9ט׳
1 א

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִקְצֹר, יִקְצֹר, לַעֲקֹר, יַעֲקֹר, לַחֲרשׁ אַחֲרָיו, יַחֲרשׁ. הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחוֹלְקִין בַּתְּבוּאָה, כָּךְ חוֹלְקִין בַּתֶּבֶן וּבַקַּשׁ. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחוֹלְקִין בַּיַּיִן, כָּךְ חוֹלְקִין בַּזְּמוֹרוֹת וּבַקָּנִים. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מְסַפְּקִין אֶת הַקָּנִים:

[If] one received a field from his fellow: In a place that was accustomed to cut [the crops], he should cut them; to uproot, he should uproot; to plow after it, he should plow - everything according to the local custom. Just as they divide the grain, so too they shall divide the straw and the stubble; just as they divide the wine, so too they shall divide the branches and the reeds. And both of them shall supply the reeds.

2 ב

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, וְהִיא בֵית הַשְּׁלָחִין אוֹ בֵית הָאִילָן, יָבַשׁ הַמַּעְיָן וְנִקְצַץ הָאִילָן, אֵינוֹ מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן חֲכוֹרוֹ. אִם אָמַר לוֹ חֲכֹר לִי שְׂדֵה בֵית הַשְּׁלָחִין זֶה אוֹ שְׂדֵה בֵית הָאִילָן זֶה, יָבַשׁ הַמַּעְיָן וְנִקְצַץ הָאִילָן, מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן חֲכוֹרוֹ:

[If] one received a field from his fellow and it was an irrigated field or a field with trees, and the spring dried up or the trees were cut down, he may not deduct from his lease. If he said to him, “Lease me this irrigated field," or "[Lease me] this field with trees," and the spring dried up or the trees were cut down, he may deduct from his lease.

3 ג

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְהוֹבִירָהּ, שָׁמִין אוֹתָהּ כַּמָּה רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ, שֶׁכָּךְ כּוֹתֵב לוֹ, אִם אוֹבִיר וְלֹא אַעֲבֵיד, אֲשַׁלֵּם בְּמֵיטְבָא:

[If] one received a field from his fellow and left it uncultivated, they evaluate how much it is fit to have yielded, and he pays him accordingly, for thus he writes to him: “If I leave it uncultivated, and do not work it, I will pay accordingly."

4 ד

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא רָצָה לְנַכֵּשׁ, וְאָמַר לוֹ מָה אִכְפַּת לְךָ, הוֹאִיל וַאֲנִי נוֹתֵן לְךָ חֲכוֹרָהּ, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ, לְמָחָר אַתָּה יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנָּה, וּמַעֲלָה לְפָנַי עֲשָׂבִים:

[If] one received a field from his fellow and he did not want to weed [it], and he said to him, “What does it matter to you, since I am paying you the lease?” they do not listen to him, because he can say to him, “Tomorrow you will leave it, and it will bring forth weeds fore me.”

5 ה

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא עָשְׂתָה, אִם יֶשׁ בָּהּ כְּדֵי לְהַעֲמִיד כְּרִי, חַיָּב לְטַפֵּל בָּהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַה קִּצְבָּה בַכְּרִי. אֶלָּא אִם יֶשׁ בָּהּ כְּדֵי נְפִילָה:

[If] one received a field from his fellow and it did not [substantially] yield, if there was enough to make a heap, he is obligated to care for it. Rabbi Yehudah said: What is the limit of a heap? Rather, if there is enough to replace [the seed] that fell [into it].”

6 ו

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וַאֲכָלָהּ חָגָב אוֹ נִשְׁדְּפָה, אִם מַכַּת מְדִינָה הִיא, מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן חֲכוֹרוֹ, אִם אֵינוֹ מַכַּת מְדִינָה, אֵינוֹ מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן חֲכוֹרוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם קִבְּלָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ בְמָעוֹת, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ אֵינוֹ מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מֵחֲכוֹרוֹ:

[If] one received a field from his fellow and locusts ate it, or it was wind-struck, if it was a regional plague, he may subtract [accordingly] from his contract. If it was not a regional plague, he may not subtract from his contract. Rabbi Yehudah says: If he received it from him in exchange for money, in neither case may he subtract from him from his contract.

