4ד׳
1 א

עֲשָׂרָה יוֹחֲסִין עָלוּ מִבָּבֶל, כַּהֲנֵי, לְוִיֵּי, יִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, חֲלָלֵי, גֵּרֵי, וַחֲרוּרֵי, מַמְזֵרֵי, נְתִינֵי, שְׁתוּקֵי, וַאֲסוּפֵי. כַּהֲנֵי, לְוִיֵּי וְיִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. לְוִיֵּי, יִשְׂרְאֵלֵי, חֲלָלֵי, גֵּרֵי וַחֲרוּרֵי, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. גֵּרֵי וַחֲרוּרֵי, מַמְזֵרֵי וּנְתִינֵי שְׁתוּקֵי וַאֲסוּפֵי, כֻּלָּם מֻתָּרִין לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה:

Ten genealogical classes went up from Babylonia [in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah]: Priests, Levites, Israelites, halalim, converts, freed slaves, mamzerim, netinim, hushlings and foundlings. Priests, Levites and Israelites may marry each other. Levites, Israelites, halalim, converts, and freed slaves may marry each other. Converts, freed slaves, mamzerim and netinim, hushlings and foundlings, may marry each other.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ הֵם שְׁתוּקֵי, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר אֶת אִמּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מַכִּיר אֶת אָבִיו. אֲסוּפֵי, כֹּל שֶׁנֶּאֱסַף מִן הַשּׁוּק וְאֵינוֹ מַכִּיר לֹא אָבִיו וְלֹא אִמּוֹ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל הָיָה קוֹרֵא לִשְׁתוּקֵי, בְּדוּקֵי:

These are they: a hushling (shtuki): he who knows who his mother is but not his father; A foundling (asufi): he who was gathered in from the marketplace and knows neither his father nor his mother. Abba Saul used to call the hushling (shtuki), “checked one” (b’duki).

3 ג

כָּל הָאֲסוּרִים לָבֹא בַקָּהָל, מֻתָּרִים לָבֹא זֶה בָזֶה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹסֵר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, וַדָּאָן בְּוַדָּאָן, מֻתָּר. וַדָּאָן בִּסְפֵקָן, (וּסְפֵקָן בְּוַדָּאָן), וּסְפֵקָן בִּסְפֵקָן, אָסוּר. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן הַסְּפֵקוֹת, שְׁתוּקִי, אֲסוּפִי וְכוּתִי:

All who are forbidden to enter into the assembly may intermarry with each other. Rabbi Judah forbids it. Rabbi Elazar says: those who are certain [may marry] those who are certain, but those who are certain with those who are doubtful and those who are doubtful with those who are certain and those who are doubtful with others who are doubtful this is prohibited. Who are “those who are doubtful”? The shtuki, the asufi and the Samaritan.

4 ד

הַנּוֹשֵׂא אִשָּׁה כֹהֶנֶת צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק אַחֲרֶיהָ אַרְבַּע אִמָּהוֹת שֶׁהֵן שְׁמֹנֶה, אִמָּהּ וְאֵם אִמָּהּ, וְאֵם אֲבִי אִמָּהּ וְאִמָּהּ, וְאֵם אָבִיהָ וְאִמָּהּ, וְאֵם אֲבִי אָבִיהָ וְאִמָּהּ. לְוִיָּה וְיִשְׂרְאֵלִית, מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶן עוֹד אֶחָת:

He who marries a the daughter of a priest must investigate her lineage up to four mothers, which are eight: her mother and her mother’s mother, her mother’s father’s mother and her mother, her father’s mother and her mother, her father’s father’s mother and her mother. [In the case of] the daughter of a Levite or an Israelite, one more is added.

