2ב׳
1 א

אֵלּוּ הֵן הַגּוֹלִין, הַהוֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה. הָיָה מְעַגֵּל בְּמַעְגִּילָה וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה מְשַׁלְשֵׁל בְּחָבִית וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה יוֹרֵד בְּסֻלָּם וְנָפַל עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מוֹשֵׁךְ בְּמַעְגִּילָה וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה דוֹלֶה בְחָבִית וְנִפְסַק הַחֶבֶל וְנָפְלָה עָלָיו וַהֲרָגַתּוּ, הָיָה עוֹלֶה בְסֻלָּם וְנָפַל עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁבְּדֶרֶךְ יְרִידָתוֹ, גּוֹלֶה. וְשֶׁלֹּא בְדֶרֶךְ יְרִידָתוֹ, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. נִשְׁמַט הַבַּרְזֶל מִקַּתּוֹ וְהָרַג, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, גּוֹלֶה. מִן הָעֵץ הַמִּתְבַּקֵּעַ, רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, גּוֹלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה:

The following are exiled [to the Ir Miklat]: one who kills a peron accidentally. If he was pushing a roller [on a roof] and it fell on him[a bystander] and killed him, or if he was lowering a barrel [from a roof] and it fell and killed him [a bystander], or if he was descending a ladder and he fell and killed him[a bystander], all of these cases he [the killer] is exiled. However, if he was pulling a roller and it fell and killed the person, or if he was raising a barrel and the rope tore and it fell and killed a person, or if he was climbing a ladder and he fell and killed a person, in these cases he [the killer] would not exiled. This is the principle: If the killer was involved in a downward movement , he is exiled. If it is not a downward movement he is not exiled. If the blade came off the handle and killed, Rebbi says he is not exiled but the Sages say he is exiled. If it came from the wood being chopped, Rebbi says he is exiled but the Sages say he is not exiled.

2 ב

הַזּוֹרֵק אֶבֶן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהָרַג, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹלֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אִם מִכְּשֶׁיָּצְאתָה הָאֶבֶן מִיָּדוֹ הוֹצִיא הַלָּז אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ וְקִבְּלָהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה פָטוּר. זָרַק אֶת הָאֶבֶן לַחֲצֵרוֹ וְהָרַג, אִם יֵשׁ רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם, גּוֹלֶה. וְאִם לָאו, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) וַאֲשֶׁר יָבֹא אֶת רֵעֵהוּ בַיַּעַר, מַה הַיַּעַר רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק וְלַמַּזִּיק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם, יָצָא חֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁאֵין רְשׁוּת לַנִּזָּק וְלַמַּזִּיק לִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, מַה חֲטָבַת עֵצִים רְשׁוּת, יָצָא הָאָב הַמַּכֶּה אֶת בְּנוֹ, וְהָרַב הָרוֹדֶה אֶת תַּלְמִידוֹ, וּשְׁלִיחַ בֵּית דִּין:

One who throws a rock into the public domain and it kills someone, he is exiled. Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: if the person stuck his head into the public domain only after the stone left his [the killer's] hand, he is exempt. If he threw the stone into his courtyard and it killed, if the victim had permission to be there, he is exiled, but if he did not have permission, he is not exiled, as it says, "If he comes upon his fellow in the woods..." (Deuteronomy 19:5). Just as the woods is open to both the victim and the perpetrator to enter there, this excludes a privately owned courtyard where both the victim (and the perpetrator) does not have permission to be there. Aba Shaul says: Just as chopping wood is optional, [so too one is only exiled for optional activities] this excludes a father beating his son, a teacher disciplining his student, and the messenger of the courts.