7 ז

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בַּעֲשָׂרָה כּוֹר חִטִּים לְשָׁנָה, לָקְתָה, נוֹתֵן לוֹ מִתּוֹכָהּ. הָיוּ חִטֶּיהָ יָפוֹת, לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ הֲרֵינִי לוֹקֵחַ מִן הַשּׁוּק, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ מִתּוֹכָהּ:

[If] one received a field from his fellow in return for ten korim [volume measure, equals 30 se’ah] of wheat per year and it was wind-struck, he [still] pays him from [that field]. If the wheat was good, he may not say to him, “I will buy from the market." Rather he pays him from it.

8 ח

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לְזָרְעָהּ שְׂעֹרִים, לֹא יִזְרָעֶנָּה חִטִּים, חִטִּים, יִזְרָעֶנָּה שְׂעֹרִים. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹסֵר. תְּבוּאָה, לֹא יִזְרָעֶנָּה קִטְנִית, קִטְנִית, יִזְרָעֶנָּה תְבוּאָה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹסֵר:

[If] one received a field from his fellow to sow barley, he may not sow wheat in it; [to sow] wheat, he may sow barley. Rabban Gamliel forbids. [To sow] grain, he may not sow beans; [to sow] beans, he may sow grain. Rabban Gamliel forbids.

9 ט

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לְשָׁנִים מֻעָטוֹת, לֹא יִזְרָעֶנָּה פִשְׁתָּן, וְאֵין לוֹ בְקוֹרַת שִׁקְמָה. קִבְּלָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ לְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים, שָׁנָה רִאשׁוֹנָה יִזְרָעֶנָּה פִשְׁתָּן, וְיֶשׁ לוֹ בְקוֹרַת שִׁקְמָה:

[If] one received a field from his fellow for a few years, he may not sow flax, and he does not have [a right to] sycamore beams. If he received it from him for for seven years, he may sow flax the first year, and he has [a right to] sycamore beams.

10 י

הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ לְשָׁבוּעַ אַחַת בִּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת זוּז, הַשְּׁבִיעִית מִן הַמִּנְיָן. קִבְּלָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בִּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת זוּז, אֵין הַשְּׁבִיעִית מִן הַמִּנְיָן:

[If] one received a field from his fellow for a seven year period for seven hundred zuz, the sabbatical year is included in the count. If he received it for seven years for seven hundred zuz, the sabbatical year is not included in the count.

11 יא

שְׂכִיר יוֹם גּוֹבֶה כָל הַלַּיְלָה, שְׂכִיר לַיְלָה גּוֹבֶה כָל הַיּוֹם, שְׂכִיר שָׁעוֹת גּוֹבֶה כָל הַלַּיְלָה וְכָל הַיּוֹם. שְׂכִיר שַׁבָּת, שְׂכִיר חֹדֶשׁ, שְׂכִיר שָׁנָה, שְׂכִיר שָׁבוּעַ, יָצָא בַיּוֹם, גּוֹבֶה כָל הַיּוֹם, יָצָא בַלַּיְלָה, גּוֹבֶה כָל הַלַּיְלָה וְכָל הַיּוֹם:

One hired for day-work can collect [wages] all [the next] night. One hired for night-work can collect all [the next] day. One hired for hourly work can collect all [that night] and all the [next] day. One hired for a week, hired for a month, hired by year, [or] hired for a seven year period: if he departed by day, he can collect [his wages] all that day; if he completed [it] by night, he can collect all that night and all day.

