3ג׳
1 א

הַמַּפְקִיד אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ בְּהֵמָה אוֹ כֵלִים, וְנִגְנְבוּ אוֹ שֶׁאָבְדוּ, שִׁלֵּם וְלֹא רָצָה לִשָּׁבַע, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמְרוּ שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם נִשְׁבָּע וְיוֹצֵא, נִמְצָא הַגַּנָּב, מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶפֶל. טָבַח וּמָכַר, מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. לְמִי מְשַׁלֵּם, לְמִי שֶׁהַפִּקָּדוֹן אֶצְלוֹ. נִשְׁבַּע וְלֹא רָצָה לְשַׁלֵּם, נִמְצָא הַגַּנָּב, מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֶפֶל, טָבַח וּמָכַר, מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי אַרְבָּעָה וַחֲמִשָּׁה. לְמִי מְשַׁלֵּם, לְבַעַל הַפִּקָּדוֹן:

[If] one deposited [for safekeeping] an animal or vessels with his neighbor and they were stolen or lost, if he paid and did not want to swear [the prescribed oath], because they [the sages] said that an unpaid guardian must swear and be exempt [from liability, and if afterward] the thief is found, he must pay double. [If the thief] butchered or sold the object, he must pay four or fivefold. To whom does he pay? To him who [kept] the deposit with him. [If the guardian] swore the [prescribed oath] and did not want to pay, and [afterward] the thief is found, he must pay double. [If the thief] butchered or sold the object, he must pay four or fivefold. To whom does he pay? To the owner of the deposit.

2 ב

הַשּׂוֹכֵר פָּרָה מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְהִשְׁאִילָהּ לְאַחֵר, וּמֵתָה כְדַרְכָּה, יִשָּׁבַע הַשּׂוֹכֵר שֶׁמֵּתָה כְדַרְכָּה, וְהַשּׁוֹאֵל יְשַׁלֵּם לַשּׂוֹכֵר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, כֵּיצַד הַלָּה עוֹשֶׂה סְחוֹרָה בְּפָרָתוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אֶלָּא תַחֲזֹר פָּרָה לַבְּעָלִים:

If one rented a cow from his neighbor, and loans it to another, and the cow dies naturally; the one who rented [the cow] should swear that it died naturally, and the borrower should pay the renter. Rabbi Yosei said: How shall he do business with his neighbor's cow? Rather, the cow [or its value] must be returned to the owners.

3 ג

אָמַר לִשְׁנַיִם, גָּזַלְתִּי לְאֶחָד מִכֶּם מָנֶה, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מִכֶּם, אוֹ, אָבִיו שֶׁל אֶחָד מִכֶּם הִפְקִיד לִי מָנֶה, וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה הוּא, נוֹתֵן לָזֶה מָנֶה וְלָזֶה מָנֶה, שֶׁהוֹדָה מִפִּי עַצְמוֹ:

If one said to two [persons]: "I have robbed one of you of a maneh, but I do not know from which of you;" or [said]: "The father of one of you deposited a maneh with me, but I do not know which," he must give a maneh to one and a maneh to the other, because he himself admitted it.

4 ד

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהִפְקִידוּ אֵצֶל אֶחָד, זֶה מָנֶה וְזֶה מָאתַיִם, זֶה אוֹמֵר שֶׁלִּי מָאתָיִם וְזֶה אוֹמֵר שֶׁלִּי מָאתָיִם, נוֹתֵן לָזֶה מָנֶה וְלָזֶה מָנֶה, וְהַשְּׁאָר יְהֵא מֻנָּח עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אִם כֵּן מַה הִפְסִיד הָרַמַּאי. אֶלָּא הַכֹּל יְהֵא מֻנָּח עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ:

If two [people] deposited money with one, one has deposited a maneh and the other two hundred zuz, [and afterwards] one says: "The two hundred zuz are mine," and the other one says: "The two hundred zuz are mine," [the guardian] shall give a maneh to one and a maneh to the other, and the balance shall be put aside until Eliyahu comes. Rabbi Yosei said: If so, what did the deceiver lose? Rather, everything shall be put aside until Eliyahu comes.