5 ה

אֵין בּוֹדְקִין לֹא מִן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמַעְלָה, וְלֹא מִן הַדּוּכָן וּלְמַעְלָה, וְלֹא מִן סַנְהֶדְרִין וּלְמָעְלָה. וְכֹל שֶׁהֻחְזְקוּ אֲבוֹתָיו מִשּׁוֹטְרֵי הָרַבִּים וְגַבָּאֵי צְדָקָה, מַשִּׂיאִין לַכְּהֻנָּה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְדֹּק אַחֲרֵיהֶן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף מִי שֶׁהָיָה חָתוּם עֵד בָּעַרְכֵי הַיְשָׁנָה שֶׁל צִפּוֹרִי. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אוֹמֵר, אַף מִי שֶׁהָיָה מֻכְתָּב בְּאִסְטְרַטְיָא שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ:

They do not check from the altar and upwards, nor from the duchan [dais] and upwards, nor from the Sanhedrin and upwards. And all those whose fathers were established to have been among the public officers or charity collectors may marry [their daughters] into the priesthood, and he doesn’t need to check after them. Rabbi Yose says: even one who was signed as a witness in the old court of Tzippori. Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus says: even one who was recorded in the king’s list of officers.

6 ו

בַּת חָלָל זָכָר, פְּסוּלָה מִן הַכְּהֻנָּה לְעוֹלָם. יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּשָׂא חֲלָלָה, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. חָלָל שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, בִּתּוֹ פְסוּלָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּת גֵּר זָכָר כְּבַת חָלָל זָכָר:

The daughter of a male halal is unfit for the priesthood for all time. If an Israelite marries a halalah, his daughter is fit for the priesthood. If a halal marries the daughter of an Israelite, his daughter is unfit for the priesthood. Rabbi Judah says: the daughter of a male convert is as the daughter of a male halal.

7 ז

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּשָׂא גִיּוֹרֶת, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. וְגֵר שֶׁנָּשָׂא בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. אֲבָל גֵּר שֶׁנָּשָׂא גִיּוֹרֶת, בִּתּוֹ פְסוּלָה לַכְּהֻנָּה. אֶחָד גֵּר וְאֶחָד עֲבָדִים מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, אֲפִלּוּ עַד עֲשָׂרָה דוֹרוֹת, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אִמּוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף גֵּר שֶׁנָּשָׂא גִיּוֹרֶת, בִּתּוֹ כְשֵׁרָה לַכְּהֻנָּה:

Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: if an Israelite marries a female convert, his daughter is fit for the priesthood, and if a male convert marries the daughter of an Israelite, his daughter is fit for the priesthood. But if a male convert marries a female convert, his daughter is unfit for the priesthood. [The same law applies to] a convert as to freed slaves, even for ten generations, [his daughter is unfit] unless his mother is of Israelite stock. Rabbi Yose says: even if a male convert marries a female convert, his daughter is fit for the priesthood.

8 ח

הָאוֹמֵר, בְּנִי זֶה מַמְזֵר, אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן. וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם אוֹמְרִים עַל הָעֻבָּר שֶׁבְּמֵעֶיהָ מַמְזֵר הוּא, אֵינָם נֶאֱמָנִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נֶאֱמָנִים:

If a man declares, “this son of mine is a mamzer,” he is not believed. And even if both [the husband and wife] say about the fetus inside her, “it’s a mamzer” they are not believed. Rabbi Judah says: they are believed.

9 ט

מִי שֶׁנָּתַן רְשׁוּת לִשְׁלוּחוֹ לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת בִּתּוֹ וְהָלַךְ הוּא וְקִדְּשָׁהּ, אִם שֶׁלּוֹ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשָׁיו קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם שֶׁל שְׁלוּחוֹ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשָׁיו קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ, שְׁנֵיהֶם נוֹתְנִים גֵּט. וְאִם רָצוּ, אֶחָד נוֹתֵן גֵּט וְאֶחָד כּוֹנֵס. וְכֵן הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁנָּתְנָה רְשׁוּת לִשְׁלוּחָהּ לְקַדְּשָׁהּ, וְהָלְכָה וְקִדְּשָׁהּ אֶת עַצְמָהּ, אִם שֶׁלָּהּ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשֶׁיהָ קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם שֶׁל שְׁלוּחָהּ קָדְמוּ, קִדּוּשָׁיו קִדּוּשִׁין. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָדוּעַ, שְׁנֵיהֶם נוֹתְנִין לָהּ גֵּט. וְאִם רָצוּ, אֶחָד נוֹתֵן לָהּ גֵּט וְאֶחָד כּוֹנֵס:

If a man gives permission to his agent to give his daughter in betrothal, and then he himself goes and gives her in betrothal to another, if his [betrothal] was first, his betrothal is valid; if the agent’s was first, his betrothal is valid. And if it is unknown, both must give her a divorce. And if they wish, one gives a divorce, and the other marries her. Similarly, if a woman gives permission to her agent to give her in betrothal, and she goes and betroths herself [to another]: if her own preceded, her betrothal is valid; if her agent’s preceded, his betrothal is valid. And if they do not know, both must give her a divorce. And if they wish, one gives a divorce and the other marries her.

10 י

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם וּבָא הוּא וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּבָנָיו וְאָמַר, אִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּצָאת עִמִּי לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם הֲרֵי הִיא זוֹ וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה, לֹא עַל הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא עַל הַבָּנִים. מֵתָה וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, מֵבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הַבָּנִים וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הָאִשָּׁה:

If a man went overseas together with his wife, and then he, his wife, and his children returned, and he said, “Behold, this is she [who went with me overseas,] and these are her children”, he need not bring proof with regard to the woman or the children. [If he declares,] “She died [abroad] and these are her children,” he must bring proof with regard to the children, but not with regard to the woman.

11 יא

אִשָּׁה נָשָׂאתִי בִּמְדִינַת הַיָּם, הֲרֵי הִיא זוֹ וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, מֵבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הָאִשָּׁה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הַבָּנִים. מֵתָה, וְאֵלּוּ בָנֶיהָ, צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה עַל הָאִשָּׁה וְעַל הַבָּנִים:

[If he says,] “I married a woman overseas, and behold, this is she, and these are her children”, he must bring proof about the woman, but not about the children. [If he says,] “She died, and these are her children”, he must bring proof about the woman and about the children.

12 יב

לֹא יִתְיַחֵד אָדָם עִם שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים, אֲבָל אִשָּׁה אַחַת מִתְיַחֶדֶת עִם שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף אִישׁ אֶחָד מִתְיַחֵד עִם שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים בִּזְמַן שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ וְיָשֵׁן עִמָּהֶם בְּפֻנְדְּקִי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ. מִתְיַחֵד אָדָם עִם אִמּוֹ וְעִם בִּתּוֹ, וְיָשֵׁן עִמָּהֶם בְּקֵרוּב בָּשָׂר. וְאִם הִגְדִּילוּ, זוֹ יְשֵׁנָה בִכְסוּתָהּ וְזֶה יָשֵׁן בִּכְסוּתוֹ:

A man may not be alone with two women, but one woman may be alone with two men. Rabbi Shimon says: even one man may be alone with two women, if his wife is with him, and he may sleep with them in an inn, because his wife watches him. A man may be alone with his mother and his daughter, and he may sleep with them in immediate bodily contact; but when they grow up, she must sleep in her garment and he in his.

13 יג

לֹא יִלְמַד אָדָם רַוָּק סוֹפְרִים, וְלֹא תִלְמַד אִשָּׁה סוֹפְרִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אִשָּׁה, לֹא יִלְמַד סוֹפְרִים:

An unmarried man must not learn to be a scribe, nor may a woman learn to be a scribe. Rabbi Elazar says: even one who has no wife should not learn to be a scribe.

