5ה׳
1 א

אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ, נוֹהֵג בֵּין בָּאָרֶץ בֵּין בְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין וּבְמֻקְדָּשִׁין. כֵּיצַד. הַשּׁוֹחֵט אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ חֻלִּין בַּחוּץ, שְׁנֵיהֶם כְּשֵׁרִים, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ, הָרִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב כָּרֵת, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִים, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם סוֹפְגִים אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִים, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. קָדָשִׁים בִּפְנִים, הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּשֵׁר וּפָטוּר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים וּפָסוּל:

[The law of] “It and its young” applies both within the land of Israel and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, in respect of both unconsecrated and consecrated animals. How so? If a person slaughtered an animal and its young, both animals being unconsecrated, [and they slaughtered them] outside [the sanctuary], they are both valid, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes. If both animals were consecrated [and they were slaughtered] outside [the sanctuary], [he who slaughtered] the first incurs the penalty of karet, both animals are invalid, and each incurs forty lashes. If both animals were unconsecrated [and they were slaughtered] inside [the sanctuary], both animals are invalid, and [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes. If both animals were consecrated [and they were slaughtered] inside [the sanctuary], the first is valid and [he who slaughtered it is] not culpable, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes, and it is invalid.

2 ב

חֻלִּין וְקָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ, הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּשֵׁר וּפָטוּר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים וּפָסוּל. קָדָשִׁים וְחֻלִּין בַּחוּץ, הָרִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב כָּרֵת וּפָסוּל, וְהַשֵּׁנִי כָּשֵׁר, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם סוֹפְגִין אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. חֻלִּין וְקָדָשִׁים בִּפְנִים, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִים, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. קָדָשִׁים וְחֻלִּין בִּפְנִים, הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּשֵׁר וּפָטוּר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים וּפָסוּל. חֻלִּין בַּחוּץ וּבִפְנִים, הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּשֵׁר וּפָטוּר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים וּפָסוּל. קָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ וּבִפְנִים, הָרִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב כָּרֵת, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִים, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם סוֹפְגִים אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים וּבַחוּץ, הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּסוּל וּפָטוּר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים וְכָשֵׁר. קָדָשִׁים בִּפְנִים וּבַחוּץ, הָרִאשׁוֹן כָּשֵׁר וּפָטוּר, וְהַשֵּׁנִי סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים וּפָסוּל:

If [the first animal was] unconsecrated and [the second] consecrated [and they were both slaughtered] outside [the sanctuary], the first is valid and [he who slaughtered it is] not liable, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes and it is invalid. If [the first was] consecrated and [the second] unconsecrated [and they were both slaughtered] outside [the sanctuary], [he who slaughtered] the first incurs the penalty of karet and it is invalid, and the second [animal] is valid, and each incurs forty lashes. If [the first was] unconsecrated and [the second] consecrated [and they were both slaughtered] inside [the sanctuary], they are both invalid, and [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes. If [the first was] consecrated and [the second] unconsecrated [and they were both slaughtered] inside [the sanctuary], the first animal is valid and [he who slaughtered it is] not liable, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes and it is invalid. If both were unconsecrated and [the first was slaughtered] outside [the sanctuary] and [the second] inside, the first is valid and [he who slaughtered it is] not liable, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes and it is invalid. If both were consecrated and [the first was slaughtered] outside [the sanctuary] and [the second] inside, [he who slaughtered] the first incurs the penalty of karet, each incurs forty lashes, and both animals are invalid. If both were unconsecrated and [the first was slaughtered] inside [the sanctuary] and [the second] outside, the first is invalid and [he who slaughtered it is] not liable, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes and it is valid. If both were consecrated and [the first was slaughtered] inside [the sanctuary] and [the second] outside, the first is valid and [he who slaughtered it is] not liable, but [he who slaughtered] the second incurs forty lashes and it is invalid.

