8ח׳
1 א

יֵשׁ בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן, בְּכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן, יֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לֹא לַנַּחֲלָה וְלֹא לַכֹּהֵן. אֵיזֶהוּ בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן, הַבָּא אַחַר הַנְּפָלִים שֶׁיָּצָא רֹאשׁוֹ חַי, וּבֶן תִּשְׁעָה שֶׁיָּצָא רֹאשׁוֹ מֵת, וְהַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בוֹ מִצּוּרַת הָאָדָם. הַמַּפֶּלֶת סַנְדָּל, אוֹ שִׁלְיָא, וּשְׁפִיר מְרֻקָּם, וְהַיּוֹצֵא מְחֻתָּךְ, הַבָּא אַחֲרֵיהֶן, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן. מִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים וְנָשָׂא אִשָּׁה שֶׁכְּבָר יָלְדָה, עוֹדָהּ שִׁפְחָה וְנִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה, עוֹדָהּ נָכְרִית וְנִתְגַּיְּרָה, מִשֶּׁבָּאת לְיִשְׁרָאֵל יָלְדָה, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יג), פֶּטֶר כָּל רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁיִּפְטְרוּ רֶחֶם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים וְנָשָׂא אִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה, נִתְגַּיְּרָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, נִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, יָלְדָה הִיא וְכֹהֶנֶת, הִיא וּלְוִיָּה, הִיא וְאִשָּׁה שֶׁכְּבָר יָלְדָה, וְכֵן מִי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהֲתָה אַחַר בַּעְלָהּ שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים וְנִשֵּׂאת וְיָלְדָה, וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם בֶּן תִּשְׁעָה לָרִאשׁוֹן, אוֹ בֶן שִׁבְעָה לָאַחֲרוֹן, בְּכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה. אֵיזֶהוּ בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן, הַמַּפֶּלֶת שְׁפִיר מָלֵא דָם, מָלֵא מַיִם, מָלֵא גְנִינִים, הַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים, הַמַּפֶּלֶת יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים, הַבָּא אַחֲרֵיהֶן, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן:

There is one who is a firstborn for [inheriting a double] portion but is not a firstborn for [paying his redemption price] to the priest, a firstborn for the priest but not for the portion, [a firstborn] for both the priest and the portion and [a firstborn] for neither the priest nor the portion. Who is the firstborn for the portion but not the priest? One who is born after an abortus whose head emerged [while still] alive [and was then withdrawn], or after a nine-month [stillbirth] whose head emerged [though already dead [and was then withdrawn], or after [woman] miscarries [something that] resembles an animal, beast or bird [these are] the words of Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: until it has the figure of a person. One who miscarries [something that resembles] a sandal or an afterbirth or fetal sac [containing] tissue or a dismembered [fetus], the one that comes after them is a firstborn for the portion but not for the priest. One who never had children and [then] married a woman who already had children - [even if] she was a slave [when she gave birth] and then freed, or she was a non-Jew [when she gave birth] and she converted, and once she became Jewish she gave birth [again], [the baby is] a firstborn for the portion but not for the priest. Rabbi Yossi Haglili says: it is a firstborn for the portion and the priest, as it says (Exodus 13) "Any opening of a womb in Yisrael" - until they open a womb of an Israelite. One who had children and married a woman who had not given birth, or [if a woman] converted pregnant or was freed [from slavery] pregnant, or if she and a woman married to a priest gave birth or she and a woman married to a Levite gave birth or she and a woman who already gave birth, gave birth [and it was not certain whose baby was whose in these cases], and one who did not wait three months after her husband [died] and got married and gave birth and they do not know if it was nine months from the first husband or seven months from the second, the child is a firstborn for the priest but not for the portion. Who is a firstborn for the portion and the priest? One who miscarries a fetal sac full of blood, water, or worm[like tissue], or if she miscarried [something that] resembles fish, locust, insects or reptiles, or one who miscarries on [or before] the fortieth day, the one that comes after them is a firstborn for the portion and the priest.

