Mishnah Bikkurim
1א׳
1 א

יֵשׁ מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים וְקוֹרִין, מְבִיאִין וְלֹא קוֹרִין, וְיֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינָן מְבִיאִין. אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָן מְבִיאִין, הַנּוֹטֵעַ לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וְהִבְרִיךְ לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יָחִיד אוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּים, וְכֵן הַמַּבְרִיךְ מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁל יָחִיד אוֹ מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁל רַבִּים לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ. הַנּוֹטֵעַ לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וְהִבְרִיךְ לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, וְדֶרֶךְ הַיָּחִיד וְדֶרֶךְ הָרַבִּים בָּאֶמְצַע, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּזֶה מֵבִיא:

Some bring Bikkurim [first-fruits that must be brought to the Temple in Jerusalem and given to the Kohen, priest] and recite [the accompanying Biblical passage], some bring but do not recite, and some do not bring. These are who do not bring: one who plants in ones's own property but [the tree] leans into [another's] private or public property, and similarly, if [the tree] leans from a private or public property into one's own property. One who plants in one's own property and there are private or public roads that are planted in the middle does not bring. Rabbi Judah says, in that case, one does bring.

2 ב

מֵאֵיזֶה טַעַם אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ (שמות כג), עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ כָל הַגִּדּוּלִין מֵאַדְמָתְךָ. הָאֲרִיסִין וְהֶחָכוֹרוֹת וְהַסִּקָּרִיקוֹן וְהַגַּזְלָן, אֵין מְבִיאִין מֵאוֹתוֹ הַטַּעַם, מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ:

For what reason does one not bring? For it says (Exodus 23:19), "The first fruits of your land" [implying], all that is grown must be entirely from your land. Sharecroppers, renters, sikrikon [violent individuals who acquired fields and houses by use or threat of force, including murder], and thieves do not bring for the same reason, for it says, "The first fruits of your land."

3 ג

אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים חוּץ מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים. לֹא מִתְּמָרִים שֶׁבֶּהָרִים, וְלֹא מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים, וְלֹא מִזֵּיתֵי שֶׁמֶן שֶׁאֵינָם מִן הַמֻּבְחָר. אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים קֹדֶם לָעֲצֶרֶת. אַנְשֵׁי הַר צְבוֹעִים הֵבִיאוּ בִכּוּרֵיהֶם קֹדֶם לָעֲצֶרֶת, וְלֹא קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם, מִפְּנֵי הַכָּתוּב שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה (שמות כג) וְחַג הַקָּצִיר בִּכּוּרֵי מַעֲשֶׂיךָ אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרַע בַּשָּׂדֶה:

One only brings Bikkurim from the seven species [special to the Land of Israel, listed in Deut. 8:8], [but] not from the dates of the mountains or from fruits of the valley, nor from oil-olives that are not of the highest quality. One does not bring Bikkurim before Atseret [Shavuot, the harvest festival]. People from Har Tsevo'im brought their Bikkurim before Atseret and they [the priests] did not accept [the fruits] because of the verse in the Torah, (Exodus 23:16) "And the harvest festival, the first fruits of your labor that you plant in the field."

4 ד

אֵלּוּ מְבִיאִין וְלֹא קוֹרִין, הַגֵּר מֵבִיא וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לוֹמַר אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע ה' לַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ לָתֵת לָנוּ (דברים כו). וְאִם הָיְתָה אִמּוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. וּכְשֶׁהוּא מִתְפַּלֵּל בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ, אוֹמֵר, אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּכְשֶׁהוּא בְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אוֹמֵר, אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם. וְאִם הָיְתָה אִמּוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אוֹמֵר, אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵינוּ:

These people bring, but do not recite: the convert brings but does not recite, for he is unable to say [in the Biblical recitation] "[the land] that God swore to our fathers to give to us." And if his mother was from Israel, he brings and recites. And when he prays by himself, he says [in place of, "the God of our fathers"] "the God of the fathers of Israel." And when he is in the synagogue, he says "the God of your fathers." And if his mother was from Israel, he says "the God of our fathers."