3 ג

הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, הַשּׁוֹחֵט לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט פָּרַת חַטָּאת, וְשׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל, וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר, וַחֲכָמִים מְחַיְּבִין. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְיָדוֹ, וְהַנּוֹחֵר, וְהַמְּעַקֵּר, פָּטוּר מִשּׁוּם אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ פָרָה וּבְנָהּ, אֵיזֶה שֶׁלָּקַח רִאשׁוֹן, יִשְׁחֹט רִאשׁוֹן. וְאִם קָדַם הַשֵּׁנִי, זָכָה. שָׁחַט פָּרָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁחָטָהּ, סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֶת בִּתָּהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁחַט אֶת בִּתָּהּ, סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. סוּמְכוֹס אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְרָקִים בַּשָּׁנָה הַמּוֹכֵר בְּהֵמָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ, אִמָּהּ מָכַרְתִּי לִשְׁחֹט, בִּתָּהּ מָכַרְתִּי לִשְׁחֹט. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל חָג, וְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח, וְעֶרֶב עֲצֶרֶת, וְעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּכְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, אַף עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בַּגָּלִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רֶוַח. אֲבָל יֶשׁ לוֹ רֶוַח, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּמוֹכֵר אֶת הָאֵם לֶחָתָן וְאֶת הַבַּת לַכַּלָּה, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹחֲטִין בְּיוֹם אֶחָד:

If a person slaughtered [an animal] and it was found to be terefah, or if he slaughtered [it as an offering] to idols, or if he slaughtered the red cow, or an ox which was condemned to be stoned, or a heifer whose neck was to be broken: Rabbi Shimon exempts [him from having transgressed the law of “it and its young”]; But the sages make him liable. If a person slaughtered [an animal] and it became nevelah under his hand, or if he stabbed it, or tore away [the organs of the throat], he does not thereby transgress the law of it and its young. If two people bought a cow and its young, he who bought first can slaughter first; but if the second preceded him, he holds his advantage. If a person slaughtered a cow and then two of its calves, he is liable for eighty lashes. If he slaughtered its two calves and then the cow, he is liable for forty lashes. If he slaughtered it and then its calf and then the calf's offspring, he is liable for eighty lashes. If he slaughtered it and then its calf's offspring and then the calf, he is liable for forty lashes. Symmachos says in the name of r. Meir: he is liable for eighty lashes. At four periods in the year he who sells a beast to another must inform him, “I sold today its mother to be slaughtered,” or “I sold today its young to be slaughtered,” and these are they: on the eve of the last day of the feast [of Sukkot], on the eve of the first day of Pesah, on the eve of Shavuot, and on the eve of Rosh Hashanah. According to Rabbi Yose the Galilean, also on the eve of Yom Kippur, in the Galilee. Rabbi Judah says, this is so, only when there was no time in between the sales, but if there was time, he need not inform him. Rabbi Judah agrees that if he sold the mother to the bridegroom and the young to the bride, he must inform them of it, for it is certain that they will each slaughter on the same day.

4 ד

בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְרָקִים אֵלּוּ מַשְׁחִיטִין אֶת הַטַּבָּח בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה אֶלֶף דִּינָרִין וְאֵין לוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ אֶלָּא דִינָר, כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִשְׁחֹט, לְפִיכָךְ, אִם מֵת, מֵת לַלּוֹקֵחַ. אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, אֵינוֹ כֵן. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם מֵת, מֵת לַמּוֹכֵר:

At these four periods a butcher can be compelled to slaughter against his will. Even if the ox was worth a thousand dinars and the purchaser has only [paid] a dinar, they can force the butcher to slaughter it. Therefore if the animal died, the loss is upon the purchaser. At other times of the year it is not so, therefore if the animal died, the loss is upon the seller.

5 ה

יוֹם אֶחָד הָאָמוּר בְּאוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ, הַיּוֹם הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַלָּיְלָה. אֶת זוֹ דָרַשׁ שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא. נֶאֱמַר בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית (בראשית א), יוֹם אֶחָד, וְנֶאֱמַר בְּאוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ (ויקרא כב), יוֹם אֶחָד. מַה יּוֹם אֶחָד הָאָמוּר בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית הַיּוֹם הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַלַּיְלָה, אַף יוֹם אֶחָד הָאָמוּר בְּאוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ, הַיוֹם הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַלָּיְלָה:

The “one day” mentioned in connection with the law of “it and its young” means the day and the night preceding it. This was how Rabbi Shimon ben Zoma expounded (darash): it says “one day” (Genesis 1:5) in connection with the creation and it also says “one day” (Leviticus 22:28) in connection with “it and its young” Just as the “one day” mentioned in connection with the creation means the day and the night preceding it, so too the “one day” mentioned in connection with “it and its young” means the day and the night preceding it.