2 ב

יוֹצֵא דֹפֶן וְהַבָּא אַחֲרָיו, שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵינָן בְּכוֹר לֹא לַנַּחֲלָה וְלֹא לַכֹּהֵן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הָרִאשׁוֹן לַנַּחֲלָה, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לְחָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים:

One born through cesarean section and the one that comes after him are not a firstborn for the portion or the priest. Rabbi Shimon says: the first one is for the portion and the second is for the five selaim [coins given to the priest].

3 ג

מִי שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, הָאָב פָּטוּר. מֵת הָאָב וְהַבָּנִים קַיָּמִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתְנוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ, נָתָנוּ. וְאִם לָאו, פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר נִתְחַיְּבוּ נְכָסִים. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

One whose wife had never given birth and she gave birth to two boys - he gives five selaimto the priest. If one of them died within thirty days, the father is exempt. If the father died and the children are still alive - Rabbi Meir says: if they gave [the five selaim] before they divided the estate - it is given, if not - they are exempt; Rabbi Yehuda says: the estate became obligated. If she gave birth to a boy and a girl the priest gets nothing.

4 ד

שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן עֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אִם לְכֹהֵן אֶחָד נָתַן, יַחֲזִיר לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים. אִם לִשְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים נָתַן, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבָה, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים. נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, הָאָב פָּטוּר. מֵת הָאָב וְהַבָּנִים קַיָּמִין, רַבִּי מֵאיר אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתְנוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ, נָתָנוּ. וְאִם לָאו, פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נִתְחַיְּבוּ נְכָסִים. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

[If] two wives [of one man] who have not given birth then give birth to two boys - he gives ten selaim to the priest. If one of the children dies within thirty days - if [all ten] were given to one priest, he returns five to him. If they were given to two priests, he cannot extract [the money] from [either of] them. If they gave birth to a boy and a girl or two boys and a girl - he gives five selaim to the priest. Two girls and a boy or two boys and two girls, the priest receives nothing. If one woman had given birth and the other had not, and they give birth to two boys - he gives five selaim to the priest. If one of them dies within thirty days, the father is exempt. If the father dies and the children are still alive, Rabbi Meir says: if they gave [the five selaim] before the estate was divided - it is given, if not - they are exempt. Rabbi Yehuda says: the estate became liable. If they gave birth to a boy and a girl the priest receives nothing.

5 ה

שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁל שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, זֶה נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אִם לְכֹהֵן אֶחָד נָתְנוּ, יַחֲזִיר לָהֶן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים. אִם לִשְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים נָתְנוּ, אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, הָאָבוֹת פְּטוּרִין, וְהַבֵּן חַיָּב לִפְדּוֹת אֶת עַצְמוֹ. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

[If] two wives of two men who had not given birth then give birth to two boys [who became mixed up], this one gives five selaim to a priest and this one gives five selaim to a priest. If one of them dies within thirty days - if [the five selaim] were given to one priest, he gives them back five selaim. If they were given to two priests, they cannot extract [the money] from [either of] them. A boy and a girl, the fathers are exempt and the boy must redeem himself. If they gave birth to two girls and a boy or two boys and two girls, the priest receives nothing.

6 ו

אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה שֶׁל שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים, וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, זֶה שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. מֵת הַבֵּן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן לַכֹּהֵן, יַחֲזִיר (לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים). לְאַחַר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן, יִתֵּן. מֵת בְּיוֹם שְׁלשִׁים, כְּיוֹם שֶׁלְּפָנָיו. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתַן, לֹא יִטּוֹל. וְאִם לֹא נָתַן, לֹא יִתֵּן. מֵת הָאָב בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנִּפְדָּה. לְאַחַר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, בְּחֶזִקַת שֶׁנִּפְדָּה, עַד (שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה) שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה. הוּא לִפָּדוֹת וּבְנוֹ לִפָּדוֹת, הוּא קוֹדֵם אֶת בְּנוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּנוֹ קוֹדְמוֹ, שֶׁמִּצְוָתוֹ עַל אָבִיו, וּמִצְוַת בְּנוֹ עָלָיו:

If one woman had given birth and the other had not - [being the wives] of two men and they then give birth to two boys [who became mixed up] - the one whose wife had not given birth gives five selaimto a priest. If they gave birth to a boy and a girl the priest receives nothing. If the boy dies within thirty days, even if he already gave [the money] to the priest, (the five selaim) returns (to him). [If he dies] after thirty days - even if he hasn't given yet he must give. If he dies on the thirtieth day it is like the day before. Rabbi Akiva says: if he gave already he cannot take it back, but if he hasn't given yet he does not have to give. If the father died within thirty days it is assumed [the son] was not redeemed until he brings proof that he was redeemed. After thirty days, it is assumed he was redeemed until (they testify) that he was not redeemed. If he has to redeem [both] himself and his son - he comes before his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: his son comes first because his obligation is on his father, while his son's obligation is on him.

