8ח׳
1 א

יֵשׁ בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן, בְּכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן, יֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לֹא לַנַּחֲלָה וְלֹא לַכֹּהֵן. אֵיזֶהוּ בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן, הַבָּא אַחַר הַנְּפָלִים שֶׁיָּצָא רֹאשׁוֹ חַי, וּבֶן תִּשְׁעָה שֶׁיָּצָא רֹאשׁוֹ מֵת, וְהַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא בוֹ מִצּוּרַת הָאָדָם. הַמַּפֶּלֶת סַנְדָּל, אוֹ שִׁלְיָא, וּשְׁפִיר מְרֻקָּם, וְהַיּוֹצֵא מְחֻתָּךְ, הַבָּא אַחֲרֵיהֶן, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן. מִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים וְנָשָׂא אִשָּׁה שֶׁכְּבָר יָלְדָה, עוֹדָהּ שִׁפְחָה וְנִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה, עוֹדָהּ נָכְרִית וְנִתְגַּיְּרָה, מִשֶּׁבָּאת לְיִשְׁרָאֵל יָלְדָה, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יג), פֶּטֶר כָּל רֶחֶם בִּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁיִּפְטְרוּ רֶחֶם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ בָנִים וְנָשָׂא אִשָּׁה שֶׁלֹא יָלְדָה, נִתְגַּיְּרָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, נִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה מְעֻבֶּרֶת, יָלְדָה הִיא וְכֹהֶנֶת, הִיא וּלְוִיָּה, הִיא וְאִשָּׁה שֶׁכְּבָר יָלְדָה, וְכֵן מִי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהֲתָה אַחַר בַּעְלָהּ שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים וְנִשֵּׂאת וְיָלְדָה, וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם בֶּן תִּשְׁעָה לָרִאשׁוֹן, אוֹ בֶן שִׁבְעָה לָאַחֲרוֹן, בְּכוֹר לַכֹּהֵן וְאֵינוֹ בְכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה. אֵיזֶהוּ בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן, הַמַּפֶּלֶת שְׁפִיר מָלֵא דָם, מָלֵא מַיִם, מָלֵא גְנִינִים, הַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין דָּגִים וַחֲגָבִים שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים, הַמַּפֶּלֶת יוֹם אַרְבָּעִים, הַבָּא אַחֲרֵיהֶן, בְּכוֹר לַנַּחֲלָה וְלַכֹּהֵן:

There is one who is [counted as] a firstborn [with respect to] inheritance but not with respect to redemption from a priest; a firstborn with respect to redemption from a priest but not a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance; a firstborn [with respect to both] inheritance and redemption from a priest; and a firstborn [in respect] to neither inheritance nor redemption from a priest. Which is a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance but not to redemption from a priest? One which follows one which was not viable whose head came forth alive, or one born in the ninth month whose head came out dead, or when a woman aborts something that looks like an animal, beast or bird, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: [it is not considered an opening of the womb] until [the abortion] has the form of a human being. If [a woman] aborts a sandal or a placenta or a fetus having an articulated shape, or if an embryo came out by pieces, [the infant] which follows after them is a first-born [with respect] to inheritance but not a first-born for redemption from a priest. If one who never had children married a woman who had already given birth, even if she had given birth when she was a slave but is now free, or [had given birth] when she was a non-Jew but has since converted, if after coming to the Israelite she gave birth, [the infant] is considered a first-born [with respect] to inheritance but not a first-born for redemption from a priest. Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: [the infant] is a firstborn [with respect] to inheritance and for redemption from a priest, as it says: “Whatever opens the womb in Israel” (Exodus 13:2), meaning only if it opens the womb in Israel. If one had children already and married a woman who had never given birth previously Or if she converted when pregnant, or if she was freed when pregnant, and she gave birth; If she and a priestess gave birth, she and a Levite’s daughter, she and a woman who had already given birth; And similarly [if a woman] who did not wait three months after her husband's death, married and gave birth and it is not known if the infant was born in the ninth month since the death of the first [husband] or in the seventh month since she married the second, it is a firstborn for redemption from a priest but not a first-born [with respect] to inheritance. Which is a firstborn both [in respect] of inheritance and for redemption from a priest? If [a woman] miscarries a sac full of blood or full of water or full of pieces of flesh; or if [a woman] miscarries something with the shape of fish or locusts or reptiles, or creeping things, or if she discharges on the fortieth day [of conception], [the infant] which follows after [these discharges] is a firstborn both [in respect] of inheritance and for redemption from a priest.

