כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁחָטָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחוּתוֹ, וְכֵן נָשִׂיא שֶׁחָטָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָבַר מִגְּדֻלָּתוֹ, כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מֵבִיא פַר, וְהַנָּשִׂיא מֵבִיא שָׂעִיר:
In the case of an anointed priest who sinned on the basis of his own erroneous halakhic ruling and thereafter moved on from his anointment, e.g., if he was disqualified due to a blemish that befell him before he brought his sin-offering, and likewise in the case of a king [nasi] who sinned and thereafter moved on from his prominence before he had brought an offering, an anointed priest brings a bull despite the fact that he is no longer the High Priest, and the king brings a goat, as he would have done during his reign. In the case of an anointed priest who moved on from his anointment and thereafter sinned, and likewise the king who moved on from his prominence and thereafter sinned, an anointed priest brings a bull, which he would have brought while he was High Priest, and the status of the king is like that of a commoner [kehedyot].
כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁעָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחוּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָטָא, וְכֵן הַנָּשִׂיא שֶׁעָבַר מִגְּדֻלָּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָטָא, כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מֵבִיא פַר, וְהַנָּשִׂיא כְהֶדְיוֹט:
In the case of an anointed priest who moved on from his anointment and thereafter sinned, and likewise the king who moved on from his prominence and thereafter sinned, an anointed priest brings a bull, which he would have brought while he was High Priest, and the status of the king is like that of a commoner [kehedyot].
חָטְאוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַנּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְהֶדְיוֹט. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אִם נוֹדַע לָהֶם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ, חַיָּבִין. וּמִשֶּׁנִּתְמַנּוּ, פְּטוּרִין. וְאֵיזֶהוּ הַנָּשִׂיא, זֶה הַמֶּלֶךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד) וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת ה' אֱלֹהָיו, נָשִׂיא שֶׁאֵין עַל גַּבָּיו אֶלָּא ה' אֱלֹהָיו:
If a king or High Priest sinned before they were appointed, and thereafter they were appointed, the status of these people is like that of commoners; they bring the sin-offering of an individual. Rabbi Shimon says: If it became known to them, before they were appointed as king or High Priest, that they had sinned, they are liable to bring the sin-offering of an individual, but if it became known to them after they were appointed as king or High Priest they are completely exempt. Who is the nasi? This is a king, as it is stated: “When a nasi sins, and performs any one of all the mitzvot of the Lord his God that shall not be performed, unwittingly, and he is guilty” (Leviticus 4:22), referring to one who has only the Lord his God over him and no other authority. That is only the king.
וְאֵיזֶהוּ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הַמָּשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, לֹא הַמְרֻבֶּה בִבְגָדִים. אֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן הַמָּשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה לִמְרֻבֶּה בְגָדִים אֶלָּא פַר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת. וְאֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְכֹהֵן שֶׁעָבַר, אֶלָּא פַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. זֶה וָזֶה שָׁוִין בַּעֲבוֹדַת יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וּמְצֻוִּין עַל הַבְּתוּלָה, וַאֲסוּרִין עַל הָאַלְמָנָה, וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין בִּקְרוֹבֵיהֶן, וְלֹא פוֹרְעִין, וְלֹא פוֹרְמִין, וּמַחֲזִירִין אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ:
And who is the anointed priest? It is the High Priest who is anointed with the anointing oil, not the High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments, i.e., one who served after the anointing oil had been sequestered, toward the end of the First Temple period. The difference between a High Priest anointed with the anointing oil and one consecrated by donning multiple garments unique to the High Priest is only that the latter does not bring the bull that comes for the transgression of any of the mitzvot. And the difference between a High Priest currently serving in that capacity and a former High Priest who had temporarily filled that position while the High Priest was unfit for service is only with regard to the bull brought by the High Priest on Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah meal-offering brought by the High Priest daily. Each of these offerings is brought only by the current High Priest, and not by a former High Priest. Both this High Priest currently serving and that former High Priest are equal with regard to performing the rest of the Yom Kippur service, and they are both commanded with regard to marrying a virgin (see Leviticus 21:13), and it is prohibited for both to marry a widow (see Leviticus 21:14), and they may not render themselves impure with impurity imparted by a corpse even in the event that one of their relatives dies (see Leviticus 21:11), and they may not grow their hair long and they may not rend their garments as expressions of mourning (see Leviticus 21:10), and when they die they restore the unwitting murderer to his home from the city of refuge (see Numbers 35:25).
כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל פּוֹרֵם מִלְּמַטָּה, וְהַהֶדְיוֹט מִלְמַעְלָה. כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַקְרִיב אוֹנֵן וְלֹא אוֹכֵל, וְהַהֶדְיוֹט לֹא מַקְרִיב וְלֹא אוֹכֵל:
A High Priest rends his garments from below when he is in mourning, and an ordinary priest rends his garments from above like a non-priest. A High Priest sacrifices offerings as an acute mourner, i.e., on the day of the death of one of his close relatives, but he may not eat from those offerings. And an ordinary priest who is an acute mourner neither sacrifices offerings nor eats from those offerings.
כָּל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. וְכָל הַמְקֻדָּשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. פַּר הַמָּשִׁיחַ וּפַר הָעֵדָה עוֹמְדִים, פַּר הַמָּשִׁיחַ קוֹדֵם לְפַר הָעֵדָה בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו:
Any mitzva that is more frequent than another mitzva precedes that other mitzva if the opportunity to fulfill one of them coincides with an opportunity to fulfill the other. And anyone who is more sanctified than another precedes that other person. If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation, which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions, i.e., its sacrificial rites.
הָאִישׁ קוֹדֵם לָאִשָּׁה לְהַחֲיוֹת וּלְהָשִׁיב אֲבֵדָה. וְהָאִשָּׁה קוֹדֶמֶת לָאִישׁ לִכְסוּת, וּלְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִבֵּית הַשֶּׁבִי. בִּזְמַן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹמְדִים לְקַלְקָלָה, הָאִישׁ קוֹדֵם לָאִשָּׁה:
The man precedes the woman when there is uncertainty with regard to which of them to rescue or to return a lost item to first. And the woman precedes the man with regard to which of them to provide with a garment first, because her humiliation is great, or to release from captivity first, due to the concern that she will be raped. When they are both subject to degradation, i.e., there is also concern that the man will be raped in captivity, the release of the man precedes the release of the woman.
כֹּהֵן קוֹדֵם לְלֵוִי, לֵוִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַמְזֵר, וּמַמְזֵר לְנָתִין, וְנָתִין לְגֵר, וְגֵר לְעֶבֶד מְשֻׁחְרָר. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁכֻּלָּן שָׁוִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מַמְזֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ, מַמְזֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ:
A priest precedes a Levite. A Levite precedes an Israelite. An Israelite precedes a son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzer], and a mamzer precedes a Gibeonite, and a Gibeonite precedes a convert, and a convert precedes an emancipated slave. When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. But if there were a mamzer who is a Torah scholar and a High Priest who is an ignoramus, a mamzer who is a Torah scholar precedes a High Priest who is an ignoramus, as Torah wisdom surpasses all else.