5ה׳
1 א

אֵיזֶהוּ נֶשֶׁךְ וְאֵיזֶהוּ תַרְבִּית. אֵיזֶהוּ נֶשֶׁךְ. הַמַּלְוֶה סֶלַע בַּחֲמִשָּׁה דִינָרִין, סָאתַיִם חִטִּין בְּשָׁלשׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נוֹשֵׁךְ. וְאֵיזֶהוּ תַרְבִּית, הַמַּרְבֶּה בְּפֵרוֹת. כֵּיצַד. לָקַח הֵימֶנּוּ חִטִּין בְּדִינַר זָהָב הַכּוֹר, וְכֵן הַשַּׁעַר, עָמְדוּ חִטִּין בִּשְׁלשִׁים דִּינָרִין, אָמַר לוֹ תֶּן לִי חִטַּי, שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה לְמָכְרָן וְלִקַּח בָּהֶן יָיִן. אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי חִטֶּיךָ עֲשׂוּיוֹת עָלַי בִּשְׁלשִׁים, וַהֲרֵי לְךָ אֶצְלִי בָּהֶן יָיִן, וְיַיִן אֵין לוֹ:

Which act is usury and which act is profiteering? Which act is usury? The one who lends a sela for five dinarin, or two se'im of wheat for three, that transaction is forbidden because [the interest] bites. And what is profiteering? One who increases [his profit] with produce. How so? One bought wheat from him at a golden dinar for a kor [when] such was the market price, and then wheat rose to thirty [silver] dinarin. [If] he said to him, “Give me my wheat since I want to sell them and buy wine with them” and [the other] said to him, “Let your wheat be reckoned with me at thirty dinarin and you now have a claim on me for wine," although he [the creditor] has no wine.

2 ב

הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ, לֹא יָדוּר בַּחֲצֵרוֹ חִנָּם, וְלֹא יִשְׂכֹּר מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפָחוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רִבִּית. מַרְבִּין עַל הַשָּׂכָר, וְאֵין מַרְבִּין עַל הַמֶּכֶר. כֵּיצַד. הִשְׂכִּיר לוֹ אֶת חֲצֵרוֹ, וְאָמַר לוֹ, אִם מֵעַכְשָׁיו אַתָּה נוֹתֵן לִי, הֲרֵי הוּא לְךָ בְּעֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים לְשָׁנָה, וְאִם שֶׁל חֹדֶשׁ בְּחֹדֶשׁ, בְּסֶלַע לְחֹדֶשׁ, מֻתָּר. מָכַר לוֹ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ, וְאָמַר לוֹ, אִם מֵעַכְשָׁיו אַתָּה נוֹתֵן לִי, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלְּךָ בְּאֶלֶף זוּז, אִם לַגֹּרֶן, בִּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר מָנֶה, אָסוּר:

[If] one lends [money] to his fellow, he may not dwell in his courtyard for free or rent it from him at a reduced [rate], since this is usury. One may increase the rent but may not increase the purchase price. How so? If he rented him his courtyard, and said to him, "If you pay me now [the cost] is ten sela'im per year, but if on a monthly basis, the rent is one sela per month," [this] is permitted. If he sold him his field and said to him, “If you pay me now, it is yours for one thousand zuz, but if [at the time of] threshing it will be twelve maneh," [this] is forbidden.

3 ג

מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה, וְנָתַן לוֹ מִקְצָת דָּמִים, וְאָמַר לוֹ אֵימָתַי שֶׁתִּרְצֶה הָבֵא מָעוֹת וְטֹל אֶת שֶׁלְּךָ, אָסוּר. הִלְוָהוּ עַל שָׂדֵהוּ, וְאָמַר לוֹ, אִם אִי אַתָּה נוֹתֵן לִי מִכָּאן וְעַד שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלִּי, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלּוֹ. וְכָךְ הָיָה בַּיְתוֹס בֶּן זוֹנִין עוֹשֶׂה עַל פִּי חֲכָמִים:

If he sold him the field, and [the buyer] gave him a fraction of the cost, and [the seller] said to him, “Whenever you want, bring the [rest of] the money, and then take what is yours," [this] is forbidden. If he lent against [the borrower's] field and said to him, “If you do not pay me within three years, it will be mine," then it becomes his. This is what Baytos the son of Zonin used to by the Sages' word.

