כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת בָּאוֹת מַצָּה, חוּץ מֵחָמֵץ שֶׁבַּתּוֹדָה וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, שֶׁהֵן בָּאוֹת חָמֵץ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, שְׂאֹר בּוֹדֶה לָהֶן מִתּוֹכָן וּמְחַמְּצָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הִיא אֵינָהּ מִן הַמֻּבְחָר, אֶלָּא מֵבִיא אֶת הַשְּׂאֹר, וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ הַמִּדָּה, וּמְמַלֵּא אֶת הַמִּדָּה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַף הִיא הָיְתָה חֲסֵרָה אוֹ יְתֵרָה: All the meal offerings come to be offered as matza, with care taken to prevent leavening, except for ten loaves of leavened bread among the forty loaves that accompany the thanks offering, and the meal offering of the two loaves that are brought on the festival of Shavuot, as they come to be offered as leavened bread. The Sages disagree as to the manner in which those meal offerings are leavened. Rabbi Meir says: With regard to the leaven added to the dough to facilitate leavening, one separates [bodeh] part of the flour for the meal offerings from within the flour of the meal offerings themselves, causes it to become leaven, and leavens the meal offerings with it. Rabbi Yehuda says: That is also not the optimal manner in which to fulfill the mitzva, as aged leaven is a more effective leavening agent. Rather, one brings the leaven from another, aged, dough and places it into the measuring vessel, and then he adds flour until he fills the measuring vessel, to ensure the appropriate measure of a tenth of an ephah of flour. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yehuda: That too is inappropriate, as in that manner the meal offering will either be lacking the requisite measure or be greater than the required measure, as the Gemara will explain.
כָּל הַמְּנָחוֹת נִלּוֹשׁוֹת בְּפוֹשְׁרִין, וּמְשַׁמְּרָן שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲמִיצוּ. וְאִם הֶחֱמִיצוּ שְׁיָרֶיהָ, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ב), כָּל הַמִּנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַה' לֹא תֵעָשֶׂה חָמֵץ. וְחַיָּבִים עַל לִישָׁתָהּ, וְעַל עֲרִיכָתָהּ, וְעַל אֲפִיָּתָהּ: All the meal-offerings that come as matza are to be kneaded with lukewarm water so that the dough will bake well, as only a small amount of oil is added. And one must watch over them to ensure that they do not become leaven while kneading and shaping them, and if a meal offering or even only its remainder becomes leaven, one violates a prohibition, as it is stated: “No meal offering that you shall bring to the Lord shall be made with leaven; as you shall burn no leaven nor any honey as an offering made by fire to the Lord” (Leviticus 2:11). And one is liable to be flogged for kneading the meal offering, and for shaping it, and for baking it, if the meal offering becomes leaven.
יֵשׁ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה, לְבוֹנָה וְלֹא שֶׁמֶן, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה. וְאֵלּוּ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, וְהַמַּחֲבַת, וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהַחַלּוֹת, וְהָרְקִיקִין, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, וּמִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, וּמִנְחַת גּוֹיִם, וּמִנְחַת נָשִׁים, וּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר. מִנְחַת נְסָכִין טְעוּנָה שֶׁמֶן, וְאֵין טְעוּנָה לְבוֹנָה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים טָעוּן לְבוֹנָה, וְאֵין טָעוּן שָׁמֶן. שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה: There are four types of meal offerings: Those that require both oil and frankincense, those that require oil but not frankincense, those that require frankincense but not oil, and those that require neither frankincense nor oil. The mishna elaborates: And these are the meal offerings that require both oil and frankincense: The fine-flour meal offering, as it is stated: “And he shall pour oil upon it, and put frankincense thereon” (Leviticus 2:1); the meal offering prepared in a pan (see Leviticus 2:5–6); the meal offering prepared in a deep pan (see Leviticus 2:7–10); and the meal offering baked in an oven, which can be brought in the form of loaves or in the form of wafers (see Leviticus 2:4). Additional meal offerings that require both oil and frankincense are the meal offering of priests; the meal offering of the anointed priest, i.e., the griddle-cake offering brought by the High Priest every day, half in the morning and half in the evening; the meal offering of a gentile; a meal offering brought by women; and the omer meal offering (see Leviticus 23:15). The meal offering brought with libations that accompany burnt offerings and peace offerings requires oil but does not require frankincense. The shewbread requires frankincense but does not require oil. The two loaves brought on the festival of Shavuot (see Leviticus 23:17), the meal offering of a sinner, and the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota require neither oil nor frankincense. The two loaves do not require oil or frankincense because these additions are not mentioned with regard to it. The meal offering of a sinner does not require them, as it is written: “He shall not put oil upon it, neither shall he give any frankincense upon it; for it is a sin offering” (Leviticus 5:11). With regard to the meal offering brought by a sota, it is similarly written: “He shall pour no oil upon it, nor give frankincense upon it, for it is a meal offering of jealousy, a meal offering of memorial, bringing iniquity to remembrance” (Numbers 5:15).