14 יד

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִרְעֶה רַוָּק בְּהֵמָה, וְלֹא יִישְׁנוּ שְׁנֵי רַוָּקִים בְּטַלִּית אֶחָת. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. כָּל שֶׁעִסְקוֹ עִם הַנָּשִׁים, לֹא יִתְיַחֵד עִם הַנָּשִׁים. וְלֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת נְקִיָּה וְקַלָּה, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל לְמִי שֶׁהָעשֶׁר וְהַנְּכָסִים שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עֲנִיּוּת וַעֲשִׁירוּת, שֶׁלֹּא עֲנִיּוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת וְלֹא עֲשִׁירוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת, אֶלָּא הַכֹּל לְפִי זְכוּתוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, רָאִיתָ מִיָּמֶיךָ חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אֻמָּנוּת, וְהֵן מִתְפַּרְנְסִין שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרְאוּ אֶלָּא לְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, וַאֲנִי נִבְרֵאתִי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת קוֹנִי, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֶתְפַּרְנֵס שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. אֶלָּא שֶׁהֲרֵעוֹתִי מַעֲשַׂי וְקִפַּחְתִּי אֶת פַּרְנָסָתִי. אַבָּא גֻרְיָן אִישׁ צַדְיָן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אַבָּא גֻרְיָא, לֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ, חַמָּר, גַּמָּל, סַפָּר, סַפָּן, רוֹעֶה, וְחֶנְוָנִי, שֶׁאֻמָּנוּתָן אֻמָּנוּת לִסְטִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, הַחַמָּרִין, רֻבָּן רְשָׁעִים, וְהַגַּמָּלִין, רֻבָּן כְּשֵׁרִים. הַסַּפָּנִין, רֻבָּן חֲסִידִים. טוֹב שֶׁבָּרוֹפְאִים, לְגֵיהִנֹּם. וְהַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁבַּטַּבָּחִים, שֻׁתָּפוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק. רַבִּי נְהוֹרַאי אוֹמֵר, מַנִּיחַ אֲנִי כָּל אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וְאֵינִי מְלַמֵּד אֶת בְּנִי אֶלָּא תוֹרָה, שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל מִשְּׂכָרָהּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְקֶרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וּשְׁאָר כָּל אֻמָּנוּת אֵינָן כֵּן. כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא לִידֵי חֹלִי אוֹ לִידֵי זִקְנָה אוֹ לִידֵי יִסּוּרִין וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲסֹק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא מֵת בְּרָעָב. אֲבָל הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן, אֶלָּא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ מִכָּל רָע בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ אַחֲרִית וְתִקְוָה בְזִקְנוּתוֹ. בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ, מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר, (ישעיה מ) וְקֹוֵי ה' יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ. בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ, מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, (תהלים צב) עוֹד יְנוּבוּן בְּשֵׂיבָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, (בראשית כד) וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן, וַה' בֵּרַךְ אֶת אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל. מָצִינוּ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, (שם כו) עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי:

Rabbi Judah said: an unmarried man must not tend cattle, nor may two unmarried men sleep together under the same cover. But the sages permit it. One whose business is with women must not be alone with women. And one should not teach his son a woman’s trade. Rabbi Meir says: one should always teach his son a clean and easy profession, and pray to Him to whom wealth and property belong. For a profession does not contain [the potential for] poverty and wealth, for poverty is not due to one’s profession nor is wealth due to the profession, but all depends on merit. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: have you ever seen a wild beast or a bird with a profession? Yet they are sustained without trouble. Now, were they not were created only to serve me, while I was created to serve my master: surely then I should make a living without trouble! But my evil acts have done me in and withheld my livelihood. Abba Gurion a man of Sidon says in the name of Abba Guria: one should not teach his son [to be] a donkey-driver, camel-driver, wagon-driver, sailor, shepherd, or shopkeeper, because their profession is the profession of robbers. Rabbi Judah says in his name: most donkey-drivers are wicked, while most camel-drivers are worthy men; and most sailors are pious. The best of doctors are destined for Gehenna, and the worthiest of butchers is Amalek’s partner. Rabbi Nehorai says: I will abandon every profession in the world and I will not teach my son anything but Torah, for a person enjoys its reward in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come. But all other professions are not so; for when a man comes to sickness or old age or suffering and cannot engage in his profession, he must die of starvation, whereas the Torah is not so, for it guards him from all evil in his youth and gives him a future and hope in his old age. Of his youth what is said? “But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). Of his old age what is said? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15). And it is also said of our father Abraham, “And Abraham was old … And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1). We find that Abraham our father observed the whole Torah before it was given, for it is said, “Because Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5).