5ה׳
1 א

הַנִּזָּקִין שָׁמִין לָהֶם בְּעִדִּית וּבַעַל חוֹב בְּבֵינוֹנִית, וּכְתֻבַּת אִשָּׁה בְּזִבּוּרִית. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף כְּתֻבַּת אִשָּׁה בְּבֵינוֹנִית:

[Compensation for] damages are assessed from the highest [quality field]; and for a creditor, from the medium [quality field]; and for the payment of a ketubah [monetary settlement payable to a married woman upon divorce or the death of her husband], from the lowest [quality field]. Rabbi Meir says, "Even the ketubah [is to be paid] from the medium [quality field.]"

2 ב

אֵין נִפְרָעִין מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ נְכָסִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן זִבּוּרִית. אֵין נִפְרָעִין מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים, אֶלָּא מִן הַזִּבּוּרִית:

We do not collect[ payment] from mortgaged property [in the hands of others], when there is unmortgaged property [i.e, belonging to the debtor], even if it is from the lowest quality. We do not collect from the property of orphans except for from the lowest quality.

3 ג

אֵין מוֹצִיאִין לַאֲכִילַת פֵּרוֹת וּלְשֶׁבַח קַרְקָעוֹת וְלִמְזוֹן הָאִשָּׁה וְהַבָּנוֹת מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. וְהַמּוֹצֵא מְצִיאָה, לֹא יִשָּׁבַע, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

We do not extract [payment] for usufruct, for the improvement of the land, or for the food of a wife and daughters [of a former marriage] from mortgaged property, due to repairing the world [Tikkun HaOlam]. And we do not impose an oath upon the finder of an object due to Tikkun HaOlam.

4 ד

יְתוֹמִים שֶׁסָּמְכוּ אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁמִּנָּה לָהֶן אֲבִיהֶן אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס, חַיָּב לְעַשֵּׂר פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן. אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁמִּנָּהוּ אֲבִי יְתוֹמִים, יִשָּׁבֵעַ. מִנָּהוּ בֵית דִּין, לֹא יִשָּׁבֵעַ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, חִלּוּף הַדְּבָרִים. הַמְטַמֵּא וְהַמְדַמֵּעַ וְהַמְנַסֵּךְ בְּשׁוֹגֵג, פָּטוּר. בְּמֵזִיד, חַיָּב. הַכֹּהֲנִים שֶׁפִּגְּלוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ מְזִידִין, חַיָּבִין:

[With regard to] orphans who are dependent on a [particular] homeowner, or [in the case that] their father had appointed a guardian for them, these people must tithe the [orphans'] fruit. A guardian who was appointed by the father, must take an oath; if the court appointed him need not take an oath. Abba Shaul says, "It is just the reverse." [With regard to] one who renders [fruit belonging to another] ritually impure, or mixes it [with terumah, a portion of a crop given to a Kohen which becomes holy upon separation, and can only be consumed by Kohanim or their household], or mixes [his wine with other wine used for idolatrous] libations. [If he did so] unwittingly, he is exempt [from paying damages]; if on purpose, he is liable. Kohanim who purposely render sacrifices ‏pigul [a sacrifice that becomes unfit, due to the intention of the officiating priest, while offering it, to consume it outside its permitted time], are liable.

5 ה

הֵעִיד רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן גֻּדְגְּדָה עַל הַחֵרֶשֶׁת שֶׁהִשִּׂיאָהּ אָבִיהָ, שֶׁהִיא יוֹצְאָה בְגֵט. וְעַל קְטַנָּה בַת יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנִּשֵּׂאת לְכֹהֵן, שֶׁאוֹכֶלֶת בַּתְּרוּמָה, וְאִם מֵתָה, בַּעְלָהּ יוֹרְשָׁהּ. וְעַל הַמָּרִישׁ הַגָּזוּל שֶׁבְּנָאוֹ בַבִּירָה, שֶׁיִּטֹּל אֶת דָּמָיו, מִפְּנֵי תַקָּנַת הַשָּׁבִים. וְעַל חַטָּאת הַגְּזוּלָה שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדְעָה לָרַבִּים, שֶׁהִיא מְכַפֶּרֶת, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הַמִּזְבֵּחַ:

Rabbi Yochanan ben Gudgodah testified about a deaf woman whose father had married her off that she may leave her marriage with a bill of divorce; and about a female minor Israelite who was married to a Kohen that she may eat terumah, and if she dies her husband inherits her [property]; and about a stolen beam that nwas built into a castle that[ the owner] collects its monetary [value], dut to the enactment of returning[ stolen objects]; and about a stolen sin-offering that was unknown to the public [when offered in the Temple] does provide atonement, due to the enactment [on behalf] of the altar.

6 ו

לֹא הָיָה סִיקָרִיקוֹן בִּיהוּדָה בַהֲרוּגֵי מִלְחָמָה. מֵהֲרוּגֵי מִלְחָמָה וְאֵילָךְ, יֶשׁ בָּהּ סִיקָרִיקוֹן. כֵּיצַד. לָקַח מִסִּיקָרִיקוֹן וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת, מִקָּחוֹ בָטֵל. מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִסִּיקָרִיקוֹן, מִקָּחוֹ קַיָּם. לָקַח מִן הָאִישׁ וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִן הָאִשָּׁה, מִקָּחוֹ בָטֵל. מִן הָאִשָּׁה וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִן הָאִישׁ, מִקָּחוֹ קַיָּם. זוֹ מִשְׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה. בֵּית דִּין שֶׁל אַחֲרֵיהֶם אָמְרוּ, הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִסִּיקָרִיקוֹן נוֹתֵן לַבְּעָלִים רְבִיעַ. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין בְּיָדָן לִקַּח. אֲבָל יֵשׁ בְּיָדָן לִקַּח, הֵן קוֹדְמִין לְכָל אָדָם. רַבִּי הוֹשִׁיב בֵּית דִּין וְנִמְנוּ, שֶׁאִם שָׁהֲתָה בִפְנֵי סִיקָרִיקוֹן שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, כָּל הַקּוֹדֵם לִקַּח, זוֹכֶה, אֲבָל נוֹתֵן לַבְּעָלִים רְבִיעַ:

The law of sikrikon [violent individuals who acquired fields and houses by use or threat of force, including murder] was not in force in Judea during the time of the war when many Jews were being killed, but from that time on it did apply. How so? If one purchased land from the sikrikon, and then he purchased it from its [rightful] owner, the sale is void; however, [if he purchased it] from the owner and then he purchased it from the sikrikon, the sale is valid. If one purchased [a field] from the husband, and then he purchased it from his wife, the sale is void; but [if he purchased it first] from the wife, and then he purchased it from the husband, the sale is valid. This was the first teaching. But a different court decided that one who purchases [a field] from the sikrikon must pay a quarter to the [rightful] owner. This is when it is not in [the owner's] ability to repurchase [his field]; but if he has the ability to repurchase the field, [the owners] are preferred over anyone else [to repurchase the field]. Rabbi [Yehudah HaNasi] established a court and they decided by consensus that if [a field] remained in the hands of the sikrikon for twelve months, whoever precedes others gains the rights [to purchase the filed] but he must pay a quarter to the [previous] owner.

7 ז

חֵרֵשׁ רוֹמֵז וְנִרְמָז. וּבֶן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר, קוֹפֵץ וְנִקְפָּץ, בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין. הַפָּעוֹטוֹת, מִקָּחָן מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּרָן מִמְכָּר, בְּמִטַּלְטְלִין:

A deaf person may indicate and be indicated to [with signs between contracting parties]. Ben Beteirah says, "Mouthing [words] and being mouthed to [is effective] for movable property." [With regard to] children at the age of discernment, their purchase and sale is valid with regard to movable property.

8 ח

וְאֵלּוּ דְבָרִים אָמְרוּ מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. כֹּהֵן קוֹרֵא רִאשׁוֹן, וְאַחֲרָיו לֵוִי וְאַחֲרָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. מְעָרְבִין בְּבַיִת יָשָׁן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. בּוֹר שֶׁהוּא קָרוֹב לָאַמָּה, מִתְמַלֵּא רִאשׁוֹן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. מְצוּדוֹת חַיָּה וְעוֹפוֹת וְדָגִים יֵשׁ בָּהֶם מִשּׁוּם גָּזֵל, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, גָּזֵל גָּמוּר. מְצִיאַת חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, יֵשׁ בָּהֶן מִשּׁוּם גָּזֵל, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, גָּזֵל גָּמוּר. עָנִי הַמְנַקֵּף בְּרֹאשׁ הַזַּיִת, מַה שֶּׁתַּחְתָּיו גָּזֵל, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, גָּזֵל גָּמוּר. אֵין מְמַחִין בְּיַד עֲנִיֵּי גוֹיִם בְּלֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם:

These are the things they said [i.e., enacted] due to "ways of peace:" A Kohen should read [the Torah] first, and after him a Levite, and after him an Israelite due to "ways of peace;" we place the eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place] in an old house, due to "ways of peace"; the well nearest to the water-course must be filled first, due to "ways of peace." [With regard to] traps for wild animals, birds or fish or traps are included in the laws of theft, due to "ways of peace." Rabbi Yossi says, "It is actual theft." What a deaf person, a person who exhibits signs indicating severe mental incompetence, or a minor finds [is his own], and [stealing from him] is included in the laws of theft. due to "ways of peace." Rabbi Yossi says, "It is actual theft." In the case of a poor person beating down olives from the top of a tree, that which is under him is included in the laws of theft. Rabbi Yossi says, "It is actual theft." We do not prevent non-Jewish poor from gathering leket[that which is dropped in the course of harvesting, which is reserved for the poor] the forgotten [grain], and the produce of the corner of the field [reserved for the poor], due to "ways of peace."

9 ט

מַשְׁאֶלֶת אִשָּׁה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ הַחֲשׁוּדָה עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית, נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר, אֲבָל לֹא תָבֹר וְלֹא תִטְחַן עִמָּהּ. אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר מַשְׁאֶלֶת לְאֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ, נָפָה וּכְבָרָה, וּבוֹרֶרֶת וְטוֹחֶנֶת וּמַרְקֶדֶת עִמָּהּ, אֲבָל מִשֶּׁתַּטִּיל הַמַּיִם, לֹא תִגַּע עִמָּהּ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְכֻלָּן לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וּמַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי גוֹיִם בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אֲבָל לֹא יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְשׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹמָן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם:

One woman may lend to another who is suspected [not to observe properly the laws] of the Sabbatical year, a flour-sieve, a winnow, a handmill, and a stove, but she may not assist her to winnow nor to grind. The wife of a ‏chaver [one who scrupulously observes the detailed laws of tithes and ritual purity] may lend to the wife of an unlearned person, a flour-sieve or a winnow, and may aid her to winnow, to grind, or to sift; but as soon as water is poured over the flour, she may not further assist her, for we may not aid those who transgress the law. All of [these permitted acts] are due to "ways of peace." We may aid non-Jews [who works in the fields] during the Sabbatical year, but [we may not] aid an Israelite; and we ask how he is, due to "ways of peace."