3 ג

הָאָב גּוֹלֶה עַל יְדֵי הַבֵּן, וְהַבֵּן גּוֹלֶה עַל יְדֵי הָאָב. הַכֹּל גּוֹלִין עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹלִין עַל יְדֵיהֶן, חוּץ מֵעַל יְדֵי גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב. הַסּוּמָא אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, גּוֹלֶה. הַשּׂוֹנֵא אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַשּׂוֹנֵא נֶהֱרָג, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְמוּעָד. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ שׂוֹנֵא גוֹלֶה וְיֵשׁ שׂוֹנֵא שֶׁאֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְדַעַת הָרַג, אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעַת הָרַג, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹלֶה:

A father can be exiled on account of (killing his) son and a son can be exiled on account of (killing his) father. All are exiled on account of (killing) an Israelite and an Israelite is exiled on account of (killing) them, except for a resident alien. A resident alien is only exiled on account of (killing) a resident alien. A blind person is not exiled, these are the words of Rabbi Yehudah. Rabbi Meir says he (a blind person is) exiled. A known enemy is not exiled. Rabbi Yose bar Yehuda says: a known enemy is killed because he is as one who is habitual. Rabbi Shimon says: some known enemies are exiled and some are not exiled. This is the general rule: anyone who we can say that he killed with intent is not exiled. If he killed without intent, he is exiled.

4 ד

לְהֵיכָן גּוֹלִין, לְעָרֵי מִקְלָט. לַשָּׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְלַשָּׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) אֵת שְׁלשׁ הֶעָרִים תִּתְּנוּ מֵעֵבֶר לַיַּרְדֵּן וְאֵת שְׁלשׁ הֶעָרִים תִּתְּנוּ בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וְגוֹ'. עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִבְחֲרוּ שָׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, לֹא הָיוּ שָׁלשׁ שֶׁבְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן קוֹלְטוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) שֵׁשׁ עָרֵי מִקְלָט תִּהְיֶינָה, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שֶׁשְׁתָּן קוֹלְטוֹת כְּאֶחָד:

To where are they exiled? To the cities of refuge: Three on the east side of the Jordan River and three in the land of Canaan, as it says, "Give three cities on this side of the Jordan and give three cities in the land of Canaan." (Numbers 35:14) Until the three were chosen in the land of Canaan, the three on the east side of the Jordan did not absorb [protect], as it says, "These six cities" (Numbers 35:15), until all six can absorb at the same time.

5 ה

וּמְכֻוָּנוֹת לָהֶן דְּרָכִים מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) תָּכִין לְךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ וְשִׁלַּשְׁתָּ וְגוֹ'. וּמוֹסְרִין לָהֶן שְׁנֵי תַלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים, שֶׁמָּא יַהַרְגֶנּוּ בַדֶּרֶךְ, וִידַבְּרוּ אֵלָיו. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף הוּא מְדַבֵּר עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וְזֶה דְּבַר הָרֹצֵחַ:

And roads were designated from one [city] to the next, as it says, "Prepare the road and divide in thirds..." (Deuteronomy 19:3). Two scholars were provided to them [the killer] lest they [the avenger] kill him on the road and they [the scholars] speak with him. Rabbi Meir says: He speaks for himself, as it says, "And this is the matter/word of the murderer..." (Deuteronomy 19:4)

6 ו

רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּתְּחִלָּה, אֶחָד שׁוֹגֵג וְאֶחָד מֵזִיד מַקְדִּימִין לְעָרֵי מִקְלָט, וּבֵית דִּין שׁוֹלְחִין וּמְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מִשָּׁם. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה בְּבֵית דִּין, הֲרָגוּהוּ. וְשֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַיֵּב מִיתָה, פְּטָרוּהוּ. מִי שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב גָּלוּת, מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) וְהֵשִׁיבוּ אֹתוֹ הָעֵדָה אֶל עִיר מִקְלָטוֹ וְגוֹ'. אֶחָד מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וְאֶחָד הַמְרֻבֶּה בִבְגָדִים וְאֶחָד שֶׁעָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחָתוֹ, מַחֲזִירִין אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה מַחֲזִיר אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ. לְפִיכָךְ אִמּוֹתֵיהֶן שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים מְסַפְּקוֹת לָהֶן מִחְיָה וּכְסוּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפַּלְּלוּ עַל בְּנֵיהֶם שֶׁיָּמוּתוּ. מִשֶּׁנִּגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ גוֹלֶה. אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ מֵת כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל וּמִנּוּ אַחֵר תַּחְתָּיו, וּלְאַחַר מִכֵּן נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ, חוֹזֵר בְּמִיתָתוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי:

