13י״ג
1 א

הֲרֵי עָלַי עִשָּׂרוֹן, יָבִיא אֶחָד. עֶשְׂרוֹנִים, יָבִיא שְׁנָיִם. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן. הֲרֵי עָלַי מִנְחָה, יָבִיא אֵיזוֹ שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יָבִיא מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, שֶׁהִיא מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁבַּמְּנָחוֹת:

[One who says], “I take upon myself to bring a tenth,” he must bring one [tenth]. “Tenths,” he must bring two [tenths]. [If he said,] “I specified [a certain number of tenths] but I do not know what number I specified,” he must bring sixty tenths [If he said,] “I take upon myself to bring a minhah,” he may bring whichever kind he chooses. Rabbi Judah says: he must bring a minhah of fine flour, for that is the distinctive [one] among the menahot.

2 ב

מִנְחָה, מִין הַמִּנְחָה, יָבִיא אֶחָת. מְנָחוֹת, מִין הַמְּנָחוֹת, יָבִיא שְׁתָּיִם. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא חֲמִשְׁתָּן. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי מִנְחָה שֶׁל עֶשְׂרוֹנִים וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא מִנְחָה שֶׁל שִׁשִּׁים עִשָּׂרוֹן. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, יָבִיא מְנָחוֹת שֶׁל עֶשְׂרוֹנִים מֵאֶחָד וְעַד שִׁשִּׁים:

[If he said] “A minhah” or “a kind of minhah,” he may bring one [of any kind]. [If he said] “Menahot” or “A kind from menahot,” he must bring two [of any one kind]. [If he said,] “I specified [a certain kind], but I do not know what kind I specified,” he must bring the five kinds. [If he said,] “I specified a minhah of [a certain number of] tenths but I do not know what number I specified,” he must bring sixty tenths. But Rabbi says, he must bring menahot [of every number] of tenths from one to sixty.

3 ג

הֲרֵי עָלַי עֵצִים, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁנֵי גְזִירִין. לְבוֹנָה, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִקֹּמֶץ. חֲמִשָּׁה קֳמָצִים הֵן, הָאוֹמֵר הֲרֵי עָלַי לְבוֹנָה, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִקֹּמֶץ. הַמִּתְנַדֵּב מִנְחָה, יָבִיא עִמָּהּ קֹמֶץ לְבוֹנָה. הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶת הַקֹּמֶץ בַּחוּץ, חַיָּב. וּשְׁנֵי בְזִיכִין טְעוּנִין שְׁנֵי קֳמָצִים:

[If one said,] “I take upon myself to bring [pieces of] wood,” he must bring not less than two logs. “Frankincense,” he must bring not less than a handful. There are five cases of [not less than] a handful: One who says, “I take upon myself to bring frankincense,” he must bring not less than a handful. One who voluntarily offered a minhah must bring a handful of frankincense with it. One who offered up the handful outside [the Temp] is liable. The two dishes [of frankincense] require two handfuls.

4 ד

הֲרֵי עָלַי זָהָב, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִדִּינַר זָהָב. כֶּסֶף, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִדִּינַר כָּסֶף. נְחשֶׁת, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִמָּעָה כָסֶף. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, הוּא מֵבִיא עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לֹא לְכָךְ נִתְכַּוָּנְתִּי:

“I take upon myself to offer gold,” he must bring not less than a golden denar. “Silver,” he must bring not less than a silver denar. “Copper,” he must bring not less than [the value of] a silver maah. [If he said] “I specified [how much I would bring] but I do not know what I specified,” he must bring until he says, “I certainly did not intend to give so much!”

5 ה

הֲרֵי עָלַי יַיִן, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִשְּׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין. שֶׁמֶן, לֹא יִפְחֹת מִלֹּג. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא כַיּוֹם הַמְּרֻבֶּה:

[If one said,] “I take upon myself to bring wine,” he must bring not less than three logs. “Oil,” he must bring not less than one log; Rabbi says: not less than three logs. [If one said,] “I specified [how much I would offer] but I do not know how much I specified,” he must bring that quantity which is the most that is brought on any one day.

6 ו

הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה, יָבִיא כֶבֶשׂ. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, אוֹ תוֹר אוֹ בֶן יוֹנָה. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי מִן הַבָּקָר וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פַר וָעֵגֶל. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פָר וָעֵגֶל אַיִל גְּדִי וְטָלֶה. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, מוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹר וּבֶן יוֹנָה:

[If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer an olah,” he must bring a lamb. Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah say: [he may bring] a turtle-dove or a young pigeon. [If he said,] “I specified a beast of the herd but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull and a calf. [If he said, “I specified] a beast of the cattle but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull, a bull calf, a ram, a he-goat, a he-kid, and a he-lamb. [If he said,] “I specified [some kind] but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must add to these a turtle-dove and a young pigeon.