4 ד

אֵין מוֹשִׁיבִין חֶנְוָנִי לְמַחֲצִית שָׂכָר, וְלֹא יִתֵּן מָעוֹת לִקַּח בָּהֶן פֵּרוֹת לְמַחֲצִית שָׂכָר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכָרוֹ כְּפוֹעֵל. אֵין מוֹשִׁיבִין תַּרְנְגוֹלִין לְמֶחֱצָה, וְאֵין שָׁמִין עֲגָלִין וּסְיָחִין לְמֶחֱצָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נוֹתֵן לוֹ שְׂכַר עֲמָלוֹ וּמְזוֹנוֹ. אֲבָל מְקַבְּלִין עֲגָלִין וּסְיָחִין לְמֶחֱצָה, וּמְגַדְּלִין אוֹתָן עַד שֶׁיְּהוּ מְשֻׁלָּשִׁין. וַחֲמוֹר, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא טוֹעָנֶת:

One may not set up a shopkeeper [to sell one's goods and receive] half the profit, nor give him money to buy produce [to sell and receive] half the profit, unless he pays him his wage as a laborer. One may not offer his hens [to brood] for half [the profit], nor offer calves or foals [to be raised] for half [the profit], unless he pays him a wage for his labor and his food. But one may accept calves and foals for half [the proceeds], and rear them until they reach a third [of their growth], and a donkey, until it can carry [a burden.]

5 ה

שָׁמִין פָּרָה וַחֲמוֹר וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה וְאוֹכֵל לְמֶחֱצָה. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַחֲלֹק אֶת הַוְּלָדוֹת מִיָּד, חוֹלְקִין, מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְגַדֵּל, יְגַדֵּלוּ. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שָׁמִין עֵגֶל עִם אִמּוֹ וּסְיָח עִם אִמּוֹ. וּמַפְרִיז עַל שָׂדֵהוּ, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ מִשּׁוּם רִבִּית:

One may evaluate a cow or a donkey or anything that does work [enough to pay for what it] eats, and split [the profit]. In a place where they are accustomed to divide the offspring immediately, they divide; and in a place where they are accustomed to rear them, they must rear [them]. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may evaluate a calf along with its mother, and a foal with its mother. One may offer increased [rent] on his field [in exchange for a loan from the landowner to improve the property] and not be concerned that this is usury.

6 ו

אֵין מְקַבְּלִין צֹאן בַּרְזֶל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רִבִּית. אֲבָל מְקַבְּלִין צֹאן בַּרְזֶל מִן הַנָּכְרִים, וְלֹוִין מֵהֶן וּמַלְוִין אוֹתָן בְּרִבִּית, וְכֵן בְּגֵר תּוֹשָׁב. מַלְוֶה יִשְׂרָאֵל מְעוֹתָיו שֶׁל נָכְרִי מִדַּעַת הַנָּכְרִי, אֲבָל לֹא מִדַּעַת יִשְׂרָאֵל:

One may not [take on raising] sheep [that remain financially secure to their owner like] iron from a Jew, since this is usury. But one may [take on raising] sheep [that remain financially secure to their owner like] iron from non-Jews, and one may borrow from them, and one may lend them money with usury; and so too with a resident alien. A Jew may lend the money [that he borrowed from] a non-Jew with the consent of the non-Jew, but not so with the consent of a Jew.

