2ב׳
1 א

רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגַן הַכֹּהֲנִים הֵעִיד אַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים. מִימֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים לֹא נִמְנְעוּ מִלִּשְׂרֹף אֶת הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּטְמָא בִּוְלַד הַטֻּמְאָה עִם הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּטְמָא בְּאַב הַטֻּמְאָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין טֻמְאָה עַל טֻמְאָתוֹ. הוֹסִיף רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מִימֵיהֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים לֹא נִמְנְעוּ מִלְּהַדְלִיק אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן שֶׁנִּפְסַל בִּטְבוּל יוֹם בְּנֵר שֶׁנִּטְמָא בִטְמֵא מֵת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין טֻמְאָה עַל טֻמְאָתוֹ:

Rabbi Hanina, chief of the priests, testified concerning four matters:Through all their days the priests never refrained from burning meat which had been defiled by an “offspring” of impurity with meat which had been made impure by a “father” of impurity, although they were [thereby] increasing its impurity by a [higher] impurity. Rabbi Akiba added: “Through all their days the priests never shrank from lighting oil which had been rendered unfit by a tevul yom in a lamp made impure by one who was made impure by a corpse, although they were [thereby] increasing its impurity by a [higher] impurity.”

2 ב

אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגַן הַכֹּהֲנִים, מִיָּמַי לֹא רָאִיתִי עוֹר יוֹצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מִדְּבָרָיו לָמַדְנוּ, שֶׁהַמַּפְשִׁיט אֶת הַבְּכוֹר וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, שֶׁיֵּאוֹתוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּעוֹרוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא רָאִינוּ אֵינוֹ רְאָיָה, אֶלָּא יוֹצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה:

Rabbi Hanina, chief of the priests, said: “All my days I never saw a hide taken out to the place of burning.” Rabbi Akiba said: “From his words we infer that whoever flays the hide of the firstborn beast and it is found to be trefah, the priests may enjoy the use of the hide.” But the Sages say: “[A testimony which consists of] ‘we didn’t see’ is not a proof; rather the hide must be taken out to the place of burning.

3 ג

אַף הוּא הֵעִיד עַל כְּפָר קָטָן שֶׁהָיָה בְצַד יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, וְהָיָה בוֹ זָקֵן אֶחָד וְהָיָה מַלְוֶה לְכָל בְּנֵי הַכְּפָר וְכוֹתֵב בִּכְתַב יָדוֹ וַאֲחֵרִים חוֹתְמִים, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּ. לְפִי דַרְכְּךָ אַתָּה לָמֵד, שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה כּוֹתֶבֶת אֶת גִּטָּהּ וְהָאִישׁ כּוֹתֵב אֶת שׁוֹבְרוֹ, שֶׁאֵין קִיּוּם הַגֵּט אֶלָּא בְחוֹתְמָיו. וְעַל מַחַט שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בַּבָּשָׂר, שֶׁהַסַּכִּין וְהַיָּדַיִם טְהוֹרוֹת, וְהַבָּשָׂר טָמֵא. וְאִם נִמְצֵאת בַּפֶּרֶשׁ, הַכֹּל טָהוֹר:

He also testified concerning a small village in the vicinity of Jerusalem in which there was an old man who used to lend to all the people of the village and write out [the bond] in his own handwriting and others signed it. And when the fact was brought before the Sages they pronounced it legal. Hence, incidentally, you may infer that a wife may write her own bill of divorcement, and a husband may write his own receipt; for the legality of a document depends only on those who sign it. And [he testified] concerning a needle which was found in flesh of a [sacrifice], that the knife and the hands [which had been employed on the flesh] are clean, but the flesh itself is defiled; and if it was found in the excrement, all are clean.

