Mishnah Eruvin
1א׳
1 א

מָבוֹי שֶׁהוּא גָבוֹהַּ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, יְמַעֵט. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. וְהָרָחָב מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, יְמַעֵט. וְאִם יֶשׁ לוֹ צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָחָב מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְמַעֵט:

If a mavoy [an alleyway onto which courtyards open] - that [has an entrance with an opening that] is higher than twenty amot [a specific unit of length], one must lower [it in order to separate the mavoy from the public domain]. Rabbi Yehuda says it is not necessary. And if it is wider than ten amot, one must narrow [it in order to separate the mavoy from the public domain]. If there is a tsurat hapetach [two uprights and a crossbar, however slight, halachically effecting a doorway], even though [the entrance] is wider than ten amot, it is not necessary to narrow it.

2 ב

הֶכְשֵׁר מָבוֹי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְחָיַיִן. מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אָמַר תַּלְמִיד אֶחָד לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל עַל מָבוֹי שֶׁהוּא פָחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, שֶׁהוּא אוֹ בְלֶחִי אוֹ בְקוֹרָה. עַל מַה נֶּחְלְקוּ, עַל רָחָב מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעַד עֶשֶׂר, שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אוֹ לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, עַל זֶה וְעַל זֶה נֶחֱלָקוּ:

The required preparation of a mavoy [to consider its fourth side as separated from the public domain]: Beit Shammai says, "A lechi [A vertical strip at the side of an entrance to a mavoy which permits carrying on Shabbat in the mavoy] and a beam [on top of the entrance]." Beit Hillel says, "A lechi or a beam." Rabbi Eliezer says, "Two lechi." In the name of Rabbi Yishmael, said one student in front of Rabbi Akiva, "Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree about [an entrance of] a mavoy that is narrower than four amot, that it is [adequately separated] with either a lechi or a beam. About what did they disagree? About [an entrance of a mavoy] that is from four to ten amot; Beit Shammai says, '[It needs] a lechi and a beam,' but Beit Hillel says, 'Either a lechi or a beam.'" Rabbi Akiva says, "They disagreed about this and that."

3 ג

הַקּוֹרָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ, רְחָבָה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ. וְאָרִיחַ, חֲצִי לְבֵנָה שֶׁל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. דַּיָּה לַקּוֹרָה שֶׁתְּהֵא רְחָבָה טֶפַח, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ לְאָרְכּוֹ:

The beam that they spoke [about, must be] wide enough to hold an ariach, and an ariach is half a brick [with a whole brick having the width] of three tefachim [a specific unit of length]. It is enough for the beam to be a tefach wide so that it can hold an ariach sideways.

4 ד

רְחָבָה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ, וּבְרִיאָה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, רְחָבָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּרִיאָה:

[The beam must be] wide enough to hold an ariach and strong enough to hold an ariach. Rabbi Yehuda says, "[It must only be] wide [enough], even though it is not strong [enough to hold an ariach]."

5 ה

הָיְתָה שֶׁל קַשׁ אוֹ שֶׁל קָנִים, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. עֲקֻמָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא פְשׁוּטָה. עֲגֻלָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא מְרֻבַּעַת. כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּהֶקֵּפוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, יֶשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב טָפַח:

If [the beam] is [made of] stubble or reeds, we view it as if it were [made out of] metal. [If it is] bent, we view it as if it were straight. [If it is] rounded, we view it as if it were squared off. Anything [round] that has a circumference of three tefachim has a width of one tefach.

6 ו

לְחָיַיִן שֶׁאָמְרוּ, גָּבְהָן עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְרָחְבָּן וְעָבְיָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, רָחְבָּן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים:

The lechayayin that they spoke [about], their height [must be] ten tefachim, and their width and thickness can be anything. Rabbi Yose says, "Their width must be three tefachim."

7 ז

בַּכֹּל עוֹשִׂין לְחָיַיִן, אֲפִלּוּ בְדָבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹסֵר. וּמְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם גּוֹלֵל, וְרַבִּי מֵאִיר מְטַהֵר. וְכוֹתְבִין עָלָיו גִּטֵּי נָשִׁים, וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי פוֹסֵל:

We can make a lechi from anything - even out of a living thing but Rabbi Yose forbids [doing that]. And [a living thing that is used as a grave cover] imparts impurity according to [the laws of] a grave cover, but Rabbi Meir renders it pure. We [can] write a bill of divorce on [a living animal] but Rabbi Yose Haglili disqualifies [such a bill of divorce].

8 ח

שַׁיָּרָא שֶׁחָנְתָה בְּבִקְעָה וְהִקִּיפוּהָ בִכְלֵי בְהֵמָה, מְטַלְטְלִין בְּתוֹכָהּ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא גָדֵר גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְלֹא יִהְיוּ פְרָצוֹת יְתֵרוֹת עַל הַבִּנְיָן. כָּל פִּרְצָה שֶׁהִיא כְעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, מֻתֶּרֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְפֶתַח. יָתֵר מִכָּאן, אָסוּר:

If a caravan is camped in a valley and they encircled [the camp] with animal tack; we can carry within [that perimeter], but only if the fence [made from the tack] is ten tefachim high and the gaps aren't more than the walls. Any gap that is [up to] ten amot is permitted because it is like an opening [doorway]; larger than that is forbidden.

9 ט

מַקִּיפִין שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲבָלִים, זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה וְזֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בֵּין חֶבֶל לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. שִׁעוּר חֲבָלִים וְעָבְיָן, יָתֵר עַל טֶפַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכֹּל עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים:

We may surround [an area] with three ropes, one on top of the other, but only if there is not [a gap of] three tefachim between one rope and another. The required size of the ropes and their width must be more than a tefach, so that the whole thing be ten tefachim.

10 י

מַקִּיפִין בְּקָנִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בֵין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. בְּשַׁיָּרָא דִבְּרוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא דִבְּרוּ בְשַׁיָּרָא אֶלָּא בַהֹוֶה. כָּל מְחִצָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל שְׁתִי וְשֶׁל עֵרֶב, אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי דְבָרִים. אַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים פָּטְרוּ בַמַּחֲנֶה, מְבִיאִין עֵצִים מִכָּל מָקוֹם, וּפְטוּרִים מֵרְחִיצַת יָדַיִם, וּמִדְּמַאי, וּמִלְּעָרֵב:

We surround an area with reeds, but only if there is not [a gap of] three tefachim between one reed and another. They spoke [about allowing these leniencies specifically] concerning a caravan - so says Rabbi Yehuda. The Sages say, "They were only talking about a caravan in the present case [as an example]." Any mechitza [legal partition] which is not [made of] vertical and horizontal [parts] is not a mechitza - so says Rabbi Yose ben Rabbi Yehuda. The Sages say, "[Only] one of [those] two things [is required]." [The Rabbis] gave dispensation for four things in an army camp: We can take wood from any place, we are exempt from hand-washing; from [the prohibition to eat] demai [produce from which it is uncertain whether tithes were already taken]; and from the requirement to make an eruv [halachic merging of separate domains by means of setting aside an amount of food in a designated place][in order to carry within the camp].