7ז׳
1 א

הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֲלִים וְאָמַר לָהֶם לְהַשְׁכִּים וּלְהַעֲרִיב, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁכִּים וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהַעֲרִיב, אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְכוֹפָן. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לָזוּן, יָזוּן. לְסַפֵּק בִּמְתִיקָה, יְסַפֵּק. הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן מַתְיָא שֶׁאָמַר לִבְנוֹ, צֵא שְׂכֹר לָנוּ פוֹעֲלִים. הָלַךְ וּפָסַק לָהֶם מְזוֹנוֹת. וּכְשֶׁבָּא אֵצֶל אָבִיו, אָמַר לוֹ, בְּנִי, אֲפִלּוּ אִם אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם כִּסְעֻדַּת שְׁלֹמֹה בִשְׁעָתוֹ, לֹא יָצָאתָ יְדֵי חוֹבָתְךָ עִמָּהֶן, שֶׁהֵן בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב. אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁלֹּא יַתְחִילוּ בַמְּלָאכָה צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶם, עַל מְנָת שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם עָלַי אֶלָּא פַת וְקִטְנִית בִּלְבַד. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר, הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה:

[If] one hires laborers, and then told them to begin work early and work late: in a place where they are accustomed to not begin work early and work late, he is not permitted to force them. In a place where they are accustomed to feed [workers], he should feed [them]; to provide sweets, he must supply. Everything goes according to local custom. It once happened that Rabbi Yochanan ben Matya said to his son, "Go out and hire laborers for us ." He went and committed to providing them with food. And when he came to his father, he said to him, "My son, even if you made for them a meal as [befitting] Solomon in his time, you would not have fulfilled your obligation toward them, for they are children of Avraham, Yitzhak, and Ya'akov. Rather, before they begin labor, go and say to them, '… on the condition that the only [claim] you have on me is for bread and beans.'” Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It is not necessary to say so, [since] everything goes according to local custom.

2 ב

וְאֵלּוּ אוֹכְלִין מִן הַתּוֹרָה. הָעוֹשֶׂה בִמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, בִּשְׁעַת גְּמַר מְלָאכָה, וּבְתָלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע, עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ, בְּדָבָר שֶׁגִּדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין אוֹכְלִין. הָעוֹשֶׂה בִמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין גְּמַר מְלָאכָה, וּבְתָלוּשׁ מִן הַקַּרְקַע מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּגְמְרָה מְלַאכְתּוֹ, וּבְדָבָר שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ:

And these may eat, according to the Torah: The one who works with what is attached to the ground when the labor finished; and with what is detached from the ground [even] before its work is completed – if it is something that grows from the ground. And these do not eat: the one who works with what is attached to the ground at a time when the labor is not finished, and [works with] what is detached from the ground after its labor has been finished, and [one who works with] something that does not grow from the ground.

3 ג

הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה בְיָדָיו אֲבָל לֹא בְרַגְלָיו, בְּרַגְלָיו אֲבָל לֹא בְיָדָיו, אֲפִלּוּ בִכְתֵפוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בְיָדָיו וּבְרַגְלָיו:

If one was working with his hands but not with his feet, [or] with his feet but not with his hands, or even with [only] his shoulders, this one may eat. Rabbi Yose bar Yehudah says: [he may not eat] unless he works with his hands and his feet.

4 ד

הָיָה עוֹשֶׂה בִתְאֵנִים, לֹא יֹאכַל בַּעֲנָבִים, בַּעֲנָבִים, לֹא יֹאכַל בִּתְאֵנִים. אֲבָל מוֹנֵעַ אֶת עַצְמוֹ עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לִמְקוֹם הַיָּפוֹת וְאוֹכֵל. וְכֻלָּן לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת מְלָאכָה, אֲבָל מִשּׁוּם הָשֵׁב אֲבֵדָה לַבְּעָלִים אָמְרוּ, פּוֹעֲלִים אוֹכְלִין בַּהֲלִיכָתָן מֵאֻמָּן לְאֻמָּן, וּבַחֲזִירָתָן מִן הַגַּת, וּבַחֲמוֹר כְּשֶׁהִיא פוֹרָקֶת:

If one was working with figs, he may not eat grapes; if with grapes, he may not eat figs; but he may restrain himself until he reaches the location of the best produce, and then eat. Concerning all of them, they only permitted so during the time of his labor. Because it is tantamount to returning lost property to its owner, they said: laborers may eat as they go from furrow to furrow, or as they return from the winepress, and a donkey while it is unloading.

5 ה

אוֹכֵל פּוֹעֵל קִשּׁוּת אֲפִלּוּ בְדִינָר, וְכוֹתֶבֶת אֲפִלּוּ בְדִינָר. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא יֹאכַל פּוֹעֵל יָתֵר עַל שְׂכָרוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין, אֲבָל מְלַמְּדִין אֶת הָאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא רַעַבְתָן וִיהֵא סוֹתֵם אֶת הַפֶּתַח בְּפָנָיו:

A laborer may eat cucumbers even up to [the value] of a dinar, and dates even up to [the value] of a dinar. Rabbi Elazar ben Khisma says: A laborer may not eat more than the value of his wage. The Sages permit it, but [we] teach a person not be gluttonous, [for he would] thus be closing the door upon himself.

6 ו

קוֹצֵץ אָדָם עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ, עַל יְדֵי בְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים, עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים, עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן דָּעַת. אֲבָל אֵינוֹ קוֹצֵץ עַל יְדֵי בְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים, וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים, וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי בְהֶמְתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן דָּעַת:

A person may stipulate for himself, and for his son or daughter who are adults, and for his adult male slave or adult female slave, and for his wife, because these have comprehension. But he may not stipulate for his son and daughter who are minors, or for his minor male slave or minor female slave or for his cattle, because these do not have comprehension.

