4ד׳
1 א

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ גֵּט לְאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִגִּיעַ בַּשָּׁלִיחַ, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁלַח אַחֲרָיו שָׁלִיחַ וְאָמַר לוֹ, גֵּט שֶׁנָּתַתִּי לְךָ בָּטֵל הוּא, הֲרֵי זֶה בָטֵל. קָדַם אֵצֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁלַח אֶצְלָהּ שָׁלִיחַ וְאָמַר לָהּ, גֵּט שֶׁשָּׁלַחְתִּי לִיךְ בָּטֵל הוּא, הֲרֵי זֶה בָטֵל. אִם מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ גֵּט לְיָדָהּ, שׁוּב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבַטְּלוֹ:

[With regard to] one who sends a bill of divorce to his wife [via a messenger], and then catches up with the messenger, or sent [another] messenger after the first, and said, "The bill of divorce that I gave to you is cancelled," then it is cancelled. If the husband preceded the messenger [in getting] to the woman, or if he sent [a second] messenger, and he said to her, "The bill of divorce that I sent you is cancelled," then it is cancelled. If [he makes this statement] from, [i.e., after,] the moment that the bill of divorce reached her hands, he can no longer cancel it.

2 ב

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה בֵית דִּין בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר וּמְבַטְּלוֹ. הִתְקִין רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ עוֹשִׂין כֵּן, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה מְשַׁנֶּה שְׁמוֹ וּשְׁמָהּ, שֵׁם עִירוֹ וְשֵׁם עִירָהּ. וְהִתְקִין רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן שֶׁיְּהֵא כוֹתֵב, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי וְכָל שֵׁם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ, אִשָּׁה פְלוֹנִית וְכָל שׁוּם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

At first, a man [who had already sent his wife a bill of divorce by means of a messenger] would set up a religious court in a different place [from where the wife lived] and cancel [the bill of divorce]. Rabban Gamliel the Elder enacted that they not be able to do this, due to [the need for] repairing the world [Tikkun HaOlam]. At first, a man could change his name and her name, the name of his city, or the name of her city. Rabban Gamliel the Elder enacted that one would write: "The man, So-and-so, and any other name that he has, and the woman, So-and-so, and any other name that she has," due to Tikkun HaOlam.

3 ג

אֵין אַלְמָנָה נִפְרַעַת מִנִּכְסֵי יְתוֹמִים אֶלָּא בִשְׁבוּעָה. נִמְנְעוּ מִלְּהַשְׁבִּיעָהּ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן שֶׁתְּהֵא נוֹדֶרֶת לַיְתוֹמִים כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצוּ, וְגוֹבָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ. הָעֵדִים חוֹתְמִין עַל הַגֵּט, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. הִלֵּל הִתְקִין פְּרוֹזְבּוּל מִפְּנֵּי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

A widow may only collect [the debt owed from her ketubah, monetary settlement payable to a married woman upon divorce or the death of her husband] from the property of orphans by [taking] an oath. They stopped imposing an oath; Rabban Gamliel the Elder enacted that she may make a vow with regard to whatever they desire, and collects her ketubah. Witnesses sign on a bill of divorce, due to Tikkun HaOlam. Hillel instituted the pruzbul [a court-issued exemption from the Sabbatical year cancellation of a personal loan] due to Tikkun HaOlam.

4 ד

עֶבֶד שֶׁנִּשְׁבָּה וּפְדָאוּהוּ, אִם לְשׁוּם עֶבֶד, יִשְׁתַּעְבֵּד. אִם לְשׁוּם בֶּן חוֹרִין, לֹא יִשְׁתַּעְבֵּד. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ יִשְׁתַּעְבֵּד. עֶבֶד שֶׁעֲשָׂאוֹ רַבּוֹ אַפּוֹתִיקִי לַאֲחֵרִים וְשִׁחְרְרוֹ, שׁוּרַת הַדִּין, אֵין הָעֶבֶד חַיָּב כְּלוּם. אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם, כּוֹפִין אֶת רַבּוֹ וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ בֶן חוֹרִין, וְכוֹתֵב שְׁטָר עַל דָּמָיו. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ כוֹתֵב אֶלָּא מְשַׁחְרֵר:

[With regard to] a slave who was kidnapped and they ransomed him, if [he was ransomed] in order to be a slave, he may be enslaved. If [he was ransomed] to be a free man, he may not be enslaved. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: "Either way he may be enslaved." [With regard to] a slave whose master mortgaged him to others, and then freed him, the baseline law is that the slave is not obligated at all. However, due to Tikkun HaOlam they force his [second] master to free him, and [the slave must] write a document [of debt] for his money's worth to him. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: "[The slave] does not write [a debt document], rather the [original] one who freed him [does]."