וְחַיָּב עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְעַל הַלְּבוֹנָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. נָתַן עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן, פְּסָלָהּ. לְבוֹנָה, יִלְקְטֶנָּה. נָתַן שֶׁמֶן עַל שְׁיָרֶיהָ, אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. נָתַן כְּלִי עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי, לֹא פְסָלָהּ: And if one places oil or frankincense on the meal offering of a sinner or on the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota, he is liable to be flogged for violating the prohibition against placing the oil by itself, and he is liable to be flogged for violating the prohibition against placing the frankincense by itself, as these are two separate prohibitions. If one placed oil upon the meal offering he has disqualified it, but if one placed frankincense upon the meal offering he should gather the frankincense and remove it. In this manner, the meal offering can be salvaged. Furthermore, one violates the prohibition only by placing oil on the meal offering prior to the removal of the handful; if he placed oil on its remainder he does not violate a prohibition. If one placed a vessel with oil on top of a vessel that contains a meal offering of a sinner or a meal offering brought by a sota he did not disqualify the meal offering, as the oil was not placed on the meal offering itself.
יֵשׁ טְעוּנוֹת הַגָּשָׁה וְאֵינָן טְעוּנוֹת תְּנוּפָה, תְּנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה, הַגָּשָׁה וּתְנוּפָה, לֹא תְנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה. אֵלּוּ טְעוּנוֹת הַגָּשָׁה וְאֵינָן טְעוּנוֹת תְּנוּפָה, מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, וְהַמַּחֲבַת, וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהַחַלּוֹת, וְהָרְקִיקִין, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, מִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, מִנְחַת גּוֹיִם, מִנְחַת נָשִׁים, מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, מִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, אֵין בָּהֶן הַגָּשָׁה, מִפְנֵי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן קְמִיצָה. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן קְמִיצָה, אֵין בָּהֶן הַגָּשָׁה: There are four categories of meal offerings: Those that require bringing near, a rite that requires the priests to carry the offering in their hands and bring it near the southwest corner of the altar, but do not require waving; those that require both bringing near and waving; those that require waving but not bringing near; and those that require neither waving nor bringing near. The mishna elaborates: And these are the meal offerings that require bringing near but do not require waving: The fine-flour meal offering; the meal offering prepared in a pan; the meal offering prepared in a deep pan; the meal offering baked in an oven, which can be brought in the form of loaves or in the form of wafers; the meal offering of priests; the meal offering of the anointed priest; the meal offering of gentiles; a meal offering brought by women; and the meal offering of a sinner. Rabbi Shimon says: The meal offering of priests and the meal offering of the anointed priest do not require bringing of the meal offering near to the altar, due to the fact that there is no removal of a handful in their sacrifice, and there is a principle that with regard to any meal offering where there is no removal of a handful in their sacrifice, there is also no bringing near.
אֵלּוּ טְעוּנִין תְּנוּפָה וְאֵין טְעוּנִין הַגָּשָׁה, לֹג שֶׁמֶן שֶׁל מְצֹרָע וַאֲשָׁמוֹ, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים כְּדִבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב, וְאֵמוּרֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד וְחָזֶה וָשׁוֹק שֶׁלָּהֶן, אֶחָד אֲנָשִׁים, וְאֶחָד נָשִׁים, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל אֲבָל לֹא בַאֲחֵרִים, וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, וּשְׁנֵי כִבְשֵׂי עֲצָרֶת. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם עַל גַּבֵּי שְׁנֵי כְבָשִׂים, וּמַנִּיחַ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו מִלְּמַטָּן, מוֹלִיךְ וּמֵבִיא, מַעֲלֶה וּמוֹרִיד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כט), אֲשֶׁר הוּנַף וַאֲשֶׁר הוּרָם. תְּנוּפָה הָיְתָה בַמִּזְרָח, וְהַגָּשָׁה בַּמַּעֲרָב. וּתְנוּפוֹת קוֹדְמוֹת לְהַגָּשׁוֹת. מִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת, טְעוּנוֹת תְּנוּפָה וְהַגָּשָׁה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים וּמִנְחַת נְסָכִים, לֹא תְנוּפָה וְלֹא הַגָּשָׁה: These are the items that require waving and do not require bringing near to the altar: The log of oil that accompanies the guilt offering of a recovered leper and his guilt offering itself, as it is written: “And the priest shall take one of the lambs and sacrifice it for a guilt offering, and the log of oil, and wave them for a wave offering before the Lord” (Leviticus 14:12); and the first fruits, in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov; and the sacrificial portions of the peace offerings of an individual and their breast and thigh, as it is written: “The thigh of heaving and the breast of waving shall they bring with the offerings of the portions consumed by fire, to wave it for a wave offering before the Lord” (Leviticus 10:15). This requirement applies to peace offerings belonging both to men and to women, by male Jews and not by others. The Gemara will explain this seemingly contradictory statement on 61b. In addition, the two loaves and the accompanying peace offering of two lambs brought on Shavuot also do not require bringing near but do require waving, as it is written: “And the priest shall wave them with the bread of the first fruits for a wave offering before the Lord, with the two lambs” (Leviticus 23:20). How does one perform this waving? He places the two loaves on top of the two lambs and places his two hands below the loaves and the lambs, extends the offerings to each of the four directions and brings them back, then raises and lowers them, as it is stated with regard to the waving of the ram of the inauguration of the priests: “Which is waved, and which is heaved up” (Exodus 29:27); i.e., waved back and forth, and heaved up and down. Waving was able to be performed to the east of the altar, but the bringing near of meal offerings had to be done to the west, i.e., the southwest corner of the altar. Also, with regard to all meal offerings, the wavings precede the actions of bringing near. The omer meal offering and the meal offering of jealousy brought by a sota require both bringing near and waving. The meal offering of the omer requires waving, as it is written: “And he shall wave the omer before the Lord” (Leviticus 23:11), and likewise with regard to the meal offering brought by a sota it is written: “And the priest shall take the meal offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand and shall wave the meal offering before the Lord” (Numbers 5:25). The requirement of bringing near is derived as explained earlier. The shewbread and the meal offering brought with libations require neither bringing near nor waving.
רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה מִינִים טְעוּנִים שָׁלשׁ מִצְוֹת, שְׁתַּיִם בְּכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית אֵין בָּהֶן. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד, וְזִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר, וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע. זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד, טְעוּנִים סְמִיכָה חַיִּים, וּתְנוּפָה שְׁחוּטִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶם תְּנוּפָה חַיִּים. זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר, טְעוּנִים תְּנוּפָה חַיִּים וּשְׁחוּטִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶן סְמִיכָה. וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, טָעוּן סְמִיכָה וּתְנוּפָה חַי, וְאֵין בּוֹ תְנוּפָה שָׁחוּט: Rabbi Shimon says: There are three types of offerings that require performance of three mitzvot. Two mitzvot are performed on each and every one of them, but the third mitzva is not performed in their sacrifice, meaning that each of these offerings requires two out of the same three mitzvot, but not necessarily the same two as the others. And these are the three offerings: Peace offerings brought as gift offerings by an individual, communal peace offerings, i.e., the two lambs brought with the two loaves on Shavuot, and the guilt offering of a leper (see Leviticus 14:12–14). Peace offerings brought by individuals require placing hands on the head of the animals while the animals are still alive, and waving when they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of waving them while they are alive. Communal peace offerings require waving both while the animals are still alive and after they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of placing hands on them. And the guilt offering of a leper requires placing hands and waving while the animal is still alive, but there is no obligation of waving it after it is slaughtered.
הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי בְּמַחֲבַת, לֹא יָבִיא בְמַרְחֶשֶׁת. בְּמַרְחֶשֶׁת, לֹא יָבִיא בְמַחֲבָת. וּמַה בֵּין מַחֲבַת לְמַרְחֶשֶׁת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת יֶשׁ לָהּ כִּסּוּי, וְהַמַּחֲבַת אֵין לָהּ כִּסּוּי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי. רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מַרְחֶשֶׁת עֲמֻקָּה וּמַעֲשֶׂיהָ רוֹחֲשִׁים, וּמַחֲבַת צָפָה וּמַעֲשֶׂיהָ קָשִׁים: One who takes a vow to bring a meal offering to the Temple and says: It is incumbent upon me to bring a meal offering prepared in a maḥavat, may not bring one prepared in a marḥeshet. Similarly, if he says: It is incumbent upon me to bring a meal offering prepared in a marḥeshet, he may not bring one prepared in a maḥavat. The mishna clarifies: What is the difference between a maḥavat and a marḥeshet? A marḥeshet has a cover, whereas a maḥavat does not have a cover; this is the statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel says: A marḥeshet is deep, and due to the large amount of oil, its product is soft because it moves about [roḥashin] in the oil. A maḥavat is flat, as the sides of the pan are level with the pan, and due to the small amount of oil, its product is hard.
הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי בַּתַּנּוּר, לֹא יָבִיא מַאֲפֵה כֻפָּח וּמַאֲפֵה רְעָפִים וּמַאֲפֵה יוֹרוֹת הָעַרְבִיִּים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא מַאֲפֵה כֻפָּח. הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחַת מַאֲפֶה, לֹא יָבִיא מֶחֱצָה חַלּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה רְקִיקִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קָרְבָּן אֶחָד: If one says: It is incumbent upon me to bring a meal offering baked in an oven, he may not bring a meal offering baked on a small oven [kupaḥ], nor a meal offering baked on roofing tiles, nor a meal offering baked in the baking pits of the Arabs. Rabbi Yehuda says: If he so wishes, he may bring a meal offering baked on a kupaḥ. If one says: It is incumbent upon me to bring a baked meal offering, without specifying loaves or wafers, he may not bring half the required offering in the form of loaves and the other half in the form of wafers; rather, they must all be of one form or the other. Rabbi Shimon deems this permitted, due to the fact that both loaves and wafers are written with regard to this meal offering, which indicates that it is one offering of two possible forms.