4 ד

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים בַּכֶּרֶם בְּיַבְנֶה. עַל בֵּיצָה טְרוּפָה שֶׁהִיא נְתוּנָה עַל גַּבֵּי יָרָק שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, שֶׁהִיא חִבּוּר. וְאִם הָיְתָה כְמִין כּוֹבַע, אֵינָהּ חִבּוּר. וְעַל שִׁבֹּלֶת שֶׁבַּקָּצִיר וְרֹאשָׁהּ מַגִּיעַ לַקָּמָה, אִם נִקְצְרָה עִם הַקָּמָה, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. וְעַל גִּנָּה קְטַנָּה שֶׁהִיא מֻקֶּפֶת עָרִיס, אִם יֶשׁ בָּהּ כִּמְלֹא בוֹצֵר וְסַלּוֹ מִכָּאן וּמְלֹא בוֹצֵר וְסַלּוֹ מִכָּאן, תִּזָּרֵעַ. וְאִם לָאו, לֹא תִזָּרֵעַ:

Rabbi Yishmael declared three things before the Sages in the vineyard at Yavneh: Concerning an egg which was beaten together, and placed on vegetables of terumah that it acts as a connection; but if it was in the form of a helmet it does not act as a connection. And concerning an ear of corn in the harvesting, the top of which reached the standing corn that if it can be reaped together with the standing corn, it belongs to the owner; and if not, it belongs to the poor. And concerning a small garden which was surrounded by a row of vines that if it has space for the grape-gatherer and his basket on one side, and space for the grape-gatherer and his basket on the other side, it may be sown with seed; but if not, it may not be sown with seed.

5 ה

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אָמְרוּ לִפְנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, וְלֹא אָמַר בָּהֶם לֹא אִסּוּר וְהֶתֵּר, וּפֵרְשָׁן רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן מַתְיָא. הַמֵּפִיס מֻרְסָא בְּשַׁבָּת, אִם לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ פֶּה, חַיָּב, וְאִם לְהוֹצִיא מִמֶּנָּה לֵחָה, פָּטוּר. וְעַל הַצָּד נָחָשׁ בַּשַּׁבָּת, אִם מִתְעַסֵּק שֶׁלֹּא יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ, פָּטוּר, וְאִם לִרְפוּאָה, חַיָּב. וְעַל לְפָסִין אִירוֹנִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵם טְהוֹרוֹת בְּאֹהֶל הַמֵּת וּטְמֵאוֹת בְּמַשָּׂא הַזָּב. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, אַף בְּמַשָּׂא הַזָּב, טְהוֹרוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתָּן:

They stated three things before Rabbi Yishmael, and he pronounced none of them either unlawful or lawful; and Rabbi Joshua ben Matya explained them.One who lances an abscess on the Sabbath: if it was to make an opening he is liable; if it was to bring out the pus, he is exempt. And concerning one who hunts a snake on the Sabbath: that if he was occupied with it in order that it should not bite him, he is innocent; but if that he might use it as a remedy, he is guilty. And concerning Ironian stewpots: that they do not contract impurity when under the same tent as a corpse; but become impure if they are carried by a zav. Rabbi Eliezer ben Zadok says: “Even if they are carried by a zav they remain pure, because they are unfinished.”

6 ו

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְלֹא הוֹדָה לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. הַשּׁוּם וְהַבֹּסֶר וְהַמְּלִילוֹת שֶׁרִסְּקָן מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, יִגְמֹר מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשָׁךְ, וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִגְמֹר:

Rabbi Yishmael said three things, and Rabbi Akiba disagreed with him.Garlic or unripe grapes or green ears of grain were being crushed [on the eve of the Sabbath] while it is yet day: Rabbi Yishmael says: “He may finish crushing after it grows dark.” But Rabbi Akiba says: “He may not finish.”