5 ה

רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אִשָּׁה בַת גֵּרִים לֹא תִנָּשֵׂא לַכְּהֻנָּה, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אִמָּהּ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אֶחָד גֵּרִים וְאֶחָד עֲבָדִים מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַד עֲשָׂרָה דוֹרוֹת, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אִמָּן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ וְהָעֶבֶד וְהָאִשָּׁה וְטֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, מְבִיאִין וְלֹא קוֹרִין, שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לוֹמַר (דברים כו) אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לִּי ה':

Rabbi Eli'ezer ben Ya'akov says, a woman who is the daughter of converts cannot marry into the Kohen class, unless her mother is an Israelite; [this ruling applies to] both converts and freed slaves, and even after ten generations [from the original convert/freed slave], until their mother is an Israelite. A trustee of an estate, an agent, a slave, a woman, a Tumtum [person with recessed sexual organs whose gender is therefore impossible to determine, presently, by external examination. It is halachically uncertain whether such a person is male or female] and an Androginos [person with both male and female sexual organs. It is halachically uncertain whether such a person is male, female or, perhaps, has a uniquely defined halachic gender.] all bring but do not recite, since they cannot say, "[the land] that You, God, have given me."

6 ו

הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁתֵּי אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, מֵבִיא וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. יָבַשׁ הַמַּעְיָן, נִקְצַץ הָאִילָן, מֵבִיא וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. מֵעֲצֶרֶת וְעַד הֶחָג, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. מִן הֶחָג וְעַד חֲנֻכָּה, מֵבִיא וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא:

One who buys two trees in [the field] of a fellow, brings but does not recite. Rabbi Meir says, one brings and recites. If the spring dried or the tree was chopped, one brings but does not recite. Rabbi Judah says, one brings and recites. From Atseret until Sukkot, one brings and recites. From Sukkot until Hanukkah, one brings but does not recite. Rabbi Judah ben Beteira says, one brings and recites.

7 ז

הִפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרָיו וּמָכַר שָׂדֵהוּ, מֵבִיא וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא. וְהַשֵּׁנִי, מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין אֵינוֹ מֵבִיא, מִמִּין אַחֵר, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא:

One who designated one's Bikkurim and [subsequently] sold one's field, brings and does not recite. And the second [one who bought the field] does not bring more from that same species. From a different species, one brings and recites. Rabbi Judah says, even from the same species one brings and recites.

8 ח

הִפְרִישׁ בִּכּוּרָיו, נִבְזְזוּ, נָמַקּוּ, נִגְנְבוּ, אָבְדוּ, אוֹ שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ, מֵבִיא אֲחֵרִים תַּחְתֵּיהֶם וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא. וְהַשְּׁנִיִּים אֵינָם חַיָּבִים עֲלֵיהֶם חֹמֶשׁ. נִטְמְאוּ בָעֲזָרָה, נוֹפֵץ וְאֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא:

One who designated one's Bikkurim [and then] they were looted or rotted or were stolen or lost or became ritually impure, one then brings others in their place and does not recite. The second ones are not obligated in [the penalty of an additional] fifth. If they became ritually impure within the Temple courtyard, they are destroyed and one does not recite.

9 ט

וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא לְהַר הַבַּיִת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁחַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָם עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא לְהַר הַבָּיִת. הֲרֵי שֶׁהֵבִיא מִמִּין אֶחָד וְקָרָא, וְחָזַר וְהֵבִיא מִמִּין אַחֵר, אֵינוֹ קוֹרֵא:

And from where [do we know] that one is liable for their safekeeping until one brings them to the Temple Mount? Because it says (Exodus 23:19), "The first fruits of your land you must bring to the house of the Lord Your God"; this teaches that one is liable for their safekeeping until one brings them to the Temple Mount. One who brings from one species and recites, and then returns and brings another species, does not recite.

10 י

וְאֵלּוּ מְבִיאִין וְקוֹרִין, מִן הָעֲצֶרֶת וְעַד הֶחָג, מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים, מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁבֶּהָרִים, מִתְּמָרוֹת שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים, וּמִזֵּיתֵי שֶׁמֶן, מֵעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, אֵין מְבִיאִין בִּכּוּרִים מֵעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן, שֶׁאֵינָהּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ:

These are brought and recited over: [fruit] from Shavuot until Sukkot, from the seven species, from fruit in the mountains, from dates in the valleys, from oil-olives [even from] on the other side of the Jordan River. Rabbi Yose the Galilean says, we do not bring first fruits from the other side of the Jordan since it is not "the land flowing with milk and honey" [that the verse describes].

11 יא

הַקּוֹנֶה שְׁלֹשָׁה אִילָנוֹת בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנָיִם. קָנָה אִילָן וְקַרְקָעוֹ, מֵבִיא וְקוֹרֵא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּעֲלֵי אֲרִיסוּת וְחָכוֹרוֹת, מְבִיאִין וְקוֹרִין:

One who buys three trees in a fellow's property, brings and recites. Rabbi Meir says, even two [trees]. One who bought the tree and its ground brings and recites. Rabbi Judah says, even sharecroppers and renters bring and recite.