Mishnah Bekhorot
1א׳
1 א

הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֻבַּר חֲמוֹרוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, וְהַמּוֹכֵר לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, וְהַמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף לוֹ, וְהַמְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ, וְהַנּוֹתֵן לוֹ בְקַבָּלָה, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ג), בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל לֹא בַאֲחֵרִים. כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם פְּטוּרִין מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר, אִם פָּטְרוּ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר, דִּין הוּא שֶׁיִּפְטְרוּ שֶׁל עַצְמָן:

If one buys an unborn donkey fetus from a non-Jew, sells [an unborn donkey fetus] to [a non-Jew] even though one does not have permission to, has a partnership with [a non-Jew], receives [an unborn donkey fetus] from [a non-Jew], or gives [an unborn donkey fetus] to [a non-Jew], [the unborn donkey fetus] is exempt from the laws of the first-born. As it is written (Numbers 3:13): "in Israel", but not by others. Priests and Levites are also exempt, for if they could exempt a Israelite [while the Jewish people were] in the desert, then they would certainly exempt themselves.

2 ב

פָּרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין חֲמוֹר, וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין סוּס, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַיּוֹלֵד חֲמוֹר וְהַנּוֹלָד חֲמוֹר. וּמָה הֵם בַּאֲכִילָה. בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וּטְמֵאָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַטָּמֵא, טָמֵא. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַטָּהוֹר, טָהוֹר. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָהוֹר, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וְטָהוֹר שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָמֵא, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִדּוּלָיו:

If a cow gives birth to [a creature which] looks like a donkey or a donkey gives birth to [a creature which] looks like a horse, it is exempt from the laws of the firstborn, for it is written (Exodus 34:20": "firstborn donkey" and (Exodus 13:13) "firstborn donkey"--two times, [to teach that] the birthing [mother] must be a donkey, and the born [creature] must be a donkey. And what about eating them? If a pure species gives birth to [a creature which] looks like an impure species, it is permissible to eat [the offspring]; if an impure species gives birth to [a creature which] looks like a pure species, it is forbidden to eat [the offspring], for that which comes from an impure species is impure and that which comes from a pure species is pure. If an impure fish swallows a pure fish, [the pure fish found inside] is permissible to eat; if a pure fish swallows an impure fish, [the impure fish found inside] is forbidden to eat, for it is not its product.

3 ג

חֲמוֹר שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה, וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, מַפְרִישׁ טָלֶה אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ. שְׁתֵּי חֲמוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ, וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן שְׁנֵי טְלָיִים לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבָה, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

If one's donkey that had not previously given birth now gives birth to two male donkeys, one must give a lamb to a priest. [If it gives birth to] a male and a female, one sets apart a lamb for oneself. If two donkeys that both have not previously given birth now give birth to two males, one must give two lambs to a priest. [If they give birth to] a male and a female, or to two males and a female, one must give a lamb to a priest. [If they give birth to] two females and a male, or two males and two females, the priest gets nothing.

4 ד

אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, מַפְרִישׁ טָלֶה אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד), וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה, מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים, זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, גָּדוֹל וְקָטָן, תָּמִים וּבַעַל מוּם. וּפוֹדֶה בוֹ פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה. נִכְנָס לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר. וְאִם מֵת, נֶהֱנִים בּוֹ:

If one donkey has previously given birth and one has not, and they now give birth to two males, one must give a lamb to a priest. [If they gave birth to] a male and a female, one sets apart a lamb for oneself. A firstborn donkey is redeemed with a lamb, [whether the lamb or kid is] from sheep or goats, male or female, large or small, perfect or blemished. One can use it to redeem many times, and if it dies one can benefit from it.

5 ה

אֵין פּוֹדִים לֹא בָעֵגֶל, וְלֹא בַחַיָּה, וְלֹא בַשְּׁחוּטָה, וְלֹא בַטְּרֵפָה, וְלֹא בַכִּלְאַיִם, וְלֹא בַכּוֹי. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר מַתִּיר בַּכִּלְאַיִם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֶׂה, וְאוֹסֵר בַּכּוֹי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק. נְתָנוֹ לַכֹּהֵן, אֵין הַכֹּהֵן רַשַּׁאי לְקַיְּמוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ שֶׂה תַחְתָּיו:

One may redeem neither with a calf, nor with an undomesticated animal, nor with a slaughtered animal, nor with a treifah [animal which cannot live another 12 months], or with a mixed species [i.e., from sheep and goat parents], nor with a koi [animal of ambiguous status, exhibiting characteristics of wild and domesticated animals]. Rabbi El'azar permits [redeeming] with a mixed species because it is still [considered] a lamb; But he forbids a koi, because it is of doubtful [status]. If one gives a donkey to a priest, the priest does not have permission to keep it, until [the priest] separates a lamb for it.

6 ו

הַמַּפְרִישׁ פִּדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר וּמֵת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, כַּחֲמֵשׁ סְלָעִים שֶׁל בֵּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, כְּפִדְיוֹן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. הֵעִיד רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְרַבִּי צָדוֹק עַל פִּדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. מֵת פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יִקָּבֵר, וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָתוֹ שֶׁל טָלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִקָּבֵר, וְהַטָּלֶה לַכֹּהֵן:

If one separates the redemption for a firstborn donkey, and it dies, Rabbi Eli'ezer says: One is liable for it, just like the five selaim [coins of a specific value] for [the redemption of] a son. The sages say: One is not liable for it, just like the redemption of Maaser Sheini [second tithe of produce, which must be taken to Jerusalem and consumed there]. Rabbi Yehoshua and Rabbi Tzadok testified regarding the redemption of a firstborn donkey that died, that the priest receives nothing in such a case. If a firstborn donkey dies, Rabbi Eliezer says: It is buried and it is permissible to benefit from the lamb. The Sages say: One need not bury it, and the lamb goes to the priest.

7 ז

לֹא רָצָה לִפְדּוֹתוֹ, עוֹרְפוֹ בְקוֹפִיץ מֵאַחֲרָיו וְקוֹבְרוֹ. מִצְוַת פְּדִיָּה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת עֲרִיפָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יג), וְאִם לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ. מִצְוַת יְעִידָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת פְּדִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם כא), אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְעָדָהּ וְהֶפְדָּהּ. מִצְוַת יִבּוּם קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת חֲלִיצָה, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְכַּוְּנִין לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה. וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוְּנִין לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ מִצְוַת חֲלִיצָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת יִבּוּם. מִצְוַת גְּאֻלָּה בָּאָדוֹן הוּא קוֹדֵם לְכָל אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז), וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל וְנִמְכַּר בְּעֶרְכֶּךְ:

If one does not want to redeem it, one breaks its neck from behind with an ax and buries it. The commandment of redeeming it precedes the commandment of breaking its neck, as it is written (Exodus 13:13, Exodus 34:20) "If you will not redeem it, break its neck." The commandment of designating it precedes the commandment of redeeming it, as it is written (Exodus 21:8): "That you have not designated it -it shall be redeemed." The commandment of Levirate marriage preceded the commandment of chalitzah [ceremony releasing the widow of a childless man from the obligation to marry his brother] at first, when they had intention for the sake of the commandment, but now that they do not have intention for the sake of the commandment, we say that the commandment of chalitzah precedes the commandment of Levirate marriage. The commandment of redeeming [an animal devoted to general Temple usage] is on the master before any other person, as it is written (Leviticus 27:27): "If it is not redeemed, it shall be sold for its estimated worth."