Mishnah Eruvin
1א׳
1 א

מָבוֹי שֶׁהוּא גָבוֹהַּ לְמַעְלָה מֵעֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, יְמַעֵט. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. וְהָרָחָב מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, יְמַעֵט. וְאִם יֶשׁ לוֹ צוּרַת הַפֶּתַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא רָחָב מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְמַעֵט:

[The crossbeam] of an alley [whose entrance] is more than twenty cubits high should be lowered. Rabbi Judah says: this is unnecessary. And [any entrance] that is wider than ten cubits should be reduced [in width]. But if it has the shape of a doorway there is no need to reduce it even though it is wider than ten cubits.

2 ב

הֶכְשֵׁר מָבוֹי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְחָיַיִן. מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אָמַר תַּלְמִיד אֶחָד לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל עַל מָבוֹי שֶׁהוּא פָחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, שֶׁהוּא אוֹ בְלֶחִי אוֹ בְקוֹרָה. עַל מַה נֶּחְלְקוּ, עַל רָחָב מֵאַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וְעַד עֶשֶׂר, שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אוֹ לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, עַל זֶה וְעַל זֶה נֶחֱלָקוּ:

The validation of an alley: Bet Shammai says: a side-post and a crossbeam. And Bet Hillel says: either a side-post or a crossbeam. R. Eliezer says: two side-posts. In the name of Rabbi Ishmael one student stated in front of Rabbi Akiva: Bet Shammai and Bet Hillel did not disagree concerning an alley that was less than four cubits [in width], that it [may be validated] by either a side-post or a crossbeam. About what did they disagree? In the case of one that was wider than four, and narrower than ten cubits: Bet Shammai says: both a side-post and a crossbeam [are required] and Bet Hillel says: either a side-post or a crossbeam. Rabbi Akiva said they disagree about both cases.

3 ג

הַקּוֹרָה שֶׁאָמְרוּ, רְחָבָה כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ. וְאָרִיחַ, חֲצִי לְבֵנָה שֶׁל שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. דַּיָּה לַקּוֹרָה שֶׁתְּהֵא רְחָבָה טֶפַח, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ לְאָרְכּוֹ:

The cross-beam of which they spoke must be wide enough to hold a small brick (ariah), a small brick which is half of a regular brick, the size of three handbreadths. It is enough for the cross-beam to be one handbreadth wide in order to hold the width of a small brick.

4 ד

רְחָבָה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ, וּבְרִיאָה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל אָרִיחַ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, רְחָבָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּרִיאָה:

Wide enough to hold a half-brick but also strong enough to support such a half-brick. Rabbi Judah says: wide enough, even though it is not strong enough.

5 ה

הָיְתָה שֶׁל קַשׁ אוֹ שֶׁל קָנִים, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת. עֲקֻמָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא פְשׁוּטָה. עֲגֻלָּה, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא מְרֻבַּעַת. כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּהֶקֵּפוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים, יֶשׁ בּוֹ רֹחַב טָפַח:

If [the cross-beam] was made of straw or reeds, we look at it as if it was of metal. [If it was] curved we look at it as if it were straight. [If it was] round we look at it as if it were square. Whatever has a circumference of three handbreadths has a diameter of one handbreadth.

6 ו

לְחָיַיִן שֶׁאָמְרוּ, גָּבְהָן עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְרָחְבָּן וְעָבְיָן כָּל שֶׁהוּא. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, רָחְבָּן שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים:

The side-posts of which they spoke [must be no less than] ten hand-breadths in height, but their width and thickness may be of any size whatsoever. Rabbi Yose says: their width [must be no less than] three handbreadths.

7 ז

בַּכֹּל עוֹשִׂין לְחָיַיִן, אֲפִלּוּ בְדָבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים. וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹסֵר. וּמְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם גּוֹלֵל, וְרַבִּי מֵאִיר מְטַהֵר. וְכוֹתְבִין עָלָיו גִּטֵּי נָשִׁים, וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי פוֹסֵל:

One may make the side-posts out of anything, even something that is alive. But Rabbi Yose prohibits this. It also causes defilement as the covering of a tomb, But Rabbi Meir makes pure. One may write on them gittin, But Rabbi Yose the Galilean declares it unfit.

8 ח

שַׁיָּרָא שֶׁחָנְתָה בְּבִקְעָה וְהִקִּיפוּהָ בִכְלֵי בְהֵמָה, מְטַלְטְלִין בְּתוֹכָהּ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא גָדֵר גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְלֹא יִהְיוּ פְרָצוֹת יְתֵרוֹת עַל הַבִּנְיָן. כָּל פִּרְצָה שֶׁהִיא כְעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, מֻתֶּרֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כְפֶתַח. יָתֵר מִכָּאן, אָסוּר:

If a caravan camped in a valley and it was surrounded by the instruments used for the cattle it is permissible to move objects within it, provided [the instruments] form a fence ten handbreadths high and the gaps do not exceed the built-up parts. Any gap which is wider than ten cubits it is permitted [to carry within], because it is like an entrance. If it is greater, it is forbidden [to carry within].

9 ט

מַקִּיפִין שְׁלֹשָׁה חֲבָלִים, זֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה וְזֶה לְמַעְלָה מִזֶּה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בֵּין חֶבֶל לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. שִׁעוּר חֲבָלִים וְעָבְיָן, יָתֵר עַל טֶפַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכֹּל עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים:

They may surround [the caravan] by three ropes, this one above this one, and this one above this one, provided that [the space] between the one rope and the other is less than three handbreadths. The size of the ropes [must be such] that their [total] thickness is more than a handbreadth, so that the total height is ten handbreadths.

10 י

מַקִּיפִין בְּקָנִים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בֵין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה טְפָחִים. בְּשַׁיָּרָא דִבְּרוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא דִבְּרוּ בְשַׁיָּרָא אֶלָּא בַהֹוֶה. כָּל מְחִצָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל שְׁתִי וְשֶׁל עֵרֶב, אֵינָהּ מְחִצָּה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד מִשְּׁנֵי דְבָרִים. אַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים פָּטְרוּ בַמַּחֲנֶה, מְבִיאִין עֵצִים מִכָּל מָקוֹם, וּפְטוּרִים מֵרְחִיצַת יָדַיִם, וּמִדְּמַאי, וּמִלְּעָרֵב:

They may also surround [the camp] with reeds, provided there is no [gap of] three handbreadths between one reed and the next. [The rabbis] spoke only of a caravan, the words of Rabbi Judah. But the sages say that they only spoke of a caravan because it is a usual occurrence. Any partition that is not [made up of] both vertical and horizontal [pieces] is not a valid partition, the words of Rabbi Yose bar Judah. But the sages say: one of the two [is sufficient]. They exempted four obligations [to soldiers] in an encampment: They may bring wood from anywhere; they are exempt from the washing of the hands, and from [separating tithes from] doubtfully tithed produce (demai) and from the setting up an eruv.