Mishnah Horayot
1א׳
1 א

הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין לַעֲבֹר עַל אַחַת מִכָּל מִצְוֹת הָאֲמוּרוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה, וְהָלַךְ הַיָּחִיד וְעָשָׂה שׁוֹגֵג עַל פִּיהֶם, בֵּין שֶׁעָשׂוּ וְעָשָׂה עִמָּהֶן, בֵּין שֶׁעָשׂוּ וְעָשָׂה אַחֲרֵיהֶן, בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא עָשׂוּ וְעָשָׂה, פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתָּלָה בְבֵית דִּין. הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין וְיָדַע אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֶׁטָּעוּ, אוֹ תַלְמִיד וְהוּא רָאוּי לְהוֹרָאָה, וְהָלַךְ וְעָשָׂה עַל פִּיהֶן, בֵּין שֶׁעָשׂוּ וְעָשָׂה עִמָּהֶן, בֵּין שֶׁעָשׂוּ וְעָשָׂה אַחֲרֵיהֶן, בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא עָשׂוּ וְעָשָׂה, הֲרֵי זֶה חַיָּב, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא תָלָה בְּבֵית דִּין. זֶה הַכְּלָל, הַתּוֹלֶה בְעַצְמוֹ, חַיָּב. וְהַתּוֹלֶה בְּבֵית דִּין, פָּטוּר:

If the court issued a ruling to violate one of the commandments mentioned in the Torah, and an individual went and accidentally did it on their instructions, whether they did it and he did it with them, whether they did it and he did it after them, whether they did not do it and he did it, he is exempt because he relied on the court. If the court issued [such] a ruling and one of them knew that they erred, or a student who is capable of ruling [knew that they erred], and he went and did it because of their instructions, whether they did it and he did it with them, whether they did it and he did it after them, whether they did not do it and he did it, he is liable because he was not relying on the court. This is the rule: If one relies on himself, he is liable. If one relies on the court, he is exempt.

2 ב

הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין, וְיָדְעוּ שֶׁטָּעוּ, וְחָזְרוּ בָהֶן, בֵּין שֶׁהֵבִיאוּ כַפָּרָתָן וּבֵין שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאוּ כַפָּרָתָן, וְהָלַךְ וְעָשָׂה עַל פִּיהֶן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר, וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, סָפֵק. אֵיזֶהוּ סָפֵק. יָשַׁב לוֹ בְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, חַיָּב. הָלַךְ לוֹ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם, פָּטוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מוֹדֶה אֲנִי בָזֶה שֶׁהוּא קָרוֹב לִפְטוּר מִן הַחוֹבָה. אָמַר לוֹ בֶן עַזַּאי, מַה שָּׁנָה זֶה מִן הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁהַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵיתוֹ אֶפְשָׁר הָיָה לוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁמַע, וְזֶה לֹא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁמָע:

If the court issued a ruling and then realized that they made a mistake and retracted their [ruling], whether they brought their atonement-offering or whether they did not [yet] bring their atonement-offering, if an individual went and did it because of their instructions, Rabbi Shimon exempts him, and Rabbi Eliezer says it is uncertain. What is the uncertainty? If he was sitting at home, he is liable. If he had traveled across the sea, he is exempt. Rabbi Akiva said, I grant that in this case, he is closer to being exempt than being liable. Ben Azzai said to him, what is the difference between this case and one who is sitting at home? The one who is sitting at home could have heard [that the court reversed its ruling], but for this one [who traveled far away], he could not have heard.

3 ג

הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין לַעֲקֹר אֶת כָּל הַגּוּף, אָמְרוּ, אֵין נִדָּה בַתּוֹרָה, אֵין שַׁבָּת בַּתּוֹרָה, אֵין עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה בַתּוֹרָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין. הוֹרוּ לְבַטֵּל מִקְצָת וּלְקַיֵּם מִקְצָת, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין. כֵּיצַד. אָמְרוּ, יֵשׁ נִדָּה בַתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל הַבָּא עַל שׁוֹמֶרֶת יוֹם כְּנֶגֶד יוֹם פָּטוּר. יֵשׁ שַׁבָּת בַּתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל הַמּוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, פָּטוּר. יֵשׁ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה בַתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל הַמִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶה פָטוּר, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד) וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר, דָּבָר וְלֹא כָל הַגּוּף:

If the court issued a ruling to uproot an entire section [of the law]; [for example] if they said, "there are no laws of Niddah [a female who has menstrual discharges which render her impure] in the Torah," "there is no Sabbath in the Torah," "there is no [prohibition of] idolatry in the Torah," they [i.e. the members of the court] are exempt. If they issued a ruling to nullify part and uphold part, they are liable. What is that case? If they said "there are laws of Niddah in the Torah, but one who has relations with a woman who is keeping a day [of sexual abstinence] corresponding to the day [she saw blood after her menstrual purification] is exempt," "there is Sabbath in the Torah, but one who carries from private property to public property is exempt," "there is [a prohibition of] idolatry in the Torah, but one who bows [to it] is exempt," [in all these cases] they are liable, as it says "and a matter is hid" (Leviticus 4:13)--a matter and not an entire section.

