4ד׳
1 א

הַזָּהָב קוֹנֶה אֶת הַכֶּסֶף, וְהַכֶּסֶף אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אֶת הַזָּהָב. הַנְּחֹשֶׁת קוֹנָה אֶת הַכֶּסֶף, וְהַכֶּסֶף אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אֶת הַנְּחשֶׁת. מָעוֹת הָרָעוֹת קוֹנוֹת אֶת הַיָּפוֹת, וְהַיָּפוֹת אֵינָן קוֹנוֹת אֶת הָרָעוֹת. אֲסִימוֹן קוֹנֶה אֶת הַמַּטְבֵּעַ, וְהַמַּטְבֵּעַ אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אֶת אֲסִימוֹן. מִטַּלְטְלִין קוֹנִים אֶת הַמַּטְבֵּעַ, וְהַמַּטְבֵּעַ אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אֶת הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין קוֹנִין זֶה אֶת זֶה:

Gold acquires silver, but silver does not acquire gold. Copper acquires silver, but silver does not acquire copper. Defective coins acquire current ones, but current ones do not acquire defective. Uncoined metal acquires the coin; the coin does not acquire uncoined metal. Movable properties acquire the coin; the coin does not acquire movable properties. This is the general rule: All movable properties acquire each other.

2 ב

כֵּיצַד. מָשַׁךְ הֵימֶנּוּ פֵרוֹת וְלֹא נָתַן לוֹ מָעוֹת, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ. נָתַן לוֹ מָעוֹת וְלֹא מָשַׁךְ הֵימֶנּוּ פֵרוֹת, יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ, מִי שֶׁפָּרַע מֵאַנְשֵׁי דוֹר הַמַּבּוּל וּמִדּוֹר הַפַּלָּגָה, הוּא עָתִיד לְהִפָּרַע מִמִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד בְּדִבּוּרוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כָּל שֶׁהַכֶּסֶף בְּיָדוֹ, יָדוֹ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה:

How so? If he took produce from him but did not give him coins, he cannot retract. If he gave him money but did not take produce from him, he can retract. But they said: He who exacted payment from the Generation of the Flood and the Generation of the Dispersion will ultimately exact payment from he who does not stand by his word. Rabbi Shimon said: Whoever is holding the money has the upper hand.

3 ג

הָאוֹנָאָה, אַרְבָּעָה כֶסֶף מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה כֶסֶף לַסֶּלַע, שְׁתוּת לַמִּקָּח. עַד מָתַי מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר. עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּרְאֶה לְתַגָּר אוֹ לִקְרוֹבוֹ. הוֹרָה רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן בְּלוֹד, הָאוֹנָאָה שְׁמֹנָה כֶסֶף לַסֶּלַע, שְׁלִישׁ לַמִּקָּח, וְשָׂמְחוּ תַגָּרֵי לוֹד. אָמַר לָהֶם, כָּל הַיּוֹם מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, יַנִּיחַ לָנוּ רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן בִּמְקוֹמֵנוּ, וְחָזְרוּ לְדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים:

Fraud is [at least] four silver from twenty four silver [which constitute a] sela, [equaling] one-sixth of the sale price. Until when is it permitted to retract? Up to the time it takes to show it to a merchant or to one's relative. Rabbi Tarfon taught in Lod: Fraud is eight silver per sela, [which is] one-third of the sale price, and the merchants of Lod were happy. He said to them, "It is permitted to retract the entire day." They said to him, "Let Rabbi Tarfon leave us in our place," and they resorted to the words of the Sages.

4 ד

אֶחָד הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְאֶחָד הַמּוֹכֵר, יֵשׁ לָהֶן אוֹנָאָה. כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאוֹנָאָה לְהֶדְיוֹט, כָּךְ אוֹנָאָה לְתַגָּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין אוֹנָאָה לְתַגָּר. מִי שֶׁהֻטַּל עָלָיו, יָדוֹ עַל הָעֶלְיוֹנָה, רָצָה, אוֹמֵר תֶּן לִי מְעוֹתַי, אוֹ תֶן לִי מַה שֶּׁאוֹנִיתַנִי:

Both the purchaser and the seller have [the capacity to claim] fraud. Just as fraud applies to an ordinary person, so too fraud applies to a merchant. R. Yehudah says: Fraud does not apply to a merchant. The one who was defrauded - he has the upper hand. If he wants, he may say to him, "Give me my money," or "Give me the amount you defrauded me."

5 ה

כַּמָּה תְהֵא הַסֶּלַע חֲסֵרָה וְלֹא יְהֵא בָהּ אוֹנָאָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַרְבָּעָה אִסָּרִין, אִסָּר לְדִינָר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַרְבָּעָה פֻנְדְּיוֹנוֹת, פֻּנְדְּיוֹן לְדִינָר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁמֹנָה פֻנְדְּיוֹנוֹת, שְׁנֵי פֻנְדְּיוֹנוֹת לְדִינָר:

How much can the sela lack [in weight] and it not be considered fraud? R. Meir says: Four issarin [at] one issar per dinar. R. Yehudah says: Four pundionot, [at] one pundion per dinar. R. Shimon says: Eight pundionot, [at] two pundionot per dinar.

6 ו

עַד מָתַי מֻתָּר לְהַחֲזִיר, בַּכְּרַכִּים, עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּרְאֶה לְשֻׁלְחָנִי, וּבַכְּפָרִים, עַד עַרְבֵי שַׁבָּתוֹת. אִם הָיָה מַכִּירָהּ, אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ מְקַבְּלָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ, וְאֵין לוֹ עָלָיו אֶלָּא תַרְעֹמֶת. וְנוֹתְנָהּ לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא נֶפֶשׁ רָעָה:

Until when is it permitted to retract [when the coin is lacking weight]? In cities, until it can be shown to a money-changer. And in villages: until the eves of the Sabbaths. If [the one who originally gave the coin] recognizes [the underweight coin], even after twelve months he should accept it from him. But [if he refuses to do so, the one who received the coin] only has a [legally unenforceable] complaint against him. And one may use it for ma'aser sheni without concern, for [one who refuses to receive it] is nothing but a bad person.

7 ז

הָאוֹנָאָה אַרְבָּעָה כֶסֶף, וְהַטַּעֲנָה שְׁתֵּי כֶסֶף, וְהַהוֹדָאָה שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה. חָמֵשׁ פְּרוּטוֹת הֵן. הַהוֹדָאָה שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת בְּשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה, וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה בְשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מָעַל, וְהַמּוֹצֵא שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז, וְהַגּוֹזֵל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה וְנִשְׁבַּע לוֹ, יוֹלִיכֶנּוּ אַחֲרָיו אֲפִלּוּ לְמָדָי:

Fraud is four silver, and a claim [must be at least] two silver, the affirmation of which [must be worth at least] the value of a perutah. There are five [legally operative ] perutot : The affirmation that it is the value of a perutah; and a woman is betrothed with the value of a perutah; and one who gets enjoyment worth the value of a perutah from sanctified property has misused consecrated property; and one who finds [something] worth a perutah is obligated to announce; and one who steals from his fellow [something] worth a perutah and swears about it - they pursue him, even as far as Media.

8 ח

חֲמִשָּׁה חֻמְשִׁין הֵן. הָאוֹכֵל תְּרוּמָה, וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר, וּתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר שֶׁל דְּמַאי, וְהַחַלָּה, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. וְהַפּוֹדֶה נֶטַע רְבָעִי וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלּוֹ, מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. הַפּוֹדֶה אֶת הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹ, מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. הַנֶּהֱנֶה בְשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ, מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. וְהַגּוֹזֵל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה וְנִשְׁבַּע לוֹ, מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ:

There are five [situations calling for a] one-fifth [penalty]: One who eats terumah,, terumat ma'aser, terumat ma'aser that may not have been tithed, challah, or first fruits, adds one-fifth. And one who redeems [the fruit of] his fourth-year planting or his ma'aser sheni adds a fifth. And one who redeems property that he has sanctified [to the Temple] adds one-fifth. And one who gets enjoyment worth the value of a perutah from sanctified property adds one-fifth. And one who steals [something] from his fellow worth the value of a perutah and [falsely] swears to him adds one-fifth.

9 ט

אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אוֹנָאָה. הָעֲבָדִים, וְהַשְּׁטָרוֹת, וְהַקַּרְקָעוֹת, וְהַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. אֵין לָהֶן לֹא תַשְׁלוּמֵי כֶפֶל וְלֹא תַשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה, שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם אֵינוֹ נִשְׁבָּע, וְנוֹשֵׂא שָׂכָר אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, קָדָשִׁים שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן, יֵשׁ לָהֶן אוֹנָאָה, וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן, אֵין לָהֶן אוֹנָאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמּוֹכֵר סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה, בְּהֵמָה וּמַרְגָּלִית, אֵין לָהֶם אוֹנָאָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא אֶת אֵלּוּ:

These are the things to which fraud does not apply: Slaves, contracts, land, and property sanctified [to the Temple]. They are not subject to a double penalty nor a penalty of fourfold or fivefold. An unpaid guardian does not swear [concerning them], and a paid guardian does not pay [concerning them]. R. Shimon says: For [animals designated for] sacrifices that one is obligated to fulfill, one can [claim] fraud, but concerning those that one is not obligated to fulfill, one cannot [claim] fraud. Rabbi Yehudah says: Fraud does not apply to one who sells a Torah scroll, an animal, or a jewel. They said to him: They said only these [that are listed at the beginning of the Mishnah]!

10 י

כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאוֹנָאָה בְמִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר, כָּךְ אוֹנָאָה בִדְבָרִים. לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ בְּכַמָּה חֵפֶץ זֶה, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִקַּח. אִם הָיָה בַעַל תְּשׁוּבָה, לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ זְכֹר מַעֲשֶׂיךָ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. אִם הוּא בֶן גֵּרִים, לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ זְכֹר מַעֲשֵׂה אֲבוֹתֶיךָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב) וְגֵר לֹא תוֹנֶה וְלֹא תִלְחָצֶנּוּ:

Just as there is fraud regarding commerce, so too there is fraud regarding words. One should not say to [a merchant], "How much is this object?" if he does not want to buy. If someone was a penitent, one should not say to him, "Remember your former actions." If someone is the child of converts, one should not say to him: "Remember the deeds of your ancestors." As is written (Exodus 22:20): "You shall neither deceive a stranger, nor oppress him."

11 יא

אֵין מְעָרְבִין פֵּרוֹת בְּפֵרוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ חֲדָשִׁים בַּחֲדָשִׁים, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר חֲדָשִׁים בִּישָׁנִים. בֶּאֱמֶת, בְּיַיִן הִתִּירוּ לְעָרֵב קָשֶׁה בְרַךְ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַשְׁבִּיחוֹ. אֵין מְעָרְבִין שִׁמְרֵי יַיִן בְּיַיִן, אֲבָל נוֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת שְׁמָרָיו. מִי שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב מַיִם בְּיֵינוֹ, לֹא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ בַחֲנוּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוֹדִיעוֹ, וְלֹא לְתַגָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹדִיעוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְרַמּוֹת בּוֹ. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַטִּיל מַיִם בַּיַּיִן, יַטִּילוּ:

Fruit [of one field] may not be mixed together with fruit [of another], even newly-harvested with newly-harvested, and needless to say newly-harvested with old. However, with regard to wine, they permitted to mix “hard” wine with “soft,” since this improves it. Yeast of one wine may not be mixed with that of another, but [the seller] may give the yeast [along with the wine]. One who mixed water with his wine may not sell it in a store unless he informs [the buyer], and not to a merchant even if he does inform him, for it will only [be used] for deception. In a place where they are accustomed to put water in wine, they may do so.

12 יב

הַתַּגָּר נוֹטֵל מֵחָמֵשׁ גְּרָנוֹת וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ מְגוּרָה אַחַת. מֵחָמֵשׁ גִּתּוֹת, וְנוֹתֵן לְתוֹךְ פִּטָּם אֶחָד. וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְעָרֵב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יְחַלֵּק הַחֶנְוָנִי קְלָיוֹת וֶאֱגוֹזִין לַתִּינוֹקוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַרְגִּילָן לָבֹא אֶצְלוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. וְלֹא יִפְחֹת אֶת הַשָּׁעַר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, זָכוּר לָטוֹב. לֹא יָבֹר אֶת הַגְּרִיסִין, דִּבְרֵי אַבָּא שָׁאוּל. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹר מֵעַל פִּי מְגוּרָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְגוֹנֵב אֶת הָעָיִן. אֵין מְפַרְכְּסִין לֹא אֶת הָאָדָם וְלֹא אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וְלֹא אֶת הַכֵּלִים:

A merchant may acquire [grain] from five threshing floors and put the produce into one store-room, or from five wine-presses and put them into one cask, as long as he does not intend to mix [good with bad]. Rabbi Yehudah says: A storekeeper should not distribute parched grain or nuts to children, because he is accustoming them to come to him - but the Sages permit [this]. And he may not undercut the market price, but the Sages say: [let him be] remembered for good. One may not sift crushed beans - these are the words of Abba Shaul. But the Sages permit, though they agree that he should not sift [them only] at the opening of the store-room, since he would be creating an illusion. He should not beautify [his wares], neither humans, nor an animal, nor vessels.