Mishnah Keritot
1א׳
1 א

שְׁלשִׁים וָשֵׁשׁ כְּרֵתוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה. הַבָּא עַל הָאֵם, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת הָאָב, וְעַל הַכַּלָּה, הַבָּא עַל הַזְּכוּר, וְעַל הַבְּהֵמָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה הַמְבִיאָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה עָלֶיהָ, הַבָּא עַל אִשָּׁה וּבִתָּהּ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אִישׁ, הַבָּא עַל אֲחוֹתוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אָבִיו, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִמּוֹ, וְעַל אֲחוֹת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְעַל אֵשֶׁת אֲחִי אָבִיו, וְעַל הַנִּדָּה, הַמְגַדֵּף, וְהָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַנּוֹתֵן מִזַּרְעוֹ לַמֹּלֶךְ, וּבַעַל אוֹב, הַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְטָמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא לַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, הָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, נוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַּחוּץ, הָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, הַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה. הַפֶּסַח וְהַמִּילָה בְּמִצְוֹת עֲשֵׂה:

[There are] thirty-six acts for which the Torah [prescribes] Karet [excision at the hands of Heaven. It is a punishment for]: One who has relations with his mother, or with his father's wife, or with his daughter-in-law, or with a man, or with an animal, or a woman who has an animal have relations with her, or one who has relations with a woman and her daughter, or with a married woman, or with his sister, or with his paternal aunt, or with his maternal aunt, or with his wife's sister, or with his brother's wife, or with the wife of his father's brother, or with a Niddah [a woman who has menstruated and is thereby impure]. [Other individuals who are subject to Karet are]: One who blasphemes [curses God], or who worships idols, or who sacrifices his children to Molekh [a type of idolatry wherein one passes his child through fire or between flames],or a necromancer, or one who violates Shabbat, or an impure person who eats consecrated food, one who enters the Temple when impure, or one who eats forbidden fat, or who eats blood, or who eats Notar [a sacrifice that becomes unfit due to being unconsumed past the permitted time], or who eats Piggul [a sacrifice that becomes unfit due to the intention of the officiating priest while offering it, to consume it after its permitted time], or one who slaughters a sacrifice outside [the Temple precincts], or who offers up a sacrifice outside [the Temple precincts], or who eats leavened bread on Pesach, or who eats on Yom Kippur, or who does Melakhah [a constructive activity forbidden on Shabbat and festivals] on Yom Kippur, or one who prepares oil [after the manner of the Temple's anointing oil], or who prepares Ketoret [holy incense offered twice a day on the golden altar inside the Temple], or who anoints [himself] with the anointing oil. Positive commandments [whose neglect warrants Karet are]: The Passover offering, and circumcision.

2 ב

עַל אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִים עַל זְדוֹנָם כָּרֵת, וְעַל שִׁגְגָתָם חַטָּאת, וְעַל לֹא הוֹדַע שֶׁלָּהֶן אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, חוּץ מִן הַמְטַמֵּא מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, מִפְנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְעוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף הַמְגַדֵּף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו), תּוֹרָה אַחַת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לָעֹשֶׂה בִּשְׁגָגָה, יָצָא מְגַדֵּף, שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֶׂה:

One is liable for Karet for intentionally [performing] these [sins listed in the previous Mishnah], and is obligated to bring a Chattat [an offering brought to expiate sin, if he performs] them unintentionally. [If one is unsure whether he committed one of] these he brings an Asham Talui [a guilt-offering brought upon possible commission of a sin]. [The latter] is not so [if one] entered the Temple while impure or ate holy food when impure, since he is liable to bring an Oleh veYored [a sliding-scale Chattat offering where the economic status of the individual determines whether he brings an animal, a bird, or flour], these are the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages say: The blasphemer [is also exempt from the Chattat and the Asham Talui], as it says (Numbers 15:29): "You shall have one set of laws for those who act unintentionally", which excludes the blasphemer who does not perform an act [speech is not considered action].