12 יב

אֶחָד שְׂכַר אָדָם וְאֶחָד שְׂכַר בְּהֵמָה וְאֶחָד שְׂכַר כֵּלִים, יֶשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם (דברים כד) בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ, וְיֶשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם (ויקרא יט) לֹא תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד בֹּקֶר. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ, לֹא תְבָעוֹ, אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו. הִמְחָהוּ אֵצֶל חֶנְוָנִי אוֹ אֵצֶל שֻׁלְחָנִי, אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו. שָׂכִיר, בִּזְמַנּוֹ נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל, עָבַר זְמַנּוֹ אֵינוֹ נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. אִם יֵשׁ עֵדִים שֶׁתְּבָעוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה נִשְׁבָּע וְנוֹטֵל. גֵּר תּוֹשָׁב יֶשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם בְּיוֹמוֹ תִתֵּן שְׂכָרוֹ, וְאֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם לֹא תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד בֹּקֶר:

Whether [we are referring to] the hire of a person, the rental of a beast, or the rental of utensils, it is addressed by [the verse] (Deuteronomy 24:15): “On the same day you shall give him his hire," and it is addressed by [the verse] (Leviticus 19:13): “The wages of a hired servant shall not stay with you all night until the morning.” When is this [true]? In the event that he demanded it. If he did not demand it, [the renter] does not transgress it. If he directed him to a shopkeeper or to a moneychanger, he does not transgress it. The hired worker, at the time [when he could collect], may swear and receive [payment]. But if the time passed, he cannot swear and receive. If there are witnesses that he demanded it from him, behold, he can swear and receive. A resident alien is covered by, “In the same day you shall give him his hire,” but is not covered by, “The wages of a hired servant shall not stay with you all night until the morning.”

13 יג

הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ, לֹא יְמַשְׁכְּנֶנּוּ אֶלָּא בְּבֵית דִּין, וְלֹא יִכָּנֵס לְבֵיתוֹ לִטֹּל מַשְׁכּוֹנוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד) בַּחוּץ תַּעֲמֹד. הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי כֵלִים, נוֹטֵל אֶחָד וּמַנִּיחַ אֶחָד, וּמַחֲזִיר אֶת הַכַּר בַּלַּיְלָה וְאֶת הַמַּחֲרֵשָׁה בַיּוֹם. וְאִם מֵת, אֵינוֹ מַחֲזִיר לְיוֹרְשָׁיו. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אַף לְעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מַחֲזִיר אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, וּמִשְּׁלשִׁים יוֹם וּלְהַלָּן מוֹכְרָן בְּבֵית דִּין. אַלְמָנָה, בֵּין שֶׁהִיא עֲנִיָּה בֵּין שֶׁהִיא עֲשִׁירָה, אֵין מְמַשְׁכְּנִין אוֹתָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד) וְלֹא תַחֲבֹל בֶּגֶד אַלְמָנָה. הַחוֹבֵל אֶת הָרֵחַיִם, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, וְחַיָּב מִשּׁוּם שְׁנֵי כֵלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) לֹא יַחֲבֹל רֵחַיִם וָרָכֶב. וְלֹא רֵחַיִם וָרֶכֶב בִּלְבַד אָמְרוּ, אֶלָּא כָל דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בּוֹ אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כד) כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הוּא חֹבֵל:

[If] one lends to his fellow, he may not extract a pledge except through the court, and he may not enter his house to take the pledge, as is written (Deuteronomy 24:11): “You shall stand outside." If he had two vessels [as a pledge], he may take one and leave one, and he may return the pillow at night and the plow during the day. And if [the borrower] died, he may not return it to his heirs. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even to [the borrower] himself he [is only required to] return it up to thirty days, and after thirty days, he may sell them through the court. From a widow, whether she be poor or she be rich, one may not extracts written (Deuteronomy 24:17): “Do not take a widow’s garment as a pledge." One who takes millstones as a pledge transgresses a negative commandment, and he is liable for two vessels, as is written (Deuteronomy 24:6): “Do not take a mill or an upper millstone as a pledge." And they did not refer only to a mill and an upper millstone, but anything that is used to make food, as is written (ibid.): “For he is taking someone’s life as a pledge."