הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּשְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה, חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה, וְקָטָן, שֶׁמָּא יְקַלְקְלוּ בִשְׁחִיטָתָן. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ וַאֲחֵרִים רוֹאִין אוֹתָן, שְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה. שְׁחִיטַת נָכְרִי, נְבֵלָה, וּמְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בַּלַּיְלָה, וְכֵן הַסּוּמָא שֶׁשָּׁחַט, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּשַׁבָּת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה: Everyone slaughters an animal, i.e., can perform halakhically valid slaughter, and their slaughter is valid, except for a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, lest they ruin their slaughter because they lack competence. And for all of them, when they slaughtered an animal and others see and supervise them, their slaughter is valid. Slaughter performed by a gentile renders the animal an unslaughtered carcass, and the carcass imparts ritual impurity through carrying. In the case of one who slaughters an animal at night, and likewise in the case of the blind person who slaughters an animal, his slaughter is valid. In the case of one who slaughters an animal on Shabbat or on Yom Kippur, although he is liable to receive the death penalty, his slaughter is valid.
הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל יָד, בְּצוֹר, וּבְקָנֶה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּלְעוֹלָם שׁוֹחֲטִין, וּבַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין, חוּץ מִמַּגַּל קָצִיר, וְהַמְּגֵרָה, וְהַשִּׁנַּיִם, וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן חוֹנְקִין. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל קָצִיר בְּדֶרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתָהּ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹסְלִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַכְשִׁירִין. וְאִם הֶחֱלִיקוּ שִׁנֶּיהָ, הֲרֵי הִיא כְסַכִּין: In the case of one who slaughters an animal with the smooth side of a hand sickle, which has both a smooth and a serrated side, or with a sharpened flint, or with a reed that was cut lengthwise and sharpened, his slaughter is valid. All slaughter [hakkol shoḥatin], and one may always slaughter, and one may slaughter with any item that cuts, except for the serrated side of the harvest sickle, a saw, the teeth of an animal when attached to its jawbone, and a fingernail, because they are serrated and they consequently strangle the animal and do not cut its windpipe and gullet as required. In the case of one who slaughters an animal with a harvest sickle, which is serrated with its teeth inclined considerably in one direction, in a forward direction, where the serrations do not tear the flesh, Beit Shammai deem the slaughter not valid and Beit Hillel deem it valid. And they both agree that if they smoothed its serrations so that they do not tear the flesh, its halakhic status is like that of a knife and one may slaughter with it.
הַשּׁוֹחֵט מִתּוֹךְ הַטַּבַּעַת וְשִׁיֵּר בָּהּ מְלֹא הַחוּט עַל פְּנֵי כֻלָּהּ, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְלֹא הַחוּט עַל פְּנֵי רֻבָּהּ: With regard to one who slaughters an animal from within the cricoid cartilage that forms a complete ring at the top of the windpipe and left a thread breadth over the surface of the ring in its entirety intact, as the knife did not go beyond the ring toward the head of the animal, his slaughter is valid. Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: It is valid even if he left a thread breadth over the majority of the surface of the ring.
הַשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הַצְּדָדִין שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַמּוֹלֵק מִן הַצְּדָדִין, מְלִיקָתוֹ פְסוּלָה. הַשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הָעֹרֶף, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְסוּלָה. הַמּוֹלֵק מִן הָעֹרֶף, מְלִיקָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הַצַּוָּאר, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַמּוֹלֵק מִן הַצַּוָּאר, מְלִיקָתוֹ פְסוּלָה, שֶׁכָּל הָעֹרֶף כָּשֵׁר לִמְלִיקָה, וְכָל הַצַּוָּאר כָּשֵׁר לִשְׁחִיטָה. נִמְצָא, כָּשֵׁר בִּשְׁחִיטָה, פָּסוּל בִּמְלִיקָה. כָּשֵׁר בִּמְלִיקָה, פָּסוּל בִּשְׁחִיטָה: One who slaughters from the sides of the throat, his slaughter is valid. One who pinches the neck of a bird offering from the sides, his pinching is not valid.One who slaughters from the nape [oref] of the neck, his slaughter is not valid. One who pinches a bird offering from the nape of the neck, his pinching is valid. One who slaughters from the throat, his slaughter is valid. One who pinches a bird offering from the throat, his pinching is not valid, as the entire nape is valid for pinching and the entire throat is valid for slaughter. It is found that that which is valid for slaughter is not valid for pinching and that which is valid for pinching is not valid for slaughter.
כָּשֵׁר בַּתּוֹרִין, פָּסוּל בִּבְנֵי יוֹנָה. כָּשֵׁר בִּבְנֵי יוֹנָה, פָּסוּל בַּתּוֹרִין. תְּחִלַּת הַצִּהוּב, בָּזֶה וּבָזֶה פָּסוּל: It is written with regard to bird offerings: “He shall bring his offering of doves, or of young pigeons” (Leviticus 1:14). The age that is fit for sacrifice in doves, mature birds, is unfit for sacrifice in pigeons, immature birds;the age that is fit for sacrifice in pigeons is unfit for sacrifice in doves. At the intermediate stage of the beginning of the yellowing of its plumage (see 22b), a bird is unfit both as this, a pigeon, and as that, a dove, since it is no longer a fledgling but is not yet a mature bird.
