Mishnah Bekhorot
1א׳
1 א

הַלּוֹקֵחַ עֻבַּר חֲמוֹרוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, וְהַמּוֹכֵר לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, וְהַמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף לוֹ, וְהַמְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ, וְהַנּוֹתֵן לוֹ בְקַבָּלָה, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ג), בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל לֹא בַאֲחֵרִים. כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם פְּטוּרִין מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר, אִם פָּטְרוּ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר, דִּין הוּא שֶׁיִּפְטְרוּ שֶׁל עַצְמָן:

[An Israelite] who buys a fetus of a donkey belonging to a non-Jew or who sells one to him, although this is not permitted, or who forms a partnership with him, or who receives [an animal] from him to look after or who gives [his donkey] to him to look after, is exempt from the [law of the] bekhor, for it says: [“I sanctified to me all the firstborn] in Israel,” (Numbers 3:13) but not in non-Jews. Priests and levites are exempt through [an argument made by a] kal vehomer: if they exempted the first-born belonging to the Israelites in the wilderness, it follows all the more so that they should exempt their own.

2 ב

פָּרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין חֲמוֹר, וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין סוּס, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַיּוֹלֵד חֲמוֹר וְהַנּוֹלָד חֲמוֹר. וּמָה הֵם בַּאֲכִילָה. בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וּטְמֵאָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַטָּמֵא, טָמֵא. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַטָּהוֹר, טָהוֹר. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָהוֹר, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וְטָהוֹר שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָמֵא, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִדּוּלָיו:

If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from [the law of] the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice [to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply] until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not [the clean fish's] growth.

3 ג

חֲמוֹר שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה, וְיָלְדָה שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, מַפְרִישׁ טָלֶה אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ. שְׁתֵּי חֲמוֹרִים שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרוּ, וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן שְׁנֵי טְלָיִים לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּנְקֵבָה, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. שְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת וְזָכָר אוֹ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים וּשְׁתֵּי נְקֵבוֹת, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם:

If a donkey that had never before given birth gave birth to two males, he gives one lamb to the priest. [If it gave birth to] a male and a female, he sets aside one lamb [which he keeps] for himself. If two donkeys that had never before given birth gave birth to two males, he gives two lambs to the priest. [If they gave birth to] a male and a female or two males and a female, he gives one lamb to the priest. [If they gave birth to] two females and a male or to two males and two females the priest receives nothing.

4 ד

אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, נוֹתֵן טָלֶה אֶחָד לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, מַפְרִישׁ טָלֶה אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לד), וּפֶטֶר חֲמוֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה, מִן הַכְּבָשִׂים וּמִן הָעִזִּים, זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, גָּדוֹל וְקָטָן, תָּמִים וּבַעַל מוּם. וּפוֹדֶה בוֹ פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה. נִכְנָס לַדִּיר לְהִתְעַשֵּׂר. וְאִם מֵת, נֶהֱנִים בּוֹ:

If one donkey had given birth before and one had not given birth before and they gave birth to two males, he gives one lamb to the priest. [If they gave birth to] a male and a female, he sets aside one lamb [which he keeps] for himself. For it says, “And the firstling of a donkey you shall redeem with a lamb” (Exodus 34:20), [the lamb can come either] from the sheep or the goats, male or female, large or small, unblemished or blemished. He can redeem with the same lamb many times. [And the lamb] enters the pen to be tithed. If it dies [before he gives it to the priest], he can benefit from it.

5 ה

אֵין פּוֹדִים לֹא בָעֵגֶל, וְלֹא בַחַיָּה, וְלֹא בַשְּׁחוּטָה, וְלֹא בַטְּרֵפָה, וְלֹא בַכִּלְאַיִם, וְלֹא בַכּוֹי. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר מַתִּיר בַּכִּלְאַיִם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֶׂה, וְאוֹסֵר בַּכּוֹי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק. נְתָנוֹ לַכֹּהֵן, אֵין הַכֹּהֵן רַשַּׁאי לְקַיְּמוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ שֶׂה תַחְתָּיו:

We do not redeem with a calf, a wild animal, an animal slaughtered, a terefah, kilayim (a mixed breed) or a koy. Rabbi Eliezer permits [redemption] with kilayim because it is a lamb. But he forbids with a koy, because its nature is doubtful. If he gave [the first-born of a donkey] itself to the priest, the latter may not keep it, until he sets aside a lamb in its place.

6 ו

הַמַּפְרִישׁ פִּדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר וּמֵת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, כַּחֲמֵשׁ סְלָעִים שֶׁל בֵּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, כְּפִדְיוֹן מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. הֵעִיד רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְרַבִּי צָדוֹק עַל פִּדְיוֹן פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. מֵת פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, יִקָּבֵר, וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָתוֹ שֶׁל טָלֶה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהִקָּבֵר, וְהַטָּלֶה לַכֹּהֵן:

If one sets aside [a lamb] for the redemption of the first-birth of a donkey and it died: Rabbi Eliezer says: he is responsible as is the case with the five selas for the redemption of the first-born. But the sages say: he is not responsible, as is the case with the redemption of the second tithe. Rabbi Joshua and Rabbi Zadok testified concerning the redemption of the first-born of a donkey which died that the priest receives nothing [in such circumstances]. If the first-born of a donkey died [after the lamb for redemption had been set aside]: Rabbi Eliezer says: it shall be buried, but the lamb may be used. But the sages say: it does not need to be buried and the lamb belongs to the priest.

7 ז

לֹא רָצָה לִפְדּוֹתוֹ, עוֹרְפוֹ בְקוֹפִיץ מֵאַחֲרָיו וְקוֹבְרוֹ. מִצְוַת פְּדִיָּה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת עֲרִיפָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יג), וְאִם לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ. מִצְוַת יְעִידָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת פְּדִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם כא), אֲשֶׁר לֹא יְעָדָהּ וְהֶפְדָּהּ. מִצְוַת יִבּוּם קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת חֲלִיצָה, בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהָיוּ מִתְכַּוְּנִין לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה. וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוְּנִין לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ מִצְוַת חֲלִיצָה קוֹדֶמֶת לְמִצְוַת יִבּוּם. מִצְוַת גְּאֻלָּה בָּאָדוֹן הוּא קוֹדֵם לְכָל אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז), וְאִם לֹא יִגָּאֵל וְנִמְכַּר בְּעֶרְכֶּךְ:

If he does not wish to redeem it, he breaks its neck from behind with a large knife and buries it. The mitzvah of redemption takes priority over the miztzah of breaking its neck, for it says: “And if you don’t redeem it, you must break its neck” (Exodus 13:13). The mitzvah of designation takes priority over the mitzvah of redemption, for it says: “Who has betrothed her to himself, he must let her be redeemed” (Exodus 21:8). The mitzvah of yibbum is prior to the mitzvah of halitzah. [This was so] at first when they intended to carry out the mitzvah. But now that they do not intend to carry out the mitzvah, the [rabbis] have said: the mitzvah of halitzah takes priority over the mitzvah of yibbum. The mitzvah of redemption [of an unclean animal whose value has been dedicated to the Temple] is upon the owner. He takes priority over any other man, for it says: “If it is not redeemed, then it shall be sold according to your evaluation” (Leviticus 27:27).