5 ה

מִי שֶׁחֶצְיוֹ עֶבֶד וְחֶצְיוֹ בֶן חוֹרִין, עוֹבֵד אֶת רַבּוֹ יוֹם אֶחָד וְאֶת עַצְמוֹ יוֹם אֶחָד, דִּבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, תִּקַּנְתֶּם אֶת רַבּוֹ, וְאֶת עַצְמוֹ לֹא תִקַּנְתֶּם. לִשָּׂא שִׁפְחָה אִי אֶפְשָׁר, שֶׁכְּבָר חֶצְיוֹ בֶן חוֹרִין. בַּת חוֹרִין אִי אֶפְשָׁר, שֶׁכְּבָר חֶצְיוֹ עָבֶד. יִבָּטֵל, וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם אֶלָּא לִפְרִיָּה וְלִרְבִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מה) לֹא תֹהוּ בְרָאָהּ, לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ. אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם, כּוֹפִין אֶת רַבּוֹ וְעוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ בֶן חוֹרִין, וְכוֹתֵב שְׁטָר עַל חֲצִי דָמָיו. וְחָזְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְהוֹרוֹת כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי:

One who is half slave and half free-man, serves his master one day and [works for] himself one day. These are the words of Beit Hillel. Beit Shammai said to them: "You have repaired [the situation] for his master, but for himself you have not repaired it. To marry a maidservant is impossible [i.e., forbidden], for he is half-free. [To marry] a free-woman is impossible, for he is half-slave. And was not the world created for the sake of reproduction, as it says (Isaiah 45:18) "Not for emptiness did He create it, but for settlement He formed it." Rather, due to Tikkun HaOlam, we force his master and he makes him a free-man, and [the slave] writes a document [of debt] for half his value. Beit Hillel retracted and ruled in accordance with the words of Beit Shammai.

6 ו

הַמּוֹכֵר עַבְדּוֹ לְגוֹי אוֹ לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, יָצָא בֶן חוֹרִין. אֵין פּוֹדִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּיִים יוֹתֵר עַל כְּדֵי דְמֵיהֶן, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. וְאֵין מַבְרִיחִין אֶת הַשְּׁבוּיִין, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מִפְּנֵי תַקָּנַת הַשְּׁבוּיִין. וְאֵין לוֹקְחִים סְפָרִים, תְּפִלִּין וּמְזוּזוֹת מִן הַגּוֹיִם יוֹתֵר עַל כְּדֵי דְמֵיהֶן, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

[With regard to] one who sells his slave to a non-Jew or to someone outside Eretz Yisrael, [the slave automatically] goes free. We do not ransom captives for more than they are worth, due to Tikkun HaOlam. We do not help captives escape, due to Tikkun HaOlam. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: "[It is] due to the enactment of the captives. We do not buy sefarim [books of the Tanach written in holiness, on parchment, and used for personal or public study, or for reading aloud in public. Sometimes the intent is specifically Torah scrolls], tefillin, and mezuzot from the non-Jews for more than their worth, due to Tikkun HaOlam.

7 ז

הַמּוֹצִיא אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ מִשּׁוּם שֵׁם רָע, לֹא יַחֲזִיר. מִשּׁוּם נֶדֶר, לֹא יַחֲזִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל נֶדֶר שֶׁיָּדְעוּ בוֹ רַבִּים, לֹא יַחֲזִיר. וְשֶׁלֹּא יָדְעוּ בוֹ רַבִּים, יַחֲזִיר. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, כָּל נֶדֶר שֶׁצָּרִיךְ חֲקִירַת חָכָם, לֹא יַחֲזִיר. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ חֲקִירַת חָכָם, יַחֲזִיר. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, לֹא אָסְרוּ זֶה אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַעֲשֶׂה בְצַיְדָּן בְּאֶחָד שֶׁאָמַר לְאִשְׁתּוֹ, קוֹנָם אִם אֵינִי מְגָרְשֵׁךְ, וְגֵרְשָׁהּ. וְהִתִּירוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנָּה, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

[With regard to] one who divorced his wife due to her bad reputation, he may not remarry her. If it was because of a vow [that she made], he may not remarry her. Rabbi Yehudah says, "[In the case of] any vow that was known to the public, he may not remarry her. [But for one] that was not known to the public, he may remarry her." Rabbi Meir says, "[In the case of] any vow that required the inspection of a Sage[to determine if it can be annulled], he may not remarry her. If it does not require inspection of a Sage, he may remarry her." Rabbi Eliezer said, "This one was only prohibited due to that one. Rabbi Yossi, son of Rabbi Yehudah, said, "There was an occurrence in Sidon with one man who said to his wife, "I take a vow if I do not divorce you, and he divorced her. The rabbis allowed them to remarry, due to Tikkun HaOlam.

8 ח

הַמּוֹצִיא אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אַיְלוֹנִית, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יַחֲזִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יַחֲזִיר. נִשֵּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְהָיוּ לָהּ בָּנִים הֵימֶנּוּ, וְהִיא תוֹבַעַת כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אוֹמְרִים לָהּ, שְׁתִיקוּתִיךְ יָפָה לִיךְ מִדִּבּוּרִיךְ:

[With regard to] one who divorces his wife because she is an aiylonit [[a woman with arrested sexual development who cannot bear children], Rabbi Yehudah says, "He may not remarry her." The Sages say, "He may remarry her." If she married someone else, and she had children with him, and she demands her ketubah [from the first husband], Rabbi Yehudah says, "We say to her, 'Your silence is better than your speaking.'"

9 ט

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְאֶת בָּנָיו לְגוֹי, אֵין פּוֹדִין אוֹתוֹ, אֲבָל פּוֹדִין אֶת הַבָּנִים לְאַחַר מִיתַת אֲבִיהֶן. הַמּוֹכֵר שָׂדֵהוּ לְגוֹי וְחָזַר וּלְקָחָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, הַלּוֹקֵחַ מֵבִיא מִמֶּנּוּ בִכּוּרִים, מִפְּנֵי תִקּוּן הָעוֹלָם:

[With regard to] one who sells himself and his children to a non-Jew, we do not redeem him. But we redeem the children after the death of their father. [With regard to] one who sells his field to a non-Jew, and a Jew buys it back from him, the buyer brings the first fruits from it, due to Tikkun HaOlam.