7 ז

אֵין פּוֹסְקִין עַל הַפֵּרוֹת עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַשָּׁעַר. (יָצָא הַשַּׁעַר, פּוֹסְקִין, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָזֶה יֵשׁ לָזֶה). הָיָה הוּא תְחִלָּה לַקּוֹצְרִים, פּוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ עַל הַגָּדִישׁ, וְעַל הֶעָבִיט שֶׁל עֲנָבִים, וְעַל הַמַּעֲטָן שֶׁל זֵיתִים, וְעַל הַבֵּיצִים שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, וְעַל הַסִּיד מִשֶּׁשִּׁקְּעוֹ בַכִּבְשָׁן. וּפוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ עַל הַזֶּבֶל כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵין פּוֹסְקִין עַל הַזֶּבֶל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיְתָה לּוֹ זֶבֶל בָּאַשְׁפָּה. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. וּפוֹסֵק עִמּוֹ כְשַׁעַר הַגָּבוֹהַּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָסַק עִמּוֹ כְשַׁעַר הַגָּבוֹהַּ, יָכוֹל לוֹמַר תֶּן לִי כָזֶה, אוֹ תֶּן לִי מְעוֹתָי:

One may not set a price for [a future shipment of] produce until its market-price has been set. Once the market-price has been set, one may make an agreement, for even if [the fruit seller] does not have [the produce], someone else will have it. If [the fruit seller] was the first to harvest, he may set any price with him over a heap of unrefined grain, or [for wine] over a basket of grapes, or [for oil] over a vat of olives, or [for pots] over the [clay] balls of the potter, or over lime from when [the limestone] is submerged in the kiln. One may set a price with him for [a pending shipment of] manure all the days of the year. Rabbi Yose says: One may not set a price over manure until [the seller] has manure in the dungheap, but the Sages permit [it]. And one may set a price [variable] up to the cheapest [possible] rate. Rabbi Yehudah says: Even though he did not set the price with him at the cheapest rate, he is able to say, “Give [it] to me at this [price] or give me back my money.”

8 ח

מַלְוֶה אָדָם אֶת אֲרִיסָיו חִטִּים בְּחִטִּין לְזֶרַע, אֲבָל לֹא לֶאֱכֹל. שֶׁהָיָה רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מַלְוֶה אֶת אֲרִיסָיו חִטִּין בְּחִטִּין לְזֶרַע, בְּיֹקֶר וְהוּזְלוּ, אוֹ בְזוֹל וְהוּקְרוּ, נוֹטֵל מֵהֶן כְּשַׁעַר הַזּוֹל, וְלֹא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֲלָכָה כֵן, אֶלָּא שֶׁרָצָה לְהַחְמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ:

One may lend his tenant-farmers wheat [in exchange] for wheat, for sowing but not for food, for Rabban Gamaliel used to lend his tenant-farmers wheat [in exchange] for wheat for sowing. If [it was] expensive and became cheap, or if it was cheap and became expensive, he would take from them at the cheaper rate [of the two], and not because this was the law, but because he wanted to hold himself to a stricter standard.

9 ט

לֹא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, הַלְוֵינִי כוֹר חִטִּין וַאֲנִי אֶתֵּן לְךָ לַגֹּרֶן. אֲבָל אוֹמֵר לוֹ, הַלְוֵינִי עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא בְנִי, אוֹ עַד שֶׁאֶמְצָא מַפְתֵּחַ. וְהִלֵּל אוֹסֵר. וְכֵן הָיָה הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, לֹא תַלְוֶה אִשָּׁה כִּכָּר לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ עַד שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂנּוּ דָמִים, שֶׁמָּא יוֹקִירוּ חִטִּים, וְנִמְצְאוּ בָאוֹת לִידֵי רִבִּית:

One should not say to his fellow, “Lend me a kor of wheat and I will repay you at the threshing time." But he may say to him, “Lend [it] to me until my son comes,” or “[Lend it to me] until I find my key." But Hillel forbids. And Hillel would say thus: A woman may not lend a loaf to her friend until she sets a price for it, lest wheat become more expensive [in the interim], and it turns out they have come to [transgress] usury.