2 ב

יוֹצֵא דֹפֶן וְהַבָּא אַחֲרָיו, שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵינָן בְּכוֹר לֹא לַנַּחֲלָה וְלֹא לַכֹּהֵן. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הָרִאשׁוֹן לַנַּחֲלָה, וְהַשֵּׁנִי לְחָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים:

A fetus extracted by means of a caesarean section and one that follows neither is a first-born for inheritance or a first-born to be redeemed from a priest. Rabbi Shimon says: the first is a first-born for inheritance and the second is a first-born as regards [the redemption] with five selas.

3 ג

מִי שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, הָאָב פָּטוּר. מֵת הָאָב וְהַבָּנִים קַיָּמִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתְנוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ, נָתָנוּ. וְאִם לָאו, פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר נִתְחַיְּבוּ נְכָסִים. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

If a man's wife had never before given birth and she gave birth to two males, he gives five sela's to the priest. If one of them dies within thirty days [of birth] the father is exempt. If the father dies and the sons survive: Rabbi Meir says: if they gave the five sela's before the property was divided up, then what they gave is given; but if not, they are exempt. But Rabbi Judah says: there is a claim on the property. If she gave birth to a male and a female, the priest receives nothing.

4 ד

שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן עֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אִם לְכֹהֵן אֶחָד נָתַן, יַחֲזִיר לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים. אִם לִשְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים נָתַן, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבָה, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים. נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, הָאָב פָּטוּר. מֵת הָאָב וְהַבָּנִים קַיָּמִין, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתְנוּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא חָלְקוּ, נָתָנוּ. וְאִם לָאו, פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נִתְחַיְּבוּ נְכָסִים. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

Two women who had never before given birth gave birth to two males: he [the father] gives ten selas to the priest. If one of the children dies within thirty days [of its birth], if he gave the redemption money to one priest alone, he returns five selas to him, but if he gave it to two priests, he cannot reclaim the money from them. If they gave birth to a male and a female or to two males and a female, he gives five selas to the priest. If they gave birth to two females and a male, or to two males and two females, the priest receives nothing. If one woman had given birth before and the other had never given birth, and they gave birth to two males, he gives five selas to the priest. If one of the children died within thirty days [of its birth], the father is exempt. If the father dies and the sons survive: Rabbi Meir says: if they gave the five sela's before the property was divided up, then what they gave is given; but if not, they are exempt. But Rabbi Judah says: there is a claim on the property. If they gave birth to a male and a female, the priest receives nothing.

5 ה

שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁל שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, זֶה נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. מֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אִם לְכֹהֵן אֶחָד נָתְנוּ, יַחֲזִיר לָהֶן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים. אִם לִשְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים נָתְנוּ, אֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, הָאָבוֹת פְּטוּרִין, וְהַבֵּן חַיָּב לִפְדּוֹת אֶת עַצְמוֹ. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

If two women who had never before given birth married two men and gave birth to two males, the one father gives five selas to the priest and the other gives five selas to the priest. If one of the children died within thirty days [of its birth], if they gave the redemption money to one priest alone, he returns five selas to them, but if they gave the money to two priests, they are not able to recover it from them. If they gave birth to a male and a female, the fathers are exempt, whereas the son must redeem himself [as in any case he is a first-born]. If they gave birth to two females and a male or to two females and two males, the priest receives nothing.

6 ו

אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה שֶׁל שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים, וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, זֶה שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. מֵת הַבֵּן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן לַכֹּהֵן, יַחֲזִיר (לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים). לְאַחַר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן, יִתֵּן. מֵת בְּיוֹם שְׁלשִׁים, כְּיוֹם שֶׁלְּפָנָיו. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתַן, לֹא יִטּוֹל. וְאִם לֹא נָתַן, לֹא יִתֵּן. מֵת הָאָב בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנִּפְדָּה. לְאַחַר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, בְּחֶזִקַת שֶׁנִּפְדָּה, עַד (שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה) שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה. הוּא לִפָּדוֹת וּבְנוֹ לִפָּדוֹת, הוּא קוֹדֵם אֶת בְּנוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּנוֹ קוֹדְמוֹ, שֶׁמִּצְוָתוֹ עַל אָבִיו, וּמִצְוַת בְּנוֹ עָלָיו:

If one woman had given birth before and the other had never before given birth, the two women belonging to two husbands, and they gave birth to two males, the one whose wife had never before given birth gives five selas to the priest. If they gave birth to a male and a female, the priest receives nothing. If the son dies within thirty days although he gave the priest [the five selas], he must return them. If he dies after thirty days, although he has not yet given the five selas, he (the father) must give them. If he dies on the thirtieth day, it is as if he died on the previous day. But Rabbi Akiva says: if he gave [the five selas] he cannot reclaim them, but if he had not yet given, he need not give. If the father dies within thirty days, [the infant] is under the presumption of not having been redeemed until proof is brought that he has been redeemed. If the father dies after thirty days, the infant is under the presumption of having been redeemed until he [the son] is told that he was not redeemed. If both he and his son need to be redeemed, the father takes precedence over his son. Rabbi Judah says: his son comes first for the command to redeem him was upon his father, and the command of his son is upon him.

7 ז

חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים שֶׁל בֵּן, בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. שְׁלשִׁים שֶׁל עֶבֶד, וַחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁל אוֹנֵס וְשֶׁל מְפַתֶּה, וּמֵאָה שֶׁל מוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע, כֻּלָּם בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. וְכֻלָּן נִפְדִּין בְּכֶסֶף, וּבְשָׁוֶה כֶסֶף, חוּץ מִן הַשְּׁקָלִים:

The five selas of a first-born [are paid in] the standard of Tyrian maneh. As regards the thirty shekels of a slave and likewise the fifty shekels of the rapist and seducer and the one hundred shekels for one who spreads an evil name in all these cases the payment is in the holy shekel, in the standard of Tyrian maneh. All of these are redeemed with money or the equivalent of money with the exception of shekel payments.

8 ח

אֵין פּוֹדִין לֹא בַעֲבָדִים, וְלֹא בִשְׁטָרוֹת, וְלֹא בְקַרְקָעוֹת, וְלֹא בְהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. כָּתַב לַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים, חַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ וּבְנוֹ אֵינוֹ פָדוּי, לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָצָה הַכֹּהֵן לִתֵּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה, רַשַּׁאי. הַמַּפְרִישׁ פִּדְיוֹן בְּנוֹ וְאָבַד, חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח), יִהְיֶה לָּךְ וּפָדֹה תִפְדֶּה:

We must not redeem [a first-born] with slaves, nor with notes of indebtedness, nor with immovable properties, nor with objects of hekdesh. If one gives a written acknowledgment to a priest that he owes him five selas he is bound to give them to him, although his son is not considered as redeemed. Therefore, if the priest wishes to give him [the note of indebtedness] as a gift he is permitted to do so. If one set aside the redemption money of his son and it became lost, he is responsible for it, because it says: “Shall be for you [but] you shall surely redeem” (Numbers 18:15).

9 ט

הַבְּכוֹר נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּנִכְסֵי הָאָב, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בְּנִכְסֵי הָאֵם. וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל פִּי שְׁנַיִם בַּשֶּׁבַח, וְלֹא בָרָאוּי כְּבַמֻּחְזָק. וְלֹא הָאִשָּׁה בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ, וְלֹא הַבָּנוֹת בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֵיהֶן, וְלֹא הַיָּבָם. וְכֻלָּן אֵין נוֹטְלִין בַּשֶּׁבַח, וְלֹא בָרָאוּי כְּבַמֻּחְזָק:

The first-born takes a double share of the father's estate but he does not take a double share of the mother’s estate. He also does not take a double share of the improvement in the value of the estate. Nor from what will fall due [to the estate] as he does of what is held in possession. Nor can a woman claim with her ketubah [from these], Nor can daughters claim their support. Nor can a yavam make a claim [from these]. None of these take from the improvement in the value of the estate, nor of what will fall to the estate as they do of what is now held in possession.

10 י

אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינָן חוֹזְרִין בַּיּוֹבֵל, הַבְּכוֹרָה, וְהַיּוֹרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְהַמְיַבֵּם אֶת אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְהַמַּתָּנָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מַתָּנָה כְּמֶכֶר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כֻּלָּן חוֹזְרִין בַּיּוֹבֵל. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא אוֹמֵר, הַיּוֹרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ, יַחֲזִיר לִבְנֵי מִשְׁפָּחָה וִינַכֶּה לָהֶם מִן הַדָּמִים:

The following do not return [to their owners] in Jubilee year: The share of the first-born, [The inheritance of] one who inherits his wife's [estate] [And of] one who performs yibbum with his sister-in-law And a present, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: a present is like a sale. Rabbi Elazar says: all of these return in the Jubilee. R. Johanan ben Berokah says: if one inherits his wife's estate, he returns it to the members of the family and he deducts from the purchase money.