁיְּנִיפֶנָּה. וְאִם הִתְלִיעָה, פְּסוּלָה:

One may not bring [grain for menahot] from the produce of a manured field or from an irrigated field or from a field stocked with trees. But if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. How was it prepared? In the first year it was plowed and in the second year it was sown seventy days before Pesah, thus it would produce fine flour in abundance. How was it tested? The temple-treasurer used to thrust his hand into it; if some dust came up in [his hand] it was invalid, until it was sifted [more]. If it had become magotty it is invalid.

3 ג

תְּקוֹעָה, אַלְפָא לַשָּׁמֶן. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, שְׁנִיָּה לָהּ רֶגֶב בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן. כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָיוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת, אֶלָּא מִכָּאן הָיוּ מְבִיאִין. אֵין מְבִיאִין לֹא מִבֵּית הַזְּבָלִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים, וְלֹא מִמַּה שֶּׁנִּזְרַע בֵּינֵיהֶם. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. אֵין מְבִיאִין אַנְפִּיקְנוֹן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל. אֵין מְבִיאִין מִן הַגַּרְגְּרִים שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בַמַּיִם, וְלֹא מִן הַכְּבוּשִׁים, וְלֹא מִן הַשְּׁלוּקִין. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל:

Tekoa is “alpha” first its oil. Abba Saul says: Second to it is Regev, on the other side of the Jordan. The [oil of the] whole land was valid, but they used to bring it only from these places. One may not bring it from a manured field or from an irrigated field or from olive-trees planted in a field sown with seeds, but if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. One may not bring anpakinon, and if one did bring it, it is invalid. One may not bring it from olive-berries which had been soaked in water or preserved or stewed; and if one did bring it, it is invalid.

4 ד

שְׁלשָׁה זֵיתִים, וּבָהֶן שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלשָׁה שְׁמָנִים. הַזַּיִת הָרִאשׁוֹן, מְגַרְגְּרוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַזַּיִת וְכוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְבִיבוֹת הַסַּל. זֶה רִאשׁוֹן. טָעַן בְּקוֹרָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּאֲבָנִים. זֶה שֵׁנִי. חָזַר וְטָחַן וְטָעַן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמְּנוֹרָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר לַמְּנָחוֹת. הַזַּיִת הַשֵּׁנִי מְגַרְגְּרוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג, וְכוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְבִיבוֹת הַסַּל, זֶה רִאשׁוֹן. טָעַן בְּקוֹרָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּאֲבָנִים, זֶה שֵׁנִי. חָזַר וְטָחַן וְטָעַן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמְּנוֹרָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר לַמְּנָחוֹת. הַזַּיִת הַשְּׁלִישִׁי, עוֹטְנוֹ בְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת עַד שֶׁיִּלְקֶה, וּמַעֲלֵהוּ וּמְנַגְּבוֹ בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג, וְכוֹתֵשׁ וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַסַּל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְבִיבוֹת הַסַּל, זֶה רִאשׁוֹן. טָעַן בְּקוֹרָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּאֲבָנִים, זֶה שֵׁנִי. חָזַר וְטָחַן וְטָעַן, זֶה שְׁלִישִׁי. הָרִאשׁוֹן לַמְּנוֹרָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר לַמְּנָחוֹת:

There are three [periods of gathering in the] olives and each crop gives three kinds of oil. The first crop of olives is when the olives are picked from the top of the tree; they are pounded and put into the basket. Rabbi Judah says: around the basket. This gives the first oil. They are then pressed with the beam Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This gives the second oil. They are then ground and pressed again. This gives the third oil. The first [oil] is fit for the candlestick and the others for menahot. The second crop is when the olives at roof-level are picked from the tree; they are pounded and put into the basket. Rabbi Judah says: around the basket. This gives the first oil. They are then pressed with the beam Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This gives the second oil. They are then ground and pressed again. This gives the third oil. The first [oil] is fit for the candlestick and the others for menahot. The third crop is when the last olives of the tree are packed inside the house until they become overripe; they are then taken up and dried on the roof they are pounded and put into the basket. Rabbi Judah says: around the basket. This gives the first oil. They are then pressed with the beam Rabbi Judah says: with stones. This gives the second oil. They are then ground and pressed again. This gives the third oil. The first [oil] is fit for the candlestick and the others for menahot.

