4ד׳
1 א

הַמּוֹלִיךְ פֵּרוֹת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי מִמְּקוֹם הַיֹּקֶר לִמְקוֹם הַזּוֹל, אוֹ מִמְּקוֹם הַזּוֹל לִמְקוֹם הַיֹּקֶר, פּוֹדֵהוּ כְשַׁעַר מְקוֹמוֹ. הַמֵּבִיא פֵרוֹת מִן הַגֹּרֶן לָעִיר, וְכַדֵּי יַיִן מִן הַגַּת לָעִיר, הַשֶּׁבַח לַשֵּׁנִי וִיצִיאוֹת מִבֵּיתוֹ:

One who carries produce of maaser sheni from a place where it is expensive to a place where it is cheap, or from a place where it is cheap to a place where it is expensive, he redeems it according to the market price of the place [where he redeems it]. One who brings produce from the threshing-floor into the city, or jars of wine from the wine-press into the city, the increase in the price belongs to maaser sheni and the expenses [must be covered] from his household.

2 ב

פּוֹדִין מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּשַׁעַר הַזּוֹל, כְּמוֹת שֶׁהַחֶנְוָנִי לוֹקֵחַ, לֹא כְמוֹת שֶׁהוּא מוֹכֵר. כְּמוֹת שֶׁהַשֻּׁלְחָנִי פוֹרֵט, וְלֹא כְמוֹת שֶׁהוּא מְצָרֵף. וְאֵין פּוֹדִין מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אַכְסָרָה. אֶת שֶׁדָּמָיו יְדוּעִים, יִפָּדֶה עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵין דָּמָיו יְדוּעִים, יִפָּדֶה עַל פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה, כְּגוֹן הַיַּיִן שֶׁקָּרַם וּפֵרוֹת שֶׁהִרְקִיבוּ וּמָעוֹת שֶׁהֶחֱלִיאוּ:

Maaser sheni may be redeemed at the lower market price: At the price at which the shopkeeper buys and not at which he sells. At the price at which the money-changer takes small change and not at the price at which he gives small change. Maaser sheni may not be redeemed in an estimated lump. If its value is known, it may be redeemed according to the evaluation of one. But if its value is not known, it must be redeemed according to the evaluation of three, as for instance in the case of wine which has formed a film, or produce which has begun to rot, or coins which have become rusty.

3 ג

בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע, בַּעַל הַבַּיִת קוֹדֵם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאִסָּר, אֶת שֶׁל סֶלַע וְאִסָּר קוֹדֵם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף עַל הַקֶּרֶן. הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלּוֹ, מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֲמִשִּׁית, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ וּבֵין שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה:

If the owner says, “With a sela [I will redeem this maaser sheni] and another person says “With a sela,” the owner has the first right, because he must add a fifth. If the owner says “With a sela” and another person says “With a sela and an issar,” the one who offered a sela and an issar has the first right, because he added to the principal. When one redeems his maaser sheni he must add a fifth, whether it is his own or it was given him as a gift.

4 ד

מַעֲרִימִין עַל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. כֵּיצַד, אוֹמֵר אָדָם לִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים, לְעַבְדּוֹ וּלְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים, הֵילָךְ מָעוֹת אֵלּוּ וּפְדֵה לָךְ מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי זֶה. אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר כֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים, לְעַבְדּוֹ וּלְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּדָן כְּיָדוֹ:

One may act in a deceptive manner when it comes to maaser sheni. How so? A man may say to his grown-up son or daughter, or to his Hebrew slave or female slave, “Take this money and redeem this maaser sheni for yourself.” But he may not say so to his son or daughter who are minors or to his Canaanite slave or female slave, because their hand is as his own hand.

5 ה

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּגֹּרֶן וְאֵין בְּיָדוֹ מָעוֹת, אוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ, הֲרֵי הַפֵּרוֹת הָאֵלּוּ נְתוּנִים לָךְ בְּמַתָּנָה. חוֹזֵר וְאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְחֻלָּלִין עַל מָעוֹת שֶׁבַּבָּיִת:

One who was standing at the threshing-floor and didn’t have any coins may say to his friend: “Behold, this produce is given to you as a gift,” and then he may say again, “Behold, let this produce be exchanged for money which I have in the house.”

6 ו

מָשַׁךְ מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר בְּסֶלַע, וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לִפְדּוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁעָמַד בִּשְׁתַּיִם, נוֹתֵן לוֹ סֶלַע, וּמִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּסֶלַע, וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלּוֹ. מָשַׁךְ מִמֶּנּוּ מַעֲשֵׂר בִּשְׁתַּיִם, וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לִפְדּוֹתוֹ עַד שֶׁעָמַד בְּסֶלַע, נוֹתֵן לוֹ סֶלַע מֵחֻלִּין וְסֶלַע שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלּוֹ. אִם הָיָה עַם הָאָרֶץ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ מִדְּמָאי:

If one took possession from the owner of maaser sheni for a sela, but before he had time to redeem it, it stood at the price of two selas, he may give him one sela and make a profit of one sela and the maaser sheni remains his. If he took possession from the owner of maaser sheni for two selas, but before he had time to redeem it, it stood at the price of one sela, he may give him one sela out of hullin [money] and one sela of his maaser sheni money. If the owner was an am haaretz, he should give him out of [maaser sheni of] demai.