7 ז

חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים שֶׁל בֵּן, בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. שְׁלשִׁים שֶׁל עֶבֶד, וַחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁל אוֹנֵס וְשֶׁל מְפַתֶּה, וּמֵאָה שֶׁל מוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע, כֻּלָּם בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. וְכֻלָּן נִפְדִּין בְּכֶסֶף, וּבְשָׁוֶה כֶסֶף, חוּץ מִן הַשְּׁקָלִים:

The five selaim of his son, are [denominated] in Tyrean maneh [coins], the thirty of the slave, the fifty of the raper and seducer or the hundred of the slanderer are all in the Shekel of the Temple [as calculated by reference to] Tyrean maneh. And [items that can be redeemed] are all redeemed [either] with money or with something that has monetary value, except for shekalim [i.e., the yearly half-shekel obligation to the Temple].

8 ח

אֵין פּוֹדִין לֹא בַעֲבָדִים, וְלֹא בִשְׁטָרוֹת, וְלֹא בְקַרְקָעוֹת, וְלֹא בְהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. כָּתַב לַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים, חַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ וּבְנוֹ אֵינוֹ פָדוּי, לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָצָה הַכֹּהֵן לִתֵּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה, רַשַּׁאי. הַמַּפְרִישׁ פִּדְיוֹן בְּנוֹ וְאָבַד, חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח), יִהְיֶה לָּךְ וּפָדֹה תִפְדֶּה:

We do not redeem [a firstborn person using] slaves or documents or property [nor do we use them to redeem] sanctified items. If he wrote to a priest that he owes him five selaim, he must give them to him, but his son is not redeemed - therefore, if the priest wants to return [the money] to him as a gift he is permitted. If one set aside money for the redemption of his son and it was lost - he is obligated to replace it as it says (Numbers 18) "It [the firstborn] shall be yours" [until] "you shall surely redeem".

9 ט

הַבְּכוֹר נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּנִכְסֵי הָאָב, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּנִכְסֵי הָאֵם. וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בַּשֶּׁבַח, וְלֹא בָרָאוּי כְּבַמֻּחְזָק. וְלֹא הָאִשָּׁה בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ, וְלֹא הַבָּנוֹת בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן, וְלֹא הַיָּבָם. וְכֻלָּן אֵין נוֹטְלִין בַּשֶּׁבַח, וְלֹא בָרָאוּי כְּבַמֻּחְזָק:

The firstborn takes a double portion in the property of his father but does not take a double portion of the mother's property. And he does not take a double portion in [its increase in] value [after his death], nor in what is fit [to come into possession of his estate, but rather] in what he holds now. Neither a woman [collect] for her ketubah nor daughters for their sustenance, and nor the yavam, none of them take a double portion in [its increase in] value [after his death], nor in what is fit [to come into possession of his estate, but rather] in what he holds now.

10 י

אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹזְרִין בַּיּוֹבֵל, הַבְּכוֹרָה, וְהַיּוֹרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְהַמְיַבֵּם אֶת אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְהַמַּתָּנָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מַתָּנָה כְּמֶכֶר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כֻּלָּן חוֹזְרִין בַּיּוֹבֵל. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר, הַיּוֹרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, יַחֲזִיר לִבְנֵי מִשְׁפָּחָה וִינַכֶּה לָהֶם מִן הַדָּמִים:

These do not return on the Jubilee year: the first born portion, one who inherits his wife, or who performs Levirate marriage to his brother's wife, or a gift - [these are] the words of Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: a gift is like a sale. Rabbi Eliezer says: all of these things are returned on the Jubilee year. Rabbi Yochanan ben Beroka says: one who inherits his wife should return it to her family and he may deduct [her burial expenses] from the money.