7 ז

הַשּׂוֹכֵר אֶת הַפּוֹעֲלִים לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּנֶטַע רְבָעִי שֶׁלּוֹ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ. אִם לֹא הוֹדִיעָן, פּוֹדֶה וּמַאֲכִילָן. נִתְפָּרְסוּ עִגּוּלָיו, נִתְפַּתְּחוּ חָבִיּוֹתָיו, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ. אִם לֹא הוֹדִיעָן, מְעַשֵּׂר וּמַאֲכִילָן:

The one who hires laborers to work among his fourth-year plantings, they may not eat from them. If he had not informed them, he should redeem and then let them eat. If his fig-cakes were split or his jugs were opened, they may not eat from them. If he had not informed them, he should tithe and then let them eat.

8 ח

שׁוֹמְרֵי פֵרוֹת אוֹכְלִין מֵהִלְכוֹת מְדִינָה, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַתּוֹרָה. אַרְבָּעָה שׁוֹמְרִין הֵן. שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם, וְהַשּׁוֹאֵל, נוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר, וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר. שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם נִשְׁבָּע עַל הַכֹּל, וְהַשּׁוֹאֵל מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַכֹּל, וְנוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר נִשְׁבָּעִים עַל הַשְּׁבוּרָה וְעַל הַשְּׁבוּיָה וְעַל הַמֵּתָה, וּמְשַׁלְּמִין אֶת הָאֲבֵדָה וְאֶת הַגְּנֵבָה:

Those who guard produce may eat according to civic law but not according to the Torah. There are four types of guardians: an unpaid guardian, a borrower, one who collects a wage, and a renter. An unpaid guardian may swear in every case; and the borrower should pay restitution in every case; and one who collects a wage or a renter must swear concerning an injured [animal], concerning one that has been carried off, or concerning a dead [animal], and must pay restitution for loss or theft.

9 ט

זְאֵב אֶחָד, אֵינוֹ אֹנֶס, שְׁנֵי זְאֵבִים, אֹנֶס. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בִּשְׁעַת מִשְׁלַחַת זְאֵבִים, אַף זְאֵב אֶחָד אֹנֶס. שְׁנֵי כְלָבִים, אֵינוֹ אֹנֶס. יַדּוּעַ הַבַּבְלִי אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מֵרוּחַ אַחַת, אֵינוֹ אֹנֶס, מִשְּׁתֵּי רוּחוֹת, אֹנֶס. הַלִּסְטִים, הֲרֵי זֶה אֹנֶס. הָאֲרִי וְהַדֹּב וְהַנָּמֵר וְהַבַּרְדְּלָס וְהַנָּחָשׁ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֹנֶס. אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁבָּאוּ מֵאֲלֵיהֶן, אֲבָל אִם הוֹלִיכָן לִמְקוֹם גְּדוּדֵי חַיָּה וְלִסְטִים, אֵינוֹ אֹנֶס:

One wolf does not constitute an unavoidable occurrence. Two wolves do constitute an unavoidable occurrence. Rabbi Yehudah says: In a time when wolves are rampant, even if it is one wolf, it is an unavoidable occurrence. Two dogs do not constitute an unavoidable occurrence. Yadu'a the Babylonian says in the name of Rabbi Meir: From one direction they do not constitute an unavoidable occurrence, but from two directions they constitute an unavoidable occurrence. An [encounter with] bandits constitutes an unavoidable occurrence. A lion or a bear or a leopard or a panther or a serpent constitute an unavoidable occurrence. When? When they come of their own accord. But if he took them to a place of hordes of wild animals or bandits, they do not constitute an unavoidable occurrence.

10 י

מֵתָה כְדַרְכָּהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֹנֶס. סִגְּפָהּ וָמֵתָה, אֵינוֹ אֹנֶס. עָלְתָה לְרָאשֵׁי צוּקִין וְנָפְלָה וָמֵתָה, הֲרֵי זֶה אֹנֶס. הֶעֱלָהּ לְרָאשֵׁי צוּקִין וְנָפְלָה וָמֵתָה, אֵינוֹ אֹנֶס. מַתְנֶה שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם לִהְיוֹת פָּטוּר מִשְּׁבוּעָה, וְהַשּׁוֹאֵל לִהְיוֹת פָּטוּר מִלְּשַׁלֵּם, נוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר וְהַשּׂוֹכֵר לִהְיוֹת פְּטוּרִין מִשְּׁבוּעָה וּמִלְּשַׁלֵּם:

If it died a natural death, this constitutes an unavoidable occurrence, but if he afflicted it and it died, it does not constitute an unavoidable occurrence. If it went up to the top of the cliffs and fell, this constitutes an unavoidable occurrence. If he brought it up to the top of the cliffs and it fell and died, it is not an unavoidable occurrence. An unpaid guardian may stipulate to be exempt from taking an oath, and a borrower to be exempt from paying restitution, and a paid guardian and a renter to be exempt from taking an oath or from paying restitution.

11 יא

כָּל הַמַּתְנֶה עַל מַה שֶּׁכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה, תְּנָאוֹ בָטֵל. וְכָל תְּנַאי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַעֲשֶׂה בִתְחִלָּתוֹ, תְּנָאוֹ בָטֵל. וְכָל שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַיְּמוֹ בְסוֹפוֹ, וְהִתְנָה עָלָיו מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ, תְּנָאוֹ קַיָּם:

Anyone who stipulates concerning what is written in the Torah, his stipulation is void. And any condition that is preceded by action, his stipulation is void. And any stipulation that it would have been possible for him to fulfill at the end, but he stipulates it from its beginning, his stipulation is valid.