3ג׳
1 א

וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַלּוֹקִין, הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו, וְעַל הַנִּדָּה, אַלְמָנָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט, מַמְזֶרֶת וּנְתִינָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנָתִין וּלְמַמְזֵר. אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה, חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִשּׁוּם שְׁנֵי שֵׁמוֹת. גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא מִשֵּׁם אֶחָד בִּלְבָד:

In the following cases the punishment received is forty lashes: If one cohabitates with his sister, his father's sister, his mother's sister, wife's siter, his brother's wife, the wife of the father's brother, a woman during her menstrual cycle, a High Priest [cohabitates] with a widow, a common priest with a divorced woman or a woman who had chalitza performed on her, a mamzeret [an offspring from a prohibited union] or a netina [member of a caste of Temple servants, historically descended from the Gibeonites] to [cohabtates with]an ordinary Jew, a Jewish woman to [cohabitates with] a natin or a mamzer

2 ב

הַטָּמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא אֶל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, וְהָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, וְנוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, וְטָמֵא, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַחוּץ, וְהָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, וְהָאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת, שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים. אָכַל טֶבֶל וּמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. כַּמָּה יֹאכַל מִן הַטֶּבֶל וִיהֵא חַיָּב, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים כַּזַּיִת. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, אֵין אַתֶּם מוֹדִים לִי בְּאוֹכֵל נְמָלָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כִבְרִיָּתָהּ. אָמַר לָהֶן, אַף חִטָּה אַחַת כִּבְרִיָּתָהּ:

A ritually impure individual who eats sanctified property, one who enters the temple while ritually impure, one who eats forbidden fats, blood [from an animal], notar [meat from sacrifices which have been left over after their permitted eating period], pigul [sacrifices d0ne with invalidating intentions), ritually impure [sacrifices], one who slaughters [sacrifices] or one offers them up outside [the temple], one who eats chamets [leavened grain products] on Passover, and one who eats or does work on Yom Kippur, one who manufactures the [anointing] oil, and one who manufactures the incense [used in the temple], one who anoints using the anointing oil, one who eats nevelah [improperly slaughtered animals] or treifah [an animal which will die within a year], insects and crawling creatures. One who eats tevel (produce which is yet to be appropriately tithed), or maaser rishon [the first tithe] which has not yet had its trumah (the portion which is given to a priest) separated, or maaser sheini [the second tithe] or sanctified property which have not been redeemed. How much must one eat from tevel in order to be culpable? R' Shimon says "any amount", and the Sages say "the size of an olive". R' Shimon said to them, "Do you not agree that one who eats an ant as it is is culpable?" They said to him, "That is because it is an entire creation by itself." He [R' Shimon] said to them, "One wheat grain is also a entire creation".

3 ג

הָאוֹכֵל בִּכּוּרִים עַד שֶׁלֹּא קָרָא עֲלֵיהֶן, קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים חוּץ לַקְּלָעִים, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי חוּץ לַחוֹמָה, הַשּׁוֹבֵר אֶת הַעֶצֶם בַּפֶּסַח הַטָּהוֹר, הֲרֵי זֶה לוֹקֶה אַרְבָּעִים. אֲבָל הַמּוֹתִיר בַּטָּהוֹר וְהַשּׁוֹבֵר בַּטָּמֵא, אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה אַרְבָּעִים:

One who eats first fruits before he has read [the mandated verses of [Bikkurim] on them, sacrifices [ Kodshei Kodashim] with higher sanctity outside the curtains [of the temple], sacrifices with standard sanctity [ Kodashim Kalim] or the second tithe outside the wall [of Jerusalem], One who breaks the bones of a ritually pure Passover sacrifice, one who does [any of] these is incurs forty [lashes]. But one who leaves over a pure [Passover sacrifice] until morning and one who breaks the bones of an impure [Passover sacrifice] does not incur forty [lashes].

