3ג׳
1 א

כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁחָטָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחוּתוֹ, וְכֵן נָשִׂיא שֶׁחָטָא וְאַחַר כָּךְ עָבַר מִגְּדֻלָּתוֹ, כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מֵבִיא פַר, וְהַנָּשִׂיא מֵבִיא שָׂעִיר:

An anointed priest who sinned and then finished his anointment [term] or a prince who sinned and then finished his position, the anointed priest brings a bull and the prince brings a goat.

2 ב

כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ שֶׁעָבַר מִמְּשִׁיחוּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָטָא, וְכֵן הַנָּשִׂיא שֶׁעָבַר מִגְּדֻלָּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָטָא, כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ מֵבִיא פַר, וְהַנָּשִׂיא כְהֶדְיוֹט:

An anointed priest who finished his anointment [term] and then sinned or a prince who finished his position and then sinned, the anointed priest brings a bull and the prince as a commoner.

3 ג

חָטְאוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְמַנּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְהֶדְיוֹט. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אִם נוֹדַע לָהֶם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַנּוּ, חַיָּבִין. וּמִשֶּׁנִּתְמַנּוּ, פְּטוּרִין. וְאֵיזֶהוּ הַנָּשִׂיא, זֶה הַמֶּלֶךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד) וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת ה' אֱלֹהָיו, נָשִׂיא שֶׁאֵין עַל גַּבָּיו אֶלָּא ה' אֱלֹהָיו:

[Leaders] who sinned before they were appointed and afterwards were appointed, these are [treated] like a commoner. Rabbi Shimon says: If it become known to them before the appointment, they are liable. [If it become known] after the appointment, they are exempt. Who is the prince? This is the king, as it says (Leviticus 4:22): "And he did one of the commandments of Hashem his God," [this refers to] a prince, because there is no one above him besides Hashem his God.

4 ד

וְאֵיזֶהוּ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הַמָּשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, לֹא הַמְרֻבֶּה בִבְגָדִים. אֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן הַמָּשׁוּחַ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה לִמְרֻבֶּה בְגָדִים אֶלָּא פַר הַבָּא עַל כָּל הַמִּצְוֹת. וְאֵין בֵּין כֹּהֵן מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְכֹהֵן שֶׁעָבַר, אֶלָּא פַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. זֶה וָזֶה שָׁוִין בַּעֲבוֹדַת יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וּמְצֻוִּין עַל הַבְּתוּלָה, וַאֲסוּרִין עַל הָאַלְמָנָה, וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין בִּקְרוֹבֵיהֶן, וְלֹא פוֹרְעִין, וְלֹא פוֹרְמִין, וּמַחֲזִירִין אֶת הָרוֹצֵחַ:

Who is the anointed [discussed above]? The one anointed with the oil of anointing, not the one with many clothes. There is no difference between the priest anointed with the oil of anointing and the one with many clothes except for the bull offered for [the violation of] any of the commandments. There is no difference between the acting and retired priest, except for the bull of the Day of Atonement and the [flour sacrifice of] the tenth of an Eifah[specific unit of volume]. They are the same in the service of the Day of Atonement, are commanded to [marry] a virgin, are forbidden to [marry] a widow, do not defile themselves for relatives, do not let their hair grow long, do not tear their clothing, and [when they die] allow the unintentional killer to return [from exile].

5 ה

כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל פּוֹרֵם מִלְּמַטָּה, וְהַהֶדְיוֹט מִלְמַעְלָה. כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַקְרִיב אוֹנֵן וְלֹא אוֹכֵל, וְהַהֶדְיוֹט לֹא מַקְרִיב וְלֹא אוֹכֵל:

A High Priest tears [his garments] from below, and a common [priest tears his garments] from above. A High Priest brings offerings as a mourner but does not eat [the sacrificial meat], while a common [priest] does not bring offerings or eat [the sacrificial meat as a mourner].

6 ו

כָּל הַתָּדִיר מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. וְכָל הַמְקֻדָּשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. פַּר הַמָּשִׁיחַ וּפַר הָעֵדָה עוֹמְדִים, פַּר הַמָּשִׁיחַ קוֹדֵם לְפַר הָעֵדָה בְּכָל מַעֲשָׂיו:

Anything that is more common than its peer supersedes its peer. Anything that is holier than its peer supersedes its peer. If the bull of the anointed and the bull of the community are [both] standing [to be sacrificed], the bull of the anointed supersedes the bull of the community in all its processes.

7 ז

הָאִישׁ קוֹדֵם לָאִשָּׁה לְהַחֲיוֹת וּלְהָשִׁיב אֲבֵדָה. וְהָאִשָּׁה קוֹדֶמֶת לָאִישׁ לִכְסוּת, וּלְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִבֵּית הַשֶּׁבִי. בִּזְמַן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹמְדִים לְקַלְקָלָה, הָאִישׁ קוֹדֵם לָאִשָּׁה:

A man supersedes a woman to keep alive and to return a lost object. A woman supersedes a man to clothe and to free from captivity. If they both stand to be disgraced, the man supersedes the woman.

8 ח

כֹּהֵן קוֹדֵם לְלֵוִי, לֵוִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַמְזֵר, וּמַמְזֵר לְנָתִין, וְנָתִין לְגֵר, וְגֵר לְעֶבֶד מְשֻׁחְרָר. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁכֻּלָּן שָׁוִין. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מַמְזֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ, מַמְזֵר תַּלְמִיד חָכָם קוֹדֵם לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עַם הָאָרֶץ:

A priest supersedes a Levite, a Levite supersedes an Israelite, an Israelite supersedes a product of a forbidden relation, a productof a forbidden relation supersedes a Natin [member of a caste of Temple servants, historically descended from the Gibeonites], a Natin supersedes a convert, and a convert supersedes a freed slave. When? When they are all equal. But if the product of a forbidden relation is a Sage and the high priest is an Am Ha'Aretz [one who is lax in observing tithes and purity laws], the product of a forbidden relation who is a sage supersedes the high priest who is am Am Ha'Aretz.