3 ג

יֵשׁ מְבִיאוֹת קָרְבָּן וְנֶאֱכָל, וְיֵשׁ מְבִיאוֹת וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל, וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינָן מְבִיאוֹת. אֵלּוּ מְבִיאוֹת קָרְבָּן וְנֶאֱכָל. הַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בוֹ מִצּוּרַת הָאָדָם. הַמַּפֶּלֶת סַנְדָּל, אוֹ שִׁלְיָא, וְשָׁפִיר מְרֻקָּם, וְהַיּוֹצֵא מְחֻתָּךְ. וְכֵן שִׁפְחָה שֶׁהִפִּילָה, מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן וְנֶאֱכָל:

Some women bring a sacrifice which is eaten; and some women bring a sacrifice which is not eaten; and some do not bring [a sacrifice] at all. The following bring a sacrifice which is eaten: One who miscarries a fetus resembling a kind of animal, a wild beast, or fowl. These are the words of Rabbi Meir; whereas the Sages say: [No sacrifice is brought] unless the fetus has human form. [A woman] who miscarries a sandal-shaped fetus or a placenta, or a clearly-shaped fetus, or one which emerges in pieces; likewise a maidservant who has miscarried, bring sacrifices which are eaten.

4 ד

אֵלּוּ מְבִיאוֹת וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל. הַמַּפֶּלֶת וְאֵין יָדוּעַ מַה הִפִּילָה, וְכֵן שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁהִפִּילוּ, אַחַת מִמִּין פְּטוּר וְאַחַת מִמִּין חוֹבָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָלְכוּ זוֹ לְמִזְרָח וְזוֹ לְמַעֲרָב. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן עוֹמְדוֹת כְּאַחַת, מְבִיאוֹת קָרְבָּן וְנֶאֱכָל:

These [women] bring sacrifices which are not eaten. One who miscarries but doesn't know what form she miscarried; similarly two women who miscarried, [where] one [miscarried] a type that is exempt from [a sacrifice] and one [miscarried] a type that demands [a sacrifice, and the two were mixed up]. Rabbi Yose says: When is this so? When one goes to the east and the other to the west; however if the two remain together, they each bring a sacrifice which is eaten.

5 ה

אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָן מְבִיאוֹת. הַמַּפֶּלֶת שָׁפִיר מָלֵא מַיִם, מָלֵא דָם, מָלֵא גְנִינִים, הַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים, הַמַּפֶּלֶת יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים, וְיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְחַיֵּב בְּיוֹצֵא דֹפֶן:

These [women] do not bring [sacrifices]: One who miscarries an amnion full of water, blood, or varied material. One who miscarries the form of a fish, or the form of locusts, or creeping and crawling things, or one who miscarries [within] forty days [of her pregnancy], or who gives birth through Caesarean section. Rabbi Shimon deems liable [a woman] who gives birth through Caesarean section.

6 ו

הַמַּפֶּלֶת אוֹר לִשְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹטְרִין מִן הַקָּרְבָּן, בֵּית הִלֵּל מְחַיְּבִים. אָמְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְבֵית שַׁמַּאי, מַאי שְׁנָא אוֹר לִשְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד מִיּוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד. אִם שָׁוֶה לוֹ לַטֻּמְאָה, לֹא יִשְׁוֶה לוֹ לַקָּרְבָּן. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, לֹא, אִם אֲמַרְתֶּם בְּמַפֶּלֶת יוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד, שֶׁכֵּן יָצְאָה בְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לְהָבִיא בָהּ קָרְבָּן, תֹּאמְרוּ בְמַפֶּלֶת אוֹר לִשְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד, שֶׁלֹּא יָצְאָה בְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לְהָבִיא בָהּ קָרְבָּן. אָמְרוּ לָהֶן בֵּית הִלֵּל, וַהֲרֵי הַמַּפֶּלֶת יוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת תּוֹכִיחַ, שֶׁלֹּא יָצְאָה בְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לְהָבִיא בָהּ קָרְבָּן וְחַיֶּבֶת בַּקָּרְבָּן. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, לֹא, אִם אֲמַרְתֶּם בְּמַפֶּלֶת יוֹם שְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְקָרְבַּן יָחִיד, רָאוּי לְקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר, תֹּאמְרוּ בְמַפֶּלֶת אוֹר לִשְׁמוֹנִים וְאֶחָד, שֶׁאֵין הַלַּיְלָה רָאוּי לֹא לְקָרְבַּן יָחִיד וְלֹא לְקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר. הַדָּמִים אֵינָן מוֹכִיחִין, שֶׁהַמַּפֶּלֶת בְּתוֹךְ מְלֹאת, דָּמֶיהָ טְמֵאִין, וּפְטוּרָה מִן הַקָּרְבָּן:

[If] a woman miscarries on the eighty-first night [after giving birth], Beit Shammai exempt her from a sacrifice, [but] Beit Hillel obligate her. Beit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: How is the eighty-first night different from the eighty-first day; if they are the same with regard to one's purity, should they not be the same with regard to the sacrifice? Beit Shammai said to them: No, if you argue such when a woman miscarries on the eighty-first day which is a period when she could bring a sacrifice, would you also say [that] when she miscarries on the eighty-first night, a period when she cannot bring her sacrifice? Beit Hillel said to them: [The case of] a woman who miscarries on the eighty-first day which falls on Shabbat will prove [the point] since it [the miscarriage] did not occur at a period when she is fit to bring a sacrifice, and she is [nevertheless] liable for a sacrifice. Beit Shammai said to them: No, if you argue such when a woman miscarries on the eighty-first day that falls on Shabbat [that is] because even though that [time] is not fit for a personal offering, it is fit for a public offering; would you also say so of a miscarriage on the eighty-first night, when night is not fit for either a personal or a public offering? The blood also does not prove [the point] because the blood of one who miscarries during her time [after giving birth] is impure, but she is exempt from a sacrifice.

7 ז

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ סְפֵק חֲמִשָּׁה זִיבוֹת וּסְפֵק חֲמִשָּׁה לֵדוֹת, מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן אֶחָד, וְאוֹכֶלֶת בַּזְּבָחִים, וְאֵין הַשְּׁאָר עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה. חָמֵשׁ לֵדוֹת וַדָּאוֹת, חָמֵשׁ זִיבוֹת וַדָּאוֹת, מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן אֶחָד, וְאוֹכֶלֶת בַּזְּבָחִים, וְהַשְּׁאָר עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁעָמְדוּ קִנִּים בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּדִינְרֵי זָהָב. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, הַמָּעוֹן הַזֶּה, לֹא אָלִין הַלַּיְלָה, עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ בְדִינָרִין. נִכְנַס לְבֵית דִּין וְלִמֵּד, הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלֶיהָ חָמֵשׁ לֵדוֹת וַדָּאוֹת, חָמֵשׁ זִיבוֹת וַדָּאוֹת, מְבִיאָה קָרְבָּן אֶחָד, וְאוֹכֶלֶת בַּזְּבָחִים, וְאֵין הַשְּׁאָר עָלֶיהָ חוֹבָה. וְעָמְדוּ קִנִּים בּוֹ בַיּוֹם בְּרִבְעָתָיִם:

[If] a woman had five doubtful blood discharges or five doubtful births, she brings one sacrifice, and she may eat sacrificial meat, and the others [pose] no obligation for her. [If a woman had] five certain births, [or] five certain blood discharges, she brings one sacrifice and may eat sacrificial meat, and the others [do pose further] obligations for her. It once happened in Jerusalem that the price of nest [a pair of sacrificial birds] stood at a golden Dinar [a specific unit of money]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: By this sanctuary! I shall not sleep tonight until it costs a [silver] Dinar! He entered the court and taught:[If a woman] had five certain births, [or] five certain blood discharges, she brings one sacrifice and may eat sacrificial meat, and the others [pose] no obligations for her. And the price of a nest stood at a quarter of a [silver] Dinar.