7 ז

הֲרֵי עָלַי תּוֹדָה, וּשְׁלָמִים, יָבִיא כֶבֶשׂ. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי מִן הַבָּקָר וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פָר וּפָרָה עֵגֶל וְעֶגְלָה. מִן הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, יָבִיא פַר וּפָרָה, עֵגֶל וְעֶגְלָה, אַיִל וְרָחֵל, גְּדִי וּגְדִיָּה, שָׂעִיר וּשְׂעִירָה, טָלֶה וְטַלְיָה:

[If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer a todah or a shelamim,” he must bring a lamb. [If he said,] “I specified a beast of the herd but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull and a cow, a bull calf and a heifer. [If he said, “I specified] a beast of the cattle but I do not know what it was I specified,” he must bring a bull and a cow, a bull calf and a heifer, a ram and a ewe, a he-goat and a she-goat, a he-kid and a she-kid, a he-lamb and a ewe-lamb.

8 ח

הֲרֵי עָלַי שׁוֹר, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בְּמָנֶה. עֵגֶל, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בְּחָמֵשׁ. אַיִל, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בִּשְׁתַּיִם. כֶּבֶשׂ, יָבִיא הוּא וּנְסָכָיו בְּסָלַע. שׁוֹר בְּמָנֶה, יָבִיא בְמָנֶה חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. עֵגֶל בְּחָמֵשׁ, יָבִיא בְחָמֵשׁ חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. אַיִל בִּשְׁתַּיִם, יָבִיא בִשְׁתַּיִם חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. כֶּבֶשׂ בְּסֶלַע, יָבִיא בְסֶלַע חוּץ מִנְּסָכָיו. שׁוֹר בְּמָנֶה וְהֵבִיא שְׁנַיִם בְּמָנֶה, לֹא יָצָא, אֲפִלּוּ זֶה בְמָנֶה חָסֵר דִּינָר וְזֶה בְמָנֶה חָסֵר דִּינָר. שָׁחוֹר וְהֵבִיא לָבָן, לָבָן וְהֵבִיא שָׁחוֹר, גָּדוֹל וְהֵבִיא קָטָן, לֹא יָצָא. קָטָן וְהֵבִיא גָדוֹל, יָצָא. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, לֹא יָצָא:

[If he said,] “I take upon myself to offer an ox,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of a maneh. “A calf,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of five selas. “A ram,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of two selas. “A lamb,” he must bring one with its drink-offerings to the value of one sela. If he said “An ox valued at one maneh,” he must bring one worth a maneh apart from its drink-offerings. “A calf valued at five selas,” he must bring one worth five selas apart from its drink-offerings. “A ram valued at two selas,” he must bring one worth two selas apart from its drink-offerings. “A lamb valued at one sela,” he must bring one worth one sela apart from its drink-offerings. [If he said, “I take upon myself to offer] an ox valued at a maneh,” and he brought two together worth a maneh, he has not fulfilled his obligation, even if one was worth a maneh less one denar and the other also was worth a maneh less one denar. [If he said] “A black one” and he brought a white one, or “a white one” and he brought a black one, or “a large one” and he brought a small one, he has not fulfilled his obligation. [If he said] “a small one” and he brought a large one, he has fulfilled his obligation; Rabbi says: he has not fulfilled his obligation.

9 ט

שׁוֹר זֶה עוֹלָה, וְנִסְתָּאֵב, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בְדָמָיו שְׁנָיִם. שְׁנֵי שְׁוָרִים אֵלּוּ עוֹלָה, וְנִסְתָּאֲבוּ, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בִדְמֵיהֶם אֶחָד. רַבִּי אוֹסֵר. אַיִל זֶה עוֹלָה, וְנִסְתָּאֵב, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בְדָמָיו כֶּבֶשׂ. כֶּבֶשׂ זֶה עוֹלָה וְנִסְתָּאֵב, אִם רָצָה, יָבִיא בְדָמָיו אַיִל. רַבִּי אוֹסֵר. הָאוֹמֵר אַחַד מִכְּבָשַׂי הֶקְדֵּשׁ, וְאַחַד מִשְּׁוָרַי הֶקְדֵּשׁ, הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנַיִם, הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. שְׁלשָׁה, הַבֵּינוֹנִי שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ. פֵּרַשְׁתִּי וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מַה פֵּרַשְׁתִּי, אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר, אָמַר לִי אַבָּא וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ מָה, הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁבָּהֶן הֶקְדֵּשׁ:

[If one said,] “This ox shall be an olah,” and it becomes blemished, he may, if he so desires, bring two with its price. [If he said,] “These two oxen are for an olah,” and they become blemished, he may, if he so desires, bring one ox with their price. But Rabbi forbids it. [If he said,] “This ram shall be an olah,” and it becomes blemished, he may, if he so desires, bring a lamb with its price. [If he said,] “This lamb shall be an olah,” and it becomes blemished, he may, if he so desires, bring a ram with its price thereof. But Rabbi forbids it. One who says, “One of my lambs shall be holy,” or “one of my oxen shall be holy,” and he had only two, the larger one is holy. If he had three, the middle one is holy. [If he said,] “I specified one but I do not know which it was I specified,” or [if he said,] “My father told me [that he had specified one] but I do not know which it is,” the largest one among them must be holy.