Rabbi Yose bar Yehuda says: At the outset, both neglectful and purposeful arrive at the city of refuge. The court sends for them and takes him from there. One who is to be killed by the court, is executed, and the one who is to be exiled, they return him back to his place, as it says , "The community will return him to his city of refuge."(Numbers 35:25) (The death of) one who is annointed with oil (the high priest) and one who has additional clothes (a step in becoming the high priest) and one who used to be anointed, return the killer (from the city of refuge to his city of origin). Rabbi Yehudah says: even one who is annointed for the purposes of war returns the killer. Therefore, the mothers of priests provided food and clothes (to the residents of cities of refuge), so they would not pray for their sons to die. If the high priest died after his judgment was renderd, he is not exiled. If the high priest died before his judgment was rendered and they appointed a new one and after that his judgment was rendered, he is returned [home] with the death of the second.

7 ז

נִגְמַר דִּינוֹ בְלֹא כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, הַהוֹרֵג כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁהָרַג, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם. וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא לֹא לְעֵדוּת מִצְוָה וְלֹא לְעֵדוּת מָמוֹן וְלֹא לְעֵדוּת נְפָשׁוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל צְרִיכִים לוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ שַׂר צְבָא יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּיוֹאָב בֶּן צְרוּיָה, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִשָּׁם לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר לה) אֲשֶׁר נָס שָׁמָּה, שָׁם תְּהֵא דִירָתוֹ, שָׁם תְּהֵא מִיתָתוֹ, שָׁם תְּהֵא קְבוּרָתוֹ. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָעִיר קוֹלֶטֶת, כָּךְ תְּחוּמָהּ קוֹלֵט. רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וּמְצָאוֹ גוֹאֵל הַדָּם, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, מִצְוָה בְיַד גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם, וּרְשׁוּת בְּיַד כָּל אָדָם. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, רְשׁוּת בְּיַד גּוֹאֵל הַדָּם, וְכָל אָדָם אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו. אִילָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וְנוֹפוֹ נוֹטֶה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אוֹ עוֹמֵד חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְנוֹפוֹ נוֹטֶה לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם, הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַנּוֹף. הָרַג בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר, גּוֹלֶה מִשְּׁכוּנָה לִשְׁכוּנָה. וּבֶן לֵוִי, גוֹלֶה מֵעִיר לְעִיר:

If his judgment is rendered without a high priest, or if he kills the high priest, or a high priest who kills, those never leave there (the city of refuge). And he may not leave in order to testify for an obligatory purpose or for a monetary case or for a capital case. Even if Israel needs him, even if the head of the military of Israel like Yoav ben Zeruiah, he may not ever leave there. As it says , "Where he ran there" (Numbers 35:25), there must be his residence, there must be his death, there must be his burial. Just as the city absorbs, so too its outskirts [2,000 cubits from the edge of the city] absorb. A killer who leaves the outskirts and the blood avenger (next of kin) finds him, Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: (killing him) is an obligation of the blood avenger and optional for anyone. Rabbi Akiva says: (killing him) is optional for the blood avenger and any person is not liable for it. A tree which stands in the outskirts and its branches stretch out of the outskirts or if the tree stands out of the outskirts and its branches stretch into the outskirts, the ruling is everything s determined according to its branches. If he kills in the same city [the city of refuge], he is exiled from one neighborhood to another neighborhood. A Levite [the cities of refuge was owned by the Levites] who kills is exiled from one city to another.

8 ח

כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁגָּלָה לְעִיר מִקְלָטוֹ וְרָצוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לְכַבְּדוֹ, יֹאמַר לָהֶם רוֹצֵחַ אָנִי. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, יְקַבֵּל מֵהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) וְזֶה דְּבַר הָרֹצֵחַ. מַעֲלִים הָיוּ שָׂכָר לַלְוִיִּם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיוּ מַעֲלִים לָהֶן שָׂכָר. וְחוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָהּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיָה חוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָהּ:

Similarly, a killer who was exiled to his city of refuge and the people of that city want to honor him, he should say to them, "I am a killer." If they say "Nevertheless", he should accept it from them, as it says, "This is the matter [words] of the killer." (Deuteronomy 19:4) They would pay rent to the Levites, these are the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Meir says: they do not pay them rent. (When he returns to his city of origin) he returns to the status [authoity] that he had been, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: he would not return to the status that he had been.