כָּשֵׁר בַּפָּרָה, פָּסוּל בָּעֶגְלָה. כָּשֵׁר בָּעֶגְלָה, פָּסוּל בַּפָּרָה. כָּשֵׁר בַּכֹּהֲנִים, פָּסוּל בַּלְוִיִּם. כָּשֵׁר בַּלְוִיִּם, פָּסוּל בַּכֹּהֲנִים. טָהוֹר בִּכְלֵי חֶרֶשׂ, טָמֵא בְכָל הַכֵּלִים. טָהוֹר בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים, טָמֵא בִכְלֵי חָרֶשׂ. טָהוֹר בִּכְלֵי עֵץ, טָמֵא בִכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת. טָהוֹר בִּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת, טָמֵא בִכְלֵי עֵץ. הַחַיָּב בַּשְּׁקֵדִים הַמָּרִים, פָּטוּר בַּמְּתוּקִים. הַחַיָּב בַּמְּתוּקִים, פָּטוּר בַּמָּרִים: That which is fit in a red heifer is unfit in a heifer whose neck is broken; that which is fit in a heifer whose neck is broken is unfit in a red heifer. There is an element with which priests remain fit and Levites are unfit, and there is also an element with which Levites remain fit and priests are unfit. That which is ritually pure in an earthenware vessel is ritually impure in all the other types of vessels; that which is ritually pure in all the other types of vessels is ritually impure in an earthenware vessel. That which is ritually pure in wooden vessels is ritually impure in metal vessels; that which is ritually pure in metal vessels is ritually impure in wooden vessels. With regard to the obligation of separating teruma and tithes, the stage of development that is obligated in bitter almonds is exempt in sweet almonds; and the stage in development that is obligated in sweet almonds is exempt in bitter almonds.
הַתֶּמֶד, עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱמִיץ, אֵינוֹ נִקָּח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר, וּפוֹסֵל אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. מִשֶּׁהֶחֱמִיץ, נִקָּח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר וְאֵינוֹ פוֹסֵל אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. הָאַחִין הַשֻּׁתָּפִין, כְּשֶׁחַיָּבִין בַּקָּלְבּוֹן, פְּטוּרִין מִמַּעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה. כְּשֶׁחַיָּבִין בְּמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה, פְּטוּרִין מִן הַקָּלְבּוֹן. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מֶכֶר, אֵין קְנַס. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ קְנַס, אֵין מָכֶר. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ מֵאוּן, אֵין חֲלִיצָה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲלִיצָה, אֵין מֵאוּן. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ תְּקִיעָה, אֵין הַבְדָּלָה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הַבְדָּלָה, אֵין תְּקִיעָה. יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, תּוֹקְעִין וְלֹא מַבְדִּילִין. בְּמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, מַבְדִּילִין וְלֹא תוֹקְעִין. כֵּיצַד מַבְדִּילִין, הַמַּבְדִּיל בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ לְקֹדֶשׁ. רַבִּי דוֹסָא אוֹמֵר, בֵּין קֹדֶשׁ חָמוּר לְקֹדֶשׁ הַקַּל: Temed, a beverage produced from grape residue soaked in water, until it fermented, may not be purchased with second-tithe money to be drunk in Jerusalem, because it is not wine. And if three log of it fall into a ritual bath, its halakhic status is that of drawn water and it invalidates the ritual bath. Once it fermented, it is wine, and therefore it may be purchased with second-tithe money and it does not invalidate the ritual bath. With regard to brothers who are partners in the inheritance of their father, when they are obligated to add the premium [kalbon] to their annual half-shekel payment to the Temple, they are exempt from animal tithe; when they are obligated to separate animal tithe, they are exempt from adding the premium. Partners who pay the half-shekel are required to add the premium and are exempt from animal tithe. If they are not true partners, but their inheritance remains the property of the father, the sons are exempt from paying the premium, and they are obligated to separate animal tithe. Any situation where there is sale of one’s daughter as a Hebrew maidservant, i.e., when she is a minor, there is no fine of fifty sela paid to her father if she is raped or seduced, as that fine is paid to her father only when she is a young woman. And any situation where there is a fine paid to the father there is no sale. Any situation where there is the right of refusal for a minor girl married by her mother or brothers, enabling her to opt out of the marriage, there is no ḥalitza, as a minor girl whose husband died without children cannot perform ḥalitza. And any situation where there is ḥalitza, once she has reached majority, there is no right of refusal. Any situation where there is a shofar blast sounded on the eve of Shabbat or a Festival to stop the people from performing labor and to demarcate between the sacred and the profane, there is no havdala recited at the conclusion of the Shabbat or Festival in prayer and over a cup of wine. And any situation where there is havdala recited, there is no shofar blast sounded. How so? On a Festival that occurs on Shabbat eve, one sounds the shofar to stop the people from performing labor that is permitted on the Festival and prohibited on Shabbat and to demarcate between one sacred day and another; and one does not recite havdala, as that is recited only when the transition is from a sacred day to a profane day or from a day of greater sanctity to a day of lesser sanctity. The sanctity of Shabbat is greater than the sanctity of the Festival, and therefore havdala is not recited in this case. On a Festival that occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat, one recites havdala, but one does not sound the shofar. How does one recite havdala in that case; i.e., what is the formula of the blessing? It concludes: Who distinguishes between sacred and sacred, as opposed to the standard blessing at the conclusion of Shabbat: Who distinguishes between sacred and profane. Rabbi Dosa says that the formula is: Who distinguishes between greater sanctity and lesser sanctity.