4 ד

הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין, וְיָדַע אֶחָד מֵהֶן שֶׁטָּעוּ, וְאָמַר לָהֶן טוֹעִין אַתֶּם, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מֻפְלָא שֶׁל בֵּית דִּין שָׁם, אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה אַחַד מֵהֶן גֵּר אוֹ מַמְזֵר אוֹ נָתִין אוֹ זָקֵן שֶׁלֹּא רָאָה לוֹ בָנִים, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן עֵדָה (ויקרא ד) וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (במדבר לה) עֵדָה, מָה עֵדָה הָאֲמוּר לְהַלָּן עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֻלָּם רְאוּיִין לְהוֹרָאָה, אַף עֵדָה הָאֲמוּרָה כָאן עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֻלָּם רְאוּיִים לְהוֹרָאָה. הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין שׁוֹגְגִים וְעָשׂוּ כָל הַקָּהָל שׁוֹגְגִין, מְבִיאִין פָּר. מְזִידִין וְעָשׂוּ שׁוֹגְגִין, מְבִיאִין כִּשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה. שׁוֹגְגִין וְעָשׂוּ מְזִידִין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין:

If the court issued a ruling, and one of them knew that they erred and said to them "you are mistaken," or if the expert of the court was not there, or one of them was a convert or a bastard or a Netin [Gibonite] or an aged person who has never had children, they are exempt, as it says "congregation" here (Leviticus 4:13) and it says "congregation" later on (Numbers 35:24-25). Just like the "congregation" mentioned later on refers to those who are all capable of issuing a ruling, so too, "congregation" here refers to those who are all capable of issuing a ruling. If the court issued a [wrong] ruling by accident, and the whole people did it by accident, they bring a cow [as an offering]. [If the court issued a wrong ruling] on purpose, and [the people] did it by accident, they bring a lamb or a goat. [If the court issued a wrong ruling] by accident, and [the people] did it on purpose, they are exempt.

5 ה

הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין, וְעָשׂוּ כָל הַקָּהָל אוֹ רֻבָּן עַל פִּיהֶם, מְבִיאִין פָּר. וּבַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, מְבִיאִין פַּר וְשָׂעִיר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׁבָטִים מְבִיאִין שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר פָּרִים, וּבַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, מְבִיאִין שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר פָּרִים וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שְׂעִירִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים, וּבַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, שְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר פָּרִים וּשְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר שְׂעִירִים, פַּר וְשָׂעִיר לְכָל שֵׁבֶט וָשֵׁבֶט, פַּר וְשָׂעִיר לְבֵית דִּין. הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין, וְעָשׂוּ שִׁבְעָה שְׁבָטִים אוֹ רֻבָּן עַל פִּיהֶם, מְבִיאִים פָּר, וּבַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה מְבִיאִין פַּר וְשָׂעִיר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שִׁבְעָה שְׁבָטִים שֶׁחָטְאוּ, מְבִיאִים שִׁבְעָה פָרִים, וּשְׁאָר שְׁבָטִים שֶׁלֹּא חָטְאוּ, מְבִיאִין עַל יְדֵיהֶן פַּר, שֶׁאַף אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא חָטְאוּ, מְבִיאִין עַל יְדֵי הַחוֹטְאִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁמֹנָה פָרִים. וּבַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, שְׁמֹנָה פָרִים וּשְׁמֹנָה שְׂעִירִים, פַּר וְשָׂעִיר לְכָל שֵׁבֶט וָשֵׁבֶט, וּפַר וְשָׂעִיר לְבֵית דִּין. הוֹרוּ בֵית דִּין שֶׁל אֶחָד מִן הַשְּׁבָטִים וְעָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁבֶט עַל פִּיהֶם, אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁבֶט הוּא חַיָּב, וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים פְּטוּרִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין חַיָּבִים אֶלָּא עַל הוֹרָיַת בֵּית דִּין הַגָּדוֹל בִּלְבַד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ד) וְאִם כָּל עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ, וְלֹא עֲדַת אוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁבֶט:

If a court issued a ruling and the entirety of the congregation or its majority acted accordingly, they bring a cow, and in [a matter of] idol worship, they bring a cow and a sheep: the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: twelve tribes bring twelves cows, and in [a matter of] idol worship, they bring twelve cows and twelve sheep. Rabbi Shimon says: thirteen cows, and in [a matter of] idol worship, thirteen cows and thirteen sheep, a cow and a sheep for each and every tribe and a cow and a sheep for the court. If a court issued a ruling and seven tribes or their majority acted accordingly, they bring a cow, and in [a matter of] idol worship, they bring a cow and a sheep: the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: the seven tribes that sinned bring seven cows, and the remaining tribes that did not sin bring on their behalf a cow, for even those who did not sin bring on behalf of the sinners. Rabbi Shimon says: eight cows, and in [a matter of] idol worship, eight cows and eight sheep, a cow and a sheep for each and every tribe and a cow and a sheep for the court. If a court from one of the tribes issued a ruling and that tribe acted accordingly, that tribe is the one that is obligated and all the remaining tribes are exempt: the words of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Sages say: We are only obligated on account of a ruling issued by the National Court alone, as it says (Leviticus 4:13): "And if all of the community of Israel errs," and not the community of that tribe.