10 י

אוֹמֵר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, נַכֵּשׁ עִמִּי וַאֲנַכֵּשׁ עִמָּךְ, עֲדֹר עִמִּי וְאֶעְדֹּר עִמָּךְ, וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ נַכֵּשׁ עִמִּי וְאֶעְדֹּר עִמָּךְ, עֲדֹר עִמִּי וַאֲנַכֵּשׁ עִמָּךְ. כָּל יְמֵי גָרִיד, אֶחָד. כָּל יְמֵי רְבִיעָה, אֶחָד. לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ חֲרשׁ עִמִּי בַּגָּרִיד וַאֲנִי אֶחֱרשׁ עִמְּךָ בָּרְבִיעָה. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ רִבִּית מֻקְדֶּמֶת וְיֵשׁ רִבִּית מְאֻחֶרֶת. כֵּיצַד. נָתַן עֵינָיו לִלְווֹת הֵימֶנּוּ, וְהָיָה מְשַׁלֵּחַ לוֹ וְאוֹמֵר בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁתַּלְוֵנִי, זוֹ הִיא רִבִּית מֻקְדֶּמֶת. לָוָה הֵימֶנּוּ וְהֶחֱזִיר לוֹ אֶת מְעוֹתָיו, וְהָיָה מְשַׁלֵּחַ לוֹ וְאָמַר בִּשְׁבִיל מְעוֹתֶיךָ שֶׁהָיוּ בְטֵלוֹת אֶצְלִי, זוֹ הִיא רִבִּית מְאֻחֶרֶת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, יֵשׁ רִבִּית דְּבָרִים, לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ, דַּע כִּי בָא אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי מִמָּקוֹם פְּלוֹנִי:

One may say to his fellow, “Weed with me and I will weed with you,” [or] “Hoe with and I will hoe with you.” But one may not say to him, “Weed with me and I will hoe with you,” or, “Hoe with me and I will weed with you." All days of the dry season are the same [in value], and all days of the rainy season are the same [in value]. He shall not say to [his fellow], “Plow with me in the dry season and I will plow with you in the rainy season.” Rabban Gamaliel says: There is advance interest and subsequent interest. How so? If he set his sights on borrowing from another and sent him [a gift] and says, “This is in order that you will lend to me,” this is advance interest. If one borrowed from another and repaid it to him, and then sent him [a gift] and said, “This is for your money that was value-less [while] it was with me,” this is subsequent interest. Rabbi Shimon says: There is interest of words: one may not say to him, “Know that such-and-such a person has arrived from such-and-such place.”

11 יא

וְאֵלּוּ עוֹבְרִין בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. הַמַּלְוֶה, וְהַלֹּוֶה, וְהֶעָרֵב, וְהָעֵדִים. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף הַסּוֹפֵר. עוֹבְרִים מִשּׁוּם לֹא תִתֵּן (ויקרא כה), וּמִשּׁוּם בַּל תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ (שם), וּמִשּׁוּם לֹא תִהְיֶה לוֹ כְּנשֶׁה (שמות כב), וּמִשּׁוּם לֹא תְשִׂימוּן עָלָיו נֶשֶׁךְ (שם), וּמִשּׁוּם וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי ה' (ויקרא יט):

And these are the people who transgress a negative commandment: the lender, the borrower, the guarantor, and the witnesses. And the Sages say: even the scribe. They transgress within the category of (Leviticus 25:37) “Do not give," and the category of (Leviticus 25:36) “Do not take from him,” and the category of (Exodus 22:24) “You shall not be to him as a creditor," and the category of “Nor shall you place upon him usury,” (ibid.) and the category of (Leviticus 19:14) “You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind, and you will fear your God, I am Hashem."