5 ה

הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבָּרִאשׁוֹן, אֵין לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנּוּ. הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבָּרִאשׁוֹן וְהָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי, שָׁוִין. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבָּרִאשׁוֹן וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי וְהָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁבַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, שָׁוִין. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי וְהַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁבַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, שָׁוִין. הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁבַּשְּׁלִישִׁי, אֵין לְמַטָּה מִמֶּנּוּ. אַף הַמְּנָחוֹת הָיוּ בַדִּין שֶׁיִּטָּעֲנוּ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ. מָה אִם הַמְּנוֹרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ לַאֲכִילָה, טְעוּנָה שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ, הַמְּנָחוֹת, שֶׁהֵן לַאֲכִילָה, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁיִּטָּעֲנוּ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זַךְ. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (שמות כז), זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר, וְלֹא זַךְ כָּתִית לַמְּנָחוֹת:

The first oil of the first crop, there is none better than it. The second oil of the first crop and the first oil of the second crop are equal. The third oil of the first crop, the second oil of the second crop and the first oil of the third crop are equal. The third oil of the second crop and the second oil of the third crop are equal. As to the third oil of the third crop, there is none worse than it. It would have been logical by the following argument that menahot should also require the purest olive oil: if the candlestick, whose [oil] is not for eating, requires pure olive oil, how much more should menahot, whose oil is for eating, require pure olive oil! But the text states, “Pure olive oil of beaten olives for lighting” (Exodus 27:20), but not “pure olive oil of beaten olives for menahot.”

6 ו

וּמִנַּיִן הָיוּ מְבִיאִין אֶת הַיַּיִן. קְרוּתִים וְהַטּוּלִים, אַלְפָא לַיָּיִן. שְׁנִיָּה לָהֶן, בֵּית רִמָּה וּבֵית לָבָן בָּהָר, וּכְפַר סִגְנָה בַבִּקְעָה. כָּל הָאֲרָצוֹת הָיוּ כְשֵׁרוֹת, אֶלָּא מִכָּאן הָיוּ מְבִיאִין. אֵין מְבִיאִין, לֹא מִבֵּית הַזְּבָלִים, וְלֹא מִבֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִין, וְלֹא מִמַּה שֶּׁנִּזְרַע בֵּינֵיהֶן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. אֵין מְבִיאִין אִלְיוּסְטָן. וְאִם הֵבִיא, כָּשֵׁר. אֵין מְבִיאִין יָשָׁן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי. וַחֲכָמִים מַכְשִׁירִין. אֵין מְבִיאִין, לֹא מָתוֹק, וְלֹא מְעֻשָּׁן, וְלֹא מְבֻשָּׁל. וְאִם הֵבִיא, פָּסוּל. אֵין מְבִיאִין מִן הַדָּלִיּוֹת, אֶלָּא מִן הָרוֹגְלִיּוֹת וּמִן הַכְּרָמִים הָעֲבוּדִים:

From where did they bring the wine? Keruhim and Attulim rank are alpha their wine. Second to them are Bet Rimmah and Bet Lavan on the mountain and Kefar Signa in the valley. [Wine of the] whole land was valid but they used to bring it only from these places. One may not bring it from a manured field or from an irrigated field or from vines planted in a field sown with seeds; but if one did bring it [from these] it was valid. One may not bring wine from sun-dried grapes, but if one did bring it, it was valid. One may not bring old wine, the words of Rabbi. But the sages permit it. One may not bring sweet wine or smoked wine or cooked wine, and if one did bring it, it was invalid. One may not bring wine from grapes suspended [on reeds], but only from the vines growing close to the ground and from well-cultivated vineyards.

7 ז

לֹא הָיוּ כוֹנְסִים אוֹתוֹ בַחֲצָבִים גְּדוֹלִים, אֶלָּא בְחָבִיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת. וְאֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הֶחָבִיּוֹת עַד פִּיהֶם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף. אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא, לֹא מִפִּיהָ, מִפְּנֵי הַקְּמָחִין. וְלֹא מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁמָרִים. אֶלָּא מֵבִיא מִשְּׁלִישָׁהּ וּמֵאֶמְצָעָהּ. כֵּיצַד הוּא בוֹדֵק, הַגִּזְבָּר יוֹשֵׁב וְהַקָּנֶה בְיָדוֹ, זָרַק אֶת הַגִּיד וְהִקִּישׁ בַּקָּנֶה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יַיִן שֶׁעָלָה בוֹ קְמָחִין, פָּסוּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, תְּמִימִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם וּמִנְחָתָם (במדבר כח), תְּמִימִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם (שם):

They did not put [the wine] in large casks but in small barrels. And one did not fill the barrels to the brim so that its scent might spread. One may not take the wine at the mouth of the barrel because of the scum, nor that at the bottom because of the lees; but one should take it only from the third or the middle of the barrel. How was it tested? The temple-treasurer used to sit nearby with his stick in his hand; when the froth burst forth he would knock with his stick. Rabbi Yose bar Judah says: wine on which there is a scum is invalid, for it is written, “They shall be for you without blemish, and their minhah,” and “They shall be for you without blemish, and their libations” (Numbers 28:19-20,.