10 י

הֲרֵי עָלַי עוֹלָה, יַקְרִיבֶנָּה בַמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָהּ בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, לֹא יָצָא. שֶׁאַקְרִיבֶנָּה בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יַקְרִיבֶנָּה בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם הִקְרִיבָהּ בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יָצָא. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵין זוֹ עוֹלָה. הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר, יְגַלַּח בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם גִּלַּח בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, לֹא יָצָא. שֶׁאֲגַלַּח בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יְגַלַּח בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. וְאִם גִּלַּח בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, יָצָא. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵין זֶה נָזִיר. הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בְּבֵית חוֹנְיוֹ, לֹא יְשַׁמְּשׁוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְדָבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב כג), אַךְ לֹא יַעֲלוּ כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֶל מִזְבַּח ה' בִּירוּשָׁלָיִם כִי אִם אָכְלוּ מַצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵיהֶם, הֲרֵי הֵם כְּבַעֲלֵי מוּמִין, חוֹלְקִין וְאוֹכְלִין, אֲבָל לֹא מַקְרִיבִין:

[If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer an olah,” he must offer it in the Temple. And if he offered it in the Temple of Onias, he has not fulfilled his obligation. [If one said,] “I take upon myself to offer an olah but I will offer it in the Temple of Onias,” he must offer it in the Temple, yet if he offered it in the Temple of Onias he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Shimon says: this is not an olah. [If one said,] “I will be a nazirite,” he must bring his offerings and shave his hair in the Temple. And if he brought them and shaved his hair in the Temple of Onias he has not fulfilled his obligation. [If he said,] “I will be a nazirite but I will bring my offerings and shave my hair in the Temple of Onias,” he must bring them in the Temple, yet if he brought them and shaved his hair in the Temple of Onias he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Shimon says: such a one is not a nazirite. The priests who served in the Temple of Onias may not serve in the Temple in Jerusalem; and needless to say [this is so of priests who served] something else; for it is said, “The priests of the shrines, however, did not ascend the altar of the Lord in Jerusalem. But they did eat unleavened bread along with their kinsmen” (II Kings 23:9). Thus they are like those that had a blemish: they are entitled to share and eat [of the holy things] but they are not permitted to offer sacrifices.

11 יא

נֶאֱמַר בְּעוֹלַת הַבְּהֵמָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ (ויקרא א), וּבְעוֹלַת הָעוֹף אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ (שם), וּבַמִּנְחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ (שם ב), לְלַמֵּד, שֶׁאֶחָד הַמַּרְבֶּה וְאֶחָד הַמַּמְעִיט, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּכַוֵּן אָדָם אֶת דַּעְתּוֹ לַשָּׁמָיִם:

It is said of the olah of cattle, “An offering made by fire of pleasing odor” (Leviticus 1:9); and of the olah of birds, “An offering made by fire of pleasing odor (vs. 17); and of the minhah, “An offering made by fire of pleasing odor” (Leviticus 2:2): to teach you that it is the same whether one offers much or little, so long as one directs one’s heart to heaven. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Menahot! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. It is no accident that the last mishnah of the tractate finishes with the message that we learned today. After having learned 14 chapters of Zevahim and 13 chapters of Menahot, there is a grave danger that one could learn that all God cares about, and all that is important in Judaism, is bringing the proper sacrifice in the proper manner. Our mishnah teaches that the important issue is the proper intent, that one’s intent in sacrifice should be to worship God. This is not to deny that that the minutiae of rules are extremely important, both in the eyes of the rabbis and surely in the eyes of the priests who served in the Temple while it still stood. Rather, what today’s mishnah seems to say is that the rules are an outer manifestation of the inner kavannah, intent, of the worshipper. Without following the rules, there is no way to bring that intent into the world. But without the intent, the rules are just empty exercises devoid of meaning. I believe that this is a message that is as true of Judaism today as it was in Temple times. Mishnah Menahot has probably been a great challenge for many of you; I know it was for me. So please accept an extra congratulations on completing it. Tomorrow we begin Hullin, the one tractate in all of Seder Kodashim that does not deal with sacrifices or the Temple.