7 ז

הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְלֹא קָרָא שֵׁם, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, דַּיּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ. הָיָה מְדַבֵּר עִם הָאִשָּׁה עַל עִסְקֵי גִטָּהּ וְקִדּוּשֶׁיהָ, וְנָתַן לָהּ גִּטָּהּ וְקִדּוּשֶׁיהָ וְלֹא פֵרֵשׁ, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, דַּיּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, צָרִיךְ לְפָרֵשׁ:

If one redeemed maaser sheni but did not call it by its name: Rabbi Yose says: it is sufficient. But Rabbi Judah says: he must name it explicitly. If a man was speaking to a woman concerning her divorce or her betrothal, and gave her a get or betrothal money but did not state explicitly [what he was doing]: Rabbi Yose says: it is sufficient. But Rabbi Judah says: he must say it explicitly.

8 ח

הַמַּנִּיחַ אִסָּר וְאָכַל עָלָיו חֶצְיוֹ, וְהָלַךְ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר וַהֲרֵי הוּא יֹצֵא בְּפֻנְדְּיוֹן, אוֹכֵל עָלָיו עוֹד אִסָּר. הַמַּנִּיחַ פֻּנְדְּיוֹן וְאָכַל עָלָיו חֶצְיוֹ, וְהָלַךְ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר וַהֲרֵי הוּא יוֹצֵא בְּאִסָּר, אֹכֵל עָלָיו עוֹד פְּלָג. הַמַּנִּיחַ אִסָּר שֶׁל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, אוֹכֵל עָלָיו אַחַד עָשָׂר בְּאִסָּר וְאֶחָד מִמֵּאָה בְּאִסָּר. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הַכֹּל עֲשָׂרָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, בַּוַּדַּאי אַחַד עָשָׂר, וּבַדְּמַאי עֲשָׂרָה:

One who sets aside an issar [for the redemption of maaser sheni] and on its account he ate [the value of] half [an issar of maaser sheni] and then went to another place where [the issar] was worth a pondion, he may eat of [maaser sheni the value of] another issar. One who sets aside a pundion [for the redemption of maaser sheni] and on its account he ate [the value of] half [a pundion of maaser sheni] and then went to another place where [the pundion] was worth an issar, he may eat [maaser sheni the value of] another half [an issar]. One who sets aside an issar of maaser sheni [money] he should eat on its account eleven parts of the value of an issar, or [he should eat an additional] one hundredth of an issar. Bet Shammai say: in both cases one tenth part [of an issar]. But Bet Hillels says: in the case of certain [maaser sheni] an eleventh part, in the case of demai a tenth part.

9 ט

כָּל הַמָּעוֹת הַנִּמְצָאִים, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חֻלִּין, אֲפִלּוּ דִּינַר זָהָב עִם הַכֶּסֶף וְעִם הַמָּעוֹת. מָצָא בְתוֹכָן חֶרֶשׂ וְכָתוּב עָלָיו מַעֲשֵׂר, הֲרֵי זֶה מַעֲשֵׂר:

Any money found is considered hullin, even gold dinars with silver and with copper coins. If a potsherd was found with the money on which was written “tithe” this is considered maaser sheni [money].

10 י

הַמּוֹצֵא כְלִי וְכָתוּב עָלָיו קָרְבָּן, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיָה שֶׁל חֶרֶס, הוּא חֻלִּין וּמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ קָרְבָּן. וְאִם הָיָה שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת, הוּא קָרְבָּן וּמַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ חֻלִּין. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִהְיוֹת כּוֹנְסִין חֻלִּין לְקָרְבָּן:

One who finds a vessel one which was written “korban:” Rabbi Judah says: if it was of clay, it is itself hullin and what is in it is a korban (holy). But if it was of metal it is itself korban and what is in it is hullin. They said to him: it is not the custom of people to put what is common into what is korban.

11 יא

הַמּוֹצֵא כְלִי וְכָתוּב עָלָיו קוּ"ף, קָרְבָּן. מ', מַעֲשֵׂר. ד', דְּמַאי. ט', טֶבֶל. ת', תְּרוּמָה, שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת סַכָּנָה הָיוּ כוֹתְבִין ת' תַּחַת תְּרוּמָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כֻּלָּם שְׁמוֹת בְּנֵי אָדָם הֵם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אֲפִלּוּ מָצָא חָבִית וְהִיא מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת וְכָתוּב עָלֶיהָ תְּרוּמָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חֻלִּין, שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר אֶשְׁתָּקַד הָיְתָה מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת תְּרוּמָה, וּפִנָּהּ:

One who finds a vessel on which was written a kof, it is korban. If a mem, it is maaser. If a dalet, it is demai. If a tet, it is tevel (untithed produced). If a tav, it is terumah. For in the time of danger people would write a tav for terumah. Rabbi Yose says: they may all stand for the names of people. Rabbi Yose said: even if he finds a jar which was full of produce and on it was written ‘terumah’ it may yet be considered hullin, because I can say that last year it was full of produce of terumah and was afterwards emptied.

12 יב

הָאוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ, מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בְּזָוִית זוֹ, וּמָצָא בְזָוִית אַחֶרֶת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חֻלִּין. הָיָה שָׁם מָנֶה וּמָצָא מָאתַיִם, הַשְּׁאָר חֻלִּין. מָאתַיִם וּמָצָא מָנֶה, הַכֹּל מַעֲשֵׂר:

One who says to his son, “There is maaser sheni [produce] in this corner,” but the son found [produce] in another corner, this may be considered hullin. [If the father said] there was there a hundred [of maaser sheni] and the son found two hundred, the remainder is hullin. [If the father said there were there] two hundred and the son found one hundred, it is all maaser sheni.