7 ז

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אָמְרוּ לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, שְׁנַיִם מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְאֶחָד מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ. שְׁנַיִם מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, יוֹצֵאת אִשָּׁה בְעִיר שֶׁל זָהָב, וּמַפְרִיחֵי יוֹנִים פְּסוּלִים לְעֵדוּת. וְאֶחָד מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּפִי חֻלְדָּה וּמְהַלֶּכֶת עַל גַּבֵּי כִכָּרוֹת שֶׁל תְּרוּמָה, סָפֵק נָגַע סָפֵק לֹא נָגַע, סְפֵקוֹ טָהוֹר:

They said three things before Rabbi Akiva, two in the name of Rabbi Eliezer and one in the name of Rabbi Joshua. Two in the name of Rabbi Eliezer:A woman may go out [on the Sabbath adorned] with a “golden-city”; And they that fly pigeons are unfit to bear evidence. And one in the name of Rabbi Joshua: If there was a creeping thing in the mouth of a weasel when it walked over loaves of terumah, and it is doubtful whether it touched them or whether it did not touch them, that about which there is doubt remains pure.

8 ח

שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, עַל שְׁנַיִם הוֹדוּ לוֹ וְעַל אֶחָד לֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ. עַל סַנְדָּל שֶׁל סַיָּדִים, שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא מִדְרָס. וְעַל שְׁיָרֵי תַנּוּר אַרְבָּעָה, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים שְׁלֹשָׁה. וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ. וְעַל אֶחָד לֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ, עַל כִּסֵּא שֶׁנִּטְּלוּ שְׁנַיִם מֵחִפּוּיָיו זֶה בְּצַד זֶה, שֶׁרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְטַמֵּא וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִין:

Rabbi Akiba declared three things; about two they agreed with him, and about one they disagreed with him.About a lime-burner’s sandal, that it is liable to contract midras impurity; And about the remains of a [broken] oven, that they must be four handbreadths high [in order to retain impurity], whereas they used to say three and [when he said four] they agreed with him. And about one they disagreed with him About a stool, from which two of its covering-boards had been removed, the one beside the other, which Rabbi Akiba pronounces able to contract impurity, but the Sages declare unable to contract impurity.

9 ט

הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, הָאָב זוֹכֶה לַבֵּן, בַּנּוֹי, וּבַכֹּחַ, וּבָעֹשֶׁר, וּבַחָכְמָה, וּבַשָּׁנִים, וּבְמִסְפַּר הַדּוֹרוֹת לְפָנָיו, וְהוּא הַקֵּץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מא) קֹרֵא הַדֹּרוֹת מֵרֹאשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית טו), וַעֲבָדוּם וְעִנּוּ אֹתָם אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה, וְנֶאֱמַר (שם), וְדוֹר רְבִיעִי יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה:

He used to say: the father transmits to the son beauty, strength, wealth, wisdom and years. And the number of generations before Him, that shall be their appointed end: For it is said, “calling the generations from the beginning” (Isaiah 41:4) Although it is said, “And shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years” (Genesis 15:13), it is also said, “And in the fourth generation they shall come hither again” (Genesis 15:16).

10 י

אַף הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים שֶׁל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. מִשְׁפַּט דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. מִשְׁפַּט אִיּוֹב, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. מִשְׁפַּט הַמִּצְרִיִּים, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. מִשְׁפַּט גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. מִשְׁפַּט רְשָׁעִים בְּגֵיהִנֹּם, שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סו), וְהָיָה מִדֵּי חֹדֶשׁ בְּחָדְשׁוֹ. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, מִן הַפֶּסַח וְעַד הָעֲצֶרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וּמִדֵּי שַׁבָּת בְּשַׁבַּתּוֹ:

Also he used to say that there are five things that last twelve months:The judgment of the generation of the flood [continued] twelve months; The judgment of Job [continued] twelve months; The judgment of the Egyptians [continued] twelve months; The judgment of Gog and Magog in the time to come [will continue] twelve months; The judgment of the wicked in gehinom [continues] twelve months, for it is said, and “It will be from one month until its [same] month” (Isaiah 66:23). Rabbi Yohanan ben Nuri says: “[As long as] from Passover to Shavuoth, for it is said, “And from one Sabbath until its [next] Sabbath” (ibid.).