4 ד

הַנּוֹטֵל אֵם עַל הַבָּנִים, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּחַ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְשַׁלֵּחַ וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ קוּם עֲשֵׂה, אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ:

One who takes a mother [bird] from her chicks, R' Yehuda says, "He incurs lashes and does not need to send [the mother bird away]." And the sages say, "He sends [the mother bird away] and does not incur lashes." This is the rule: Any negative commandment that has a [positive] "go and do" [aspect to it], one is not culpable for [violating] it [by being punished with lashes].

5 ה

הַקּוֹרֵחַ קָרְחָה בְרֹאשׁוֹ, וְהַמַּקִּיף פְּאַת רֹאשׁוֹ, וְהַמַּשְׁחִית פְּאַת זְקָנוֹ, וְהַשּׂוֹרֵט שְׂרִיטָה אַחַת עַל הַמֵּת, חַיָּב. שָׂרַט שְׂרִיטָה אַחַת עַל חֲמִשָּׁה מֵתִים אוֹ חָמֵשׁ שְׂרִיטוֹת עַל מֵת אֶחָד, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. עַל הָרֹאשׁ, שְׁתַּיִם, אַחַת מִכָּאן וְאַחַת מִכָּאן. עַל הַזָּקָן, שְׁתַּיִם מִכָּאן וּשְׁתַּיִם מִכָּאן וְאַחַת מִלְּמָטָּה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אִם נְטָלוֹ כֻלּוֹ כְאַחַת, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּטְּלֶנּוּ בְתָעַר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ לִקְּטוֹ בְמַלְקֵט אוֹ בִרְהִיטְנִי, חַיָּב:

One who balds his head, one who cuts the [hair] encircling the corners of his head, one who destroys the corners of his beard, and one who cuts [even] one cut [on himself] because of [mourning for] the dead, he is liable [for lashes]. If he made one cut because of [mourning for] five dead people, or five cuts because of [mourning for] one dead person, he is liable for each one. [For cutting] on his head, [he is liable] twice, one for one side and one for the other side [both sides of the head]. [For destroying] his beard, [he is liable] two for one side here and two for the other side and one at the bottom [the various corners of the face]. Rabbi Eliezer says, "If they all were taken off in one [motion], he is only liable for one." And he is only liable for taking them off with a straight razor. Rabbi Eliezer says, "Even with tweezers or pincers, he is liable.

6 ו

הַכּוֹתֵב כְּתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע, כָּתַב וְלֹא קִעֲקַע, קִעֲקַע וְלֹא כָתַב, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב, עַד שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב וִיקַעֲקֵעַ בִּדְיוֹ וּבִכְחֹל וּבְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רוֹשֵׁם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוּדָה מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּכְתּוֹב שָׁם הַשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט) וּכְתֹבֶת קַעֲקַע לֹא תִתְּנוּ בָּכֶם אֲנִי ה':

One who tatoos: If he writes without engraving, or he engraves without writing, he is not liable for lashes, until he writes and engraves with ink or pigment or anything that leaves an impression. Rebbi Shimon ben Yehudah said in the name of Rebbi Shimon [bar Yochai]: He is not liable until he writes a name [of idolatry] there. As it says (Vayikra 19): "Do not tatoo yourself, for I am G-d."

7 ז

נָזִיר שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹתֶה בַיַּיִן כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תִּשְׁתֶּה אַל תִּשְׁתֶּה וְהוּא שׁוֹתֶה, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת:

A Nazirite who drinks wine every day is only liable for one. If they said to him, "Don't drink! Don't drink!" and he drank, he is liable for each and every one.

