12י״ב
1 א

שִׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן, נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְמֻקְדָּשִׁין. חֹמֶר בְּכִסּוּי הַדָּם מִשִּׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן, שֶׁכִּסּוּי הַדָּם נוֹהֵג בְּחַיָּה וּבְעוֹף, בִּמְזֻמָּן וּבְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. וְשִׁלּוּחַ הַקֵּן, אֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בְעוֹף, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג אֶלָּא בְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. אֵיזֶהוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. כְּגוֹן אַוָּזִין וְתַרְנְגוֹלִין שֶׁקִּנְּנוּ בְפַרְדֵּס. אֲבָל אִם קִנְּנוּ בְּבַיִת, וְכֵן יוֹנֵי הַרְדְּסִיאוֹת, פָּטוּר מִשִּׁלּוּחַ:

[The law of] sending [away the mother bird from] the nest [before taking the eggs] applies in the land [of Israel] and outside of the land, at the time of the Temple and not during the time of the Temple, for chulin [produce or food permitted for general consumption] but not for for mukdashim [animals or food which are holy and not available for general consumption]. The stringency of [the law] of covering the blood over sending [the mother bird from] the nest is that covering the blood applies for wild animals and birds, for those in possession and not in possession. And sending [the mother bird from] the nest only applies for a bird, and only applies when it is not in possession. Which one is not in possession? For example, geese and chickens which nested in the field. But if they nested in the house, and also Herodian doves, one is exempt from sending them.

2 ב

עוֹף טָמֵא, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּחַ. עוֹף טָמֵא רוֹבֵץ עַל בֵּיצֵי עוֹף טָהוֹר, וְטָהוֹר רוֹבֵץ עַל בֵּיצֵי עוֹף טָמֵא, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּחַ. קוֹרֵא זָכָר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין:

A bird prohibited [from eating] is exempt from sending. [If] a prohibited bird is sitting on the eggs of a permitted bird, or a permitted one is sitting on the eggs of a prohibited bird, it is exempt from sending. The male partridge [which nests]: Rabbi Eliezer obligates [sending it away], but the Sages exempt.

3 ג

הָיְתָה מְעוֹפֶפֶת, בִּזְמַן שֶׁכְּנָפֶיהָ נוֹגְעוֹת בַּקֵּן, חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּחַ. אֵין כְּנָפֶיהָ נוֹגְעוֹת בַּקֵּן, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּחַ. אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא אֶפְרוֹחַ אֶחָד אוֹ בֵיצָה אַחַת, חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כב), קַן, קֵן מִכָּל מָקוֹם. הָיוּ שָׁם אֶפְרוֹחִין מַפְרִיחִין אוֹ בֵיצִים מוּזָרוֹת, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), וְהָאֵם רֹבֶצֶת עַל הָאֶפְרֹחִים אוֹ עַל הַבֵּיצִים, מָה אֶפְרוֹחִין בְּנֵי קְיָמָא, אַף בֵּיצִים בְּנֵי קְיָמָא, יָצְאוּ מוּזָרוֹת. וּמָה הַבֵּיצִים צְרִיכִין לְאִמָּן, אַף הָאֶפְרוֹחִין צְרִיכִין לְאִמָּן, יָצְאוּ מַפְרִיחִין. שִׁלְּחָהּ וְחָזְרָה, שִׁלְּחָהּ וְחָזְרָה, אֲפִלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה פְעָמִים, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח. אָמַר, הֲרֵינִי נוֹטֵל אֶת הָאֵם וּמְשַׁלֵּחַ אֶת הַבָּנִים, חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח אֶת הָאֵם. נָטַל הַבָּנִים וְהֶחֱזִירָן לַקֵּן וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרָה הָאֵם עֲלֵיהֶם, פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּחַ:

[If] it was flying, at the time when its wings touch the nest, one is obligated to send it away. [If] its wings do not touch the nest, one is exempt from sending. If there is only one young bird or one egg, one is obligated to send, as it says, "Nest," (Deuteronomy 22:6) in any case. [If] there were young birds flying or damaged eggs, one is exempt from sending, as it says, "And the mother is sitting on the young birds or on the eggs," (Deuteronomy 22:6). Just as young birds are viable, so too [the] eggs [must be] viable [to fall under the law], excluding damages ones. Just as eggs need their mother, so too the young birds [must] need their mother, which excludes ones which fly. If one sent her away and she returned, sent her away and she returned - even four or five times - one is obligated [to send her away again], as it says, "Send you shall send," (Deuternomy 22:7). [If] one said, "Here I take the mother and send off the offspring," one is [still] required to send, as it says, "Send you shall send the mother," (Deuteronomy 22:7). [If] one took the offspring and then returned them to the nest, and after the mother returned to them, one is exempt from sending.

4 ד

הַנּוֹטֵל אֵם עַל הַבָּנִים, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לוֹקֶה וְאֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּחַ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְשַׁלֵּחַ וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל מִצְוַת לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ קוּם עֲשֵׂה, אֵין לוֹקִין עָלֶיהָ:

One who took a mother with the offspring, Rabbi Yehuda says, "He is lashed and does not send [the mother away]." But the Sages say, "He sends away and is not lashed." This is the general rule: any negative commandment that has a proactive positive [part], one is not lashed for it.

5 ה

לֹא יִטֹּל אָדָם אֵם עַל הַבָּנִים, אֲפִלּוּ לְטַהֵר אֶת הַמְּצֹרָע. וּמָה אִם מִצְוָה קַלָּה שֶׁהִיא כְאִסָּר, אָמְרָה תוֹרָה (דברים כב), לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים, קַל וָחֹמֶר עַל מִצְוֹת חֲמוּרוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה:

A person may not take a mother with its offspring, even to purify the leper. And just as a light commandment that is like an issar [a specific, small, unit of money], the Torah said [about it], "In order to be good for you and you will lengthen your days," (Deuteronomy 22:7), a fortiori for weighty commandments which are in the Torah.