8ח׳
1 א

הַחוֹבֵל בַּחֲבֵרוֹ חַיָּב עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים, בְּנֶזֶק, בְּצַעַר, בְּרִפּוּי, בְּשֶׁבֶת, וּבְבֹשֶׁת. בְּנֶזֶק כֵּיצַד. סִמָּא אֶת עֵינוֹ, קָטַע אֶת יָדוֹ, שִׁבֵּר אֶת רַגְלוֹ, רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עֶבֶד נִמְכָּר בַּשּׁוּק וְשָׁמִין כַּמָּה הָיָה יָפֶה וְכַמָּה הוּא יָפֶה. צַעַר, כְּוָאוֹ בְשַׁפּוּד אוֹ בְמַסְמֵר, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל צִפָּרְנוֹ, מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה חַבּוּרָה, אוֹמְדִין כַּמָּה אָדָם כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה רוֹצֶה לִטֹּל לִהְיוֹת מִצְטַעֵר כָּךְ. רִפּוּי, הִכָּהוּ חַיָּב לְרַפְּאֹתוֹ. עָלוּ בוֹ צְמָחִים, אִם מֵחֲמַת הַמַּכָּה, חַיָּב. שֶׁלֹּא מֵחֲמַת הַמַּכָּה, פָּטוּר. חָיְתָה וְנִסְתְּרָה, חָיְתָה וְנִסְתְּרָה, חַיָּב לְרַפְּאֹתוֹ. חָיְתָה כָל צָרְכָּהּ, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְרַפְּאֹתוֹ. שֶׁבֶת, רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלוּ הוּא שׁוֹמֵר קִשּׁוּאִין, שֶׁכְּבָר נָתַן לוֹ דְמֵי יָדוֹ וּדְמֵי רַגְלוֹ. בֹּשֶׁת, הַכֹּל לְפִי הַמְבַיֵּשׁ וְהַמִּתְבַּיֵּשׁ. הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הֶעָרֹם, הַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַסּוּמָא, וְהַמְבַיֵּשׁ אֶת הַיָּשֵׁן, חַיָּב. וְיָשֵׁן שֶׁבִּיֵּשׁ, פָּטוּר. נָפַל מִן הַגָּג, וְהִזִּיק וּבִיֵּשׁ, חַיָּב עַל הַנֶּזֶק וּפָטוּר עַל הַבֹּשֶׁת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה) וְשָׁלְחָה יָדָהּ וְהֶחֱזִיקָה בִּמְבֻשָׁיו, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל הַבֹּשֶׁת עַד שֶׁיְהֵא מִתְכַּוֵּן:

One who injures his fellow is liable concerning him for five categories [of payment]: damages, pain, healthcare, unemployment, and shame. For damages, how [is this calculated?] One who puts out his eye, cuts off his hand, breaks his leg—we see him as if he were a slave sold in the marketplace, and we evaluate how much he was worth [the injury] and how much he is worth now. Pain? When he burned him with a spit or a nail—even on his fingernail—anything where there is no [permanent] wound, we evaluate how much a similar person would want to pay to be spared this [pain]. Healthcare? When he strikes him, he is liable for his healthcare costs. If swellings arose on him, if they were because of the strike, then he is liable; but if it was not because of the strike, he is exempt. If the swelling healed and then reopened and then healed and reopened, he is liable for his healthcare. If it healed entirely, he is exempt from his healing. Unemployment? We see him as if he were a guard of gourds, since he already gave him the value [for the loss] of his hand or his leg. Shame? All depends on the one who shames and the one who is shamed. One who shames a naked person, a blind person or a sleeping person is liable. If a sleeping person embarrasses, he is exempt. One who falls from the roof and caused damage and shamed, he is liable for damages and exempt for shame, as it is written, "[when two men fight and the wife of one comes out to save her husband,] and she puts out her hand and seizes his genitals (lit. damages his shame) [you shall cut off her hand]" (Deuteronomy 25:11-12). No one is liable for shame unless one intended to cause it.

2 ב

זֶה חֹמֶר בָּאָדָם מִבַּשּׁוֹר, שֶׁהָאָדָם מְשַׁלֵּם נֶזֶק, צַעַר, רִפּוּי, שֶׁבֶת, וּבֹשֶׁת, וּמְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי וְלָדוֹת, וְשׁוֹר אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא נֶזֶק, וּפָטוּר מִדְּמֵי וְלָדוֹת:

This is a stringency regarding a person over an ox [causing injury]: a person pays damages, pain, healthcare, unemployment and shame, and pays the value of fetuses, while an ox [its owner] pays only damages, and is exempt from the value of fetuses.

3 ג

הַמַּכֶּה אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ וְלֹא עָשָׂה בָהֶם חַבּוּרָה, וְחוֹבֵל בַּחֲבֵרוֹ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, חַיָּב בְּכֻלָּן. הַחוֹבֵל בְּעֶבֶד עִבְרִי, חַיָּב בְּכֻלָּן חוּץ מִן הַשֶּׁבֶת, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ. הַחוֹבֵל בְּעֶבֶד כְּנַעֲנִי שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים, חַיָּב בְּכֻלָּן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין לָעֲבָדִים בֹּשֶׁת:

One who strikes his father or his mother but did not cause a wound, and one who wounds his fellow on Yom Kippur, he is liable for all [five]. One who wounds a Hebrew slave (a Jew), he is liable in all [five] except for unemployment — when the slave is his. One who wounds a Canaanite slave (a Gentile) belonging to another, he is liable in all [five]. Rabbi Yehudah says: Slaves don't have shame.

4 ד

חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, פְּגִיעָתָן רָעָה. הַחוֹבֵל בָּהֶן חַיָּב, וְהֵם שֶׁחָבְלוּ בַּאֲחֵרִים פְּטוּרִין. הָעֶבֶד וְהָאִשָּׁה, פְּגִיעָתָן רָעָה. הַחוֹבֵל בָּהֶן חַיָּב, וְהֵם שֶׁחָבְלוּ בָּאֲחֵרִים, פְּטוּרִין, אֲבָל מְשַׁלְּמִין לְאַחַר זְמָן. נִתְגָּרְשָׁה הָאִשָּׁה, נִשְׁתַּחְרֵר הָעֶבֶד, חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם:

The occurrence of [injuring] a deaf-mute, a shoteh, or a minor is unfortunate. One who injures them is liable, and if they injure others they are exempt. The slave and