8 ח

הָיָה מִטַּמֵּא לְמֵתִים כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תִּטַּמֵּא, אַל תִּטַּמֵּא, וְהָיָה מִטַּמֵּא, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. הָיָה מְגַלֵּחַ כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תְּגַלֵּחַ אַל תְּגַלֵּחַ וְהוּא מְגַלֵּחַ, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. הָיָה לָבוּשׁ בְּכִלְאַיִם כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אֶחָת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַל תִּלְבָּשׁ אַל תִּלְבָּשׁ וְהוּא פוֹשֵׁט וְלוֹבֵשׁ, חַיָּב עַל כָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת:

If he [a nazir] made himself impure [by coming in contact with a corpse] all day, he is only liable for one [transgression]. If they said to him, "Don't become impure! Don't become impure!" and he became impure, he is liable for each and every one [warning]. If he cut his hair all day, he is only liable for one[transgression]. If they said to him, "Don't cut [your hair]! Don't cut [your hair]!" and he cut, he is liable for each and every one [warning]. If one wore shaatnez [clothes made from wool and linen woven together] all day, he is only liable for one [transgression]. If they said to him, "Don't wear! Don't wear!" and he undressed and dressed, he is liable for each and every one [warning].

9 ט

יֵשׁ חוֹרֵשׁ תֶּלֶם אֶחָד וְחַיָּב עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם שְׁמֹנָה לָאוִין, הַחוֹרֵשׁ בְּשׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר, וְהֵן מֻקְדָּשִׁים, בְּכִלְאַיִם בַּכֶּרֶם, וּבַשְּׁבִיעִית, וְיוֹם טוֹב, וְכֹהֵן וְנָזִיר בְּבֵית הַטֻּמְאָה. חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן חֲכִינַאי אוֹמֵר, אַף הַלּוֹבֵשׁ כִּלְאָיִם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵינוֹ הַשֵּׁם. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף לֹא הַנָּזִיר הוּא הַשֵּׁם:

There is [the possibility that one could] plow only one furrow and become liable [on that account] for eight prohibited acts: [This is the case where] one (1) plows with an ox and a donkey [yoked together] (in violation of Deuteronomy 22:10) (2 and 3) that are [two animals] dedicated to the sanctuary, (4) [plowing] mixed seeds [sown] in a vineyard (in violation of Deuteronomy 22:9), (5) during a Sabbatical year (in violation of Leviticus 25:4), (6) on a Festival-day (in violation of, for example, Leviticus 23:7), (7) [when the plower is] a priest (in violation of Leviticus 21:1) (8) and a Nazirite (in violation of Numbers 6:6) plowing in a contaminated place. Chananya ben Chachinai says: Also he may have been wearing [while plowing] a garment of mixed [wool and linen] fabrics (in violation of Leviticus 19:19 and Deuteronomy 22:11). They said to him: This is not in the same category [as the other violations]. He said to them: Neither is the Nazirite in the same category [as the other violations].

10 י

כַּמָּה מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, אַרְבָּעִים חָסֵר אַחַת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה) בְּמִסְפָּר אַרְבָּעִים, מִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְאַרְבָּעִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַרְבָּעִים שְׁלֵמוֹת הוּא לוֹקֶה. וְהֵיכָן הוּא לוֹקֶה אֶת הַיְתֵרָה, בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו:

How many lashes does one incur? Forty minus one [thirty nine] As the verse says "...by number. Forty..." (Deuteronomy 25:2-3) [the] number that immediately precedes [the number] forty. R' Yehuda says "[he is lashed with] a total of forty lashes". And where is the extra lash administered? Between his shoulders.

11 יא

אֵין אוֹמְדִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְמַכּוֹת הָרְאוּיוֹת לְהִשְׁתַּלֵּשׁ. אֲמָדוּהוּ לְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים, לָקָה מִקְצָת וְאָמְרוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים, פָּטוּר. אֲמָדוּהוּ לְקַבֵּל שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה, מִשֶּׁלָּקָה אָמְרוּ שֶׁיָּכוֹל הוּא לְקַבֵּל אַרְבָּעִים, פָּטוּר. עָבַר עֲבֵרָה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ שְׁנֵי לָאוִין, אֲמָדוּהוּ אֹמֶד אֶחָד, לוֹקֶה וּפָטוּר. וְאִם לָאו, לוֹקֶה וּמִתְרַפֵּא וְחוֹזֵר וְלוֹקֶה:

[When we assess how many lashes he can take,] we only assess him with lashes that can be divided in thirds. [If] they assessed him to be able to receive forty [lashes], and they gave him some of the lashes and then they said "he is unable to receive forty", he is exempt [from the rest]. [If] they assessed him to be able to receive eighteen and after they lashed him [the eighteen] they said "he is able to receive forty", he is exempt [from receiving any more]. [If] he transgressed a transgression that involved two violations [each of which he'd be culpable forty lashes] and they gave him one assessment [for both], he gets lashed and is exempt [from receiving any more]. And if not [they only assessed him for one violation], he is lashed, allowed to heal, returns and is lashed [again].

12 יב

כֵּיצַד מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, כּוֹפֵת שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל הָעַמּוּד הֵילָךְ וְהֵילָךְ, וְחַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹחֵז בִּבְגָדָיו, אִם נִקְרְעוּ נִקְרָעוּ, וְאִם נִפְרְמוּ נִפְרָמוּ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ. וְהָאֶבֶן נְתוּנָה מֵאַחֲרָיו, חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת עוֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ. וּרְצוּעָה שֶׁל עֵגֶל בְּיָדוֹ, כְּפוּלָה אֶחָד לִשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁנַיִם לְאַרְבָּעָה, וּשְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת עוֹלוֹת וְיוֹרְדוֹת בָּהּ:

How do they lash him? His two hands are bound on each side of the column and the administer grabs [ pulling them away from the area to be lashed] If they [the clothing] are torn, they are torn [so be it] and if they become unstitched, they are unstitched [so be it], until his heart [chest] is uncovered. And a stone is placed behind him, and the administrator stands on it. And a strap of calfskin is in his hand, doubled over once into two [straps] and a second time into four [straps] and there are two [other] straps going up and down with it.

13 יג

יָדָהּ טֶפַח וְרָחְבָּהּ טֶפַח, וְרֹאשָׁהּ מַגַּעַת עַל פִּי כְרֵסוֹ. וּמַכֶּה אוֹתוֹ שְׁלִישׁ מִלְּפָנָיו וּשְׁתֵּי יָדוֹת מִלְּאַחֲרָיו. וְאֵינוֹ מַכֶּה אוֹתוֹ לֹא עוֹמֵד וְלֹא יוֹשֵׁב אֶלָּא מֻטֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה) וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט. וְהַמַּכֶּה מַכֶּה בְיָדוֹ אַחַת בְּכָל כֹּחוֹ:

The [strap's] handle is a hand-breadth [long] and it [the strap] is a handbreadth wide and its tip reaches to the mouth [beginning] of his stomach. And he lashes him one third [of the lashes] in his front and two thirds on his back. He lashes him neither standing nor sitting rather leaning over, as the verse says, "and the judge shall cause him to lie"(Deuteronomy 25:2). And the one who hits [the administrator] hits with one hand and with all his strength.

14 יד

וְהַקּוֹרֵא קוֹרֵא (שם כח) אִם לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת וְגוֹ' וְהִפְלָא ה' אֶת מַכֹּתְךָ וְאֵת מַכּוֹת וְגוֹ', וְחוֹזֵר לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא (שם כט) וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת וְגוֹ', וְחוֹתֵם (תהלים עח) וְהוּא רַחוּם יְכַפֵּר עָוֹן וְגוֹ', וְחוֹזֵר לִתְחִלַּת הַמִּקְרָא. וְאִם מֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ, פָּטוּר. הוֹסִיף לוֹ עוֹד רְצוּעָה אַחַת וָמֵת, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה עַל יָדוֹ. נִתְקַלְקֵל בֵּין בְּרֶעִי בֵּין בְּמַיִם, פָּטוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָאִישׁ בְּרֶעִי וְהָאִשָּׁה בְּמָיִם:

The reader would read, "If you do not keep the commandments... God will increase your beatings and the beatings of your children..."(Deuteronomy 28:58-59) and (if he finished) he would go back [repeat] to the beginning of the verses. "And you shall keep the words of this covenant" (Deuteronomy 29:9) and he concludes "The all-merciful one who forgives sin...(Psalms 78:38) and if he finishes he goes back to the beginning. If he [the one being lashed] died at his hand [while being lashed], the administrator is not responsible for his death. If the administrator added an extra strap [lash to the assessment] and he died, he[the administrator] is sent into exile. If he [the one being lashed] soiled himself with excrement or urine he [the administrator] is exempt from further lashes. Rabbi Yehuda says, the man [is only exempt if he soils himself] with excrement, but a woman [is exempt even if she soils herself] with urine.

15 טו

כָּל חַיָּבֵי כְרֵתוֹת שֶׁלָּקוּ, נִפְטְרוּ יְדֵי כְרֵתָתָן, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (דברים כה) וְנִקְלָה אָחִיךָ לְעֵינֶיךָ, כְּשֶׁלָּקָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְאָחִיךָ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מָה אִם הָעוֹבֵר עֲבֵרָה אַחַת, נוֹטֵל נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ, הָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה אַחַת, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁתִּנָּתֵן לוֹ נַפְשׁוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מִמְּקוֹמוֹ הוּא לָמֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יח) וְנִכְרְתוּ הַנְּפָשׁוֹת הָעֹשֹׂת וְגוֹ', וְאוֹמֵר (שם) אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם. הָא, כָּל הַיּוֹשֵׁב וְלֹא עָבַר עֲבֵרָה, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ שָׂכָר כְּעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (דברים יב) רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְגוֹ', וּמָה אִם הַדָּם שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָצָה מִמֶּנּוּ, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר, גָּזֵל וַעֲרָיוֹת שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מִתְאַוָּה לָהֶן וּמְחַמַּדְתָּן, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מֵהֶן עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה לוֹ וּלְדוֹרוֹתָיו וּלְדוֹרוֹת דּוֹרוֹתָיו עַד סוֹף כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת:

A man who transgressed a sin whose punishment is karet [punishment by premature death] but received lashes, is absolved from karet, as the verse states "And your brother will be demeaned before you, (Deuteronomy 25:3)" once he has been demeaned he becomes like your brother, so says Rabbi Chanania ben Gamliel. Rabbi Chanania ben Gamliel also stated: If someone could lose their life for committing just one sin, one who keeps one commandment, how much more so his life will be rewarded to him. Rabbi Shimon says, We [do not need the kal vachomer to learn this] can learn it from its place [context], as it says "They [the person performing incest] will have their soul cut off" (Leviticus 18:5) and it says [at the beginning of the verse "Which man shall carry out and by which he shall live." From this [we learn] that whoever just sits and commit no sin, is given a reward like the one who fulfilled a commandment. Rabbi Shimon bar Rebbi says, the verse states "Be strong to not eat blood because blood is the life force." (Deuteronomy 12:23) Now, if blood, which a person is naturally disgusted by, one who refrains from eating it receives a reward, one who refrains from stealing and illicit relationships, which one craves lusts for , how much more so he will earn merit for him and the generations after him till the end of time.

16 טז

רַבִּי חֲנַנְיָא בֶּן עֲקַשְׁיָא אוֹמֵר, רָצָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְזַכּוֹת אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, לְפִיכָךְ הִרְבָּה לָהֶם תּוֹרָה וּמִצְוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מב) יְיָ חָפֵץ לְמַעַן צִדְקוֹ יַגְדִּיל תּוֹרָה וְיַאְדִּיר:

Rabbi Chananaia son of Akashia stated, God wanted to grant merits to Israel, therefore he gave them many laws and commandments as it states, "Because God wants righteousness he increased the amount of Torah and splendor." (Isaiah 42:21).