5 ה

וְכֵן שְׁנֵי כֵלִים, אֶחָד יָפֶה מָנֶה וְאֶחָד יָפֶה אֶלֶף זוּז, זֶה אוֹמֵר יָפֶה שֶׁלִּי וְזֶה אוֹמֵר יָפֶה שֶׁלִּי, נוֹתֵן אֶת הַקָּטָן לְאֶחָד מֵהֶן, וּמִתּוֹךְ הַגָּדוֹל נוֹתֵן דְּמֵי קָטָן לַשֵּׁנִי, וְהַשְּׁאָר יְהֵא מֻנָּח עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אִם כֵּן מַה הִפְסִיד הָרַמַּאי. אֶלָּא הַכֹּל יְהֵא מֻנָּח עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ:

This [is the same in a case of] two vessels, the value of one is a maneh, and the value of the other is a thousand zuz. One says: "The [more] valuable is mine," and the other one says: "The [more] valuable is mine." He shall give the small [vessel] to one of them, and from the large [vessel], he shall give the value of the small [vessel] to the other, and the balance shall be put aside until Eliyahu comes. Rabbi Yosei said: "If so, what did the deceiver lose? Rather, everything shall be put aside until Eliyahu comes.

6 ו

הַמַּפְקִיד פֵּרוֹת אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן אֲבוּדִין לֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מוֹכְרָן בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְמֵשִׁיב אֲבֵדָה לַבְּעָלִים:

The one who deposits fruit with his neighbor, even if they are destroyed, the guardian must not touch them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: He should sell them under the supervision of the court because it is like one who restores a lost object to its owners.

7 ז

הַמַּפְקִיד פֵּרוֹת אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה יוֹצִיא לוֹ חֶסְרוֹנוֹת. לְחִטִּין וּלְאֹרֶז, תִּשְׁעָה חֲצָאֵי קַבִּין לְכוֹר, לִשְׂעֹרִין וּלְדֹחַן, תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין לְכוֹר, לְכֻסְמִין וּלְזֶרַע פִּשְׁתָּן, שָׁלשׁ סְאִין לְכוֹר. הַכֹּל לְפִי הַמִּדָּה, הַכֹּל לְפִי הַזְּמָן. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי, וְכִי מָה אִכְפַּת לָהֶן לָעַכְבָּרִין, וַהֲלֹא אוֹכְלוֹת בֵּין מֵהַרְבֵּה וּבֵין מִקִּמְעָא. אֶלָּא אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לוֹ חֶסְרוֹנוֹת אֶלָּא לְכוֹר אֶחָד בִּלְבָד. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם הָיְתָה מִדָּה מְרֻבָּה, אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לוֹ חֶסְרוֹנוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמּוֹתִירוֹת:

The one who deposits fruit with his neighbor, he may deduct losses as follows: for wheat and rice, nine half-kabim to one kor; for barley and millet, nine-kabim to one kor; and for spelt and linseed, three se'im to one kor. Everything is according to the measure, [and] everything is according to the [length] of time. Rabbi Yochanan ben Nuri said: What do the mice care? Don't they eat [the same amount] whether from a lot or a little? Rather, he may only deduct a decrease of only one kor. Rabbi Yehuda says: If there was a large quantity, he may not deduct decreases, because [some] is left behind.

8 ח

יוֹצִיא לוֹ שְׁתוּת לְיַיִן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, חֹמֶשׁ. יוֹצִיא לוֹ שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּין שֶׁמֶן לְמֵאָה, לֹג וּמֶחֱצָה שְׁמָרִים, לֹג וּמֶחֱצָה בָּלַע. אִם הָיָה שֶׁמֶן מְזֻקָּק, אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לוֹ שְׁמָרִים. אִם הָיוּ קַנְקַנִּים יְשָׁנִים, אֵינוֹ מוֹצִיא לוֹ בָּלַע. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁמֶן מְזֻקָּק לַחֲבֵרוֹ כָּל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, הֲרֵי זֶה מְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לֹג וּמֶחֱצָה שְׁמָרִים לְמֵאָה:

[The guardian] may deduct one-sixth for wine; Rabbi Yehuda says: "One-fifth only." One may deduct three logim of oil from one hundred [logim]: a log and one-half for yeast, and a log and one-half [for the] absorption. If it was purified oil [stored], one cannot deduct [any] yeast; if the vessels were old, he cannot deduct [for] absorption. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even if the one who sells purified oil to his neighbor all the days of the year. [The purchaser] accepts a [loss of] log and one-half of yeast from one hundred [logim of oil.]

9 ט

הַמַּפְקִיד חָבִית אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא יִחֲדוּ לָהּ הַבְּעָלִים מָקוֹם, וְטִלְטְלָהּ וְנִשְׁבְּרָה, אִם מִתּוֹךְ יָדוֹ נִשְׁבְּרָה, לְצָרְכּוֹ, חַיָּב, לְצָרְכָּהּ, פָּטוּר. אִם מִשֶּׁהִנִּיחָהּ נִשְׁבְּרָה, בֵּין לְצָרְכּוֹ בֵּין לְצָרְכָּהּ, פָּטוּר. יִחֲדוּ לָהּ הַבְּעָלִים מָקוֹם, וְטִלְטְלָהּ וְנִשְׁבְּרָה, בֵּין מִתּוֹךְ יָדוֹ וּבֵין מִשֶּׁהִנִּיחָהּ, לְצָרְכּוֹ, חַיָּב, לְצָרְכָּהּ, פָּטוּר:

The one deposits a cask with his neighbor, and the owners do not assign a place [for it] and he moved it and it broke. If it was broken [while] it was in his hand [and it was] for his own need, he is liable; but [if it was] for the need of [the cask], he is exempt. If it broke, from when he placed it, either for his own need or for its need, he is exempt. [If] the owners assigned a place [for it] and he moved it and it broke, whether [it was] in his hand or from when he placed it, [if the move] was for his own need, he is liable, if it was for its need, he is exempt.

10 י

הַמַּפְקִיד מָעוֹת אֵצֶל חֲבֵרוֹ, צְרָרָן וְהִפְשִׁילָן לַאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹ שֶׁמְּסָרָן לִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים, וְנָעַל בִּפְנֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא כָרָאוּי, חַיָּב, שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַר כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים. וְאִם שָׁמַר כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים, פָּטוּר:

The one who deposited coins with his neighbor, and he tied them up [in a package] and carried it over his shoulder, or he entrusts them to his minor son or daughter, and locked it up before them [in a way] that was not satisfactory, he is liable, because he did not guard [them] in the manner of guardians, [however] if he did guard [them] in the manner of guardians, he is exempt.

11 יא

הַמַּפְקִיד מָעוֹת אֵצֶל שֻׁלְחָנִי, אִם צְרוּרִין, לֹא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן, מֻתָּרִין, יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. אֵצֶל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, בֵּין צְרוּרִין וּבֵין מֻתָּרִים לֹא יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן, לְפִיכָךְ אִם אָבְדוּ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן. חֶנְוָנִי כְּבַעַל הַבַּיִת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, חֶנְוָנִי כַּשֻּׁלְחָנִי:

[If] one deposited coins with a money-changer, if they were tied up, he may not use them, therefore if they were lost, he is not responsible for them; if they were loose, he may use them, therefore if they were lost, he is responsible for them. [If they were deposited] with a private person, he may not use them whether tied up or loose, therefore if they were lost, he is not responsible for them. A storekeeper is like a private person; these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: A storekeeper is like a money-changer.

12 יב

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ יָד בְּפִקָּדוֹן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יִלְקֶה בְחָסֵר וּבְיָתֵר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כִּשְׁעַת הוֹצָאָה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, כִּשְׁעַת הַתְּבִיעָה. הַחוֹשֵׁב לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בְּפִקָּדוֹן, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, חַיָּב. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁלַח בּוֹ יָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב) אִם לֹא שָׁלַח יָדוֹ בִּמְלֶאכֶת רֵעֵהוּ. כֵּיצַד. הִטָּה אֶת הֶחָבִית וְנָטַל הֵימֶנָּה רְבִיעִית, וְנִשְׁבְּרָה, אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא רְבִיעִית. הִגְבִּיהָהּ וְנָטַל הֵימֶנָּה רְבִיעִית, וְנִשְׁבְּרָה, מְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי כֻלָּהּ:

The one who misuses the deposited [money], Beit Shammai says: He should be lashed for [any] loss and [any] increase; Beit Hillel says: [He must pay the value from] the time it was taken. Rabbi Akiva says: [He must pay the value from] the time it was demanded. The one who considers misusing the deposit, the Beit Shamai says: He is liable; and the Beit Hillel says: He is not liable until he misuses it; as the Torah states, (Exodus 22:10): "that he has not stretched forth his hand against the property belonging to his neighbor"; How? If he bent down the cask, and took a quarter [of a log] from it, and it was broken, he must pay only for the quarter; if he lifted up the cask and took a quarter from it, and it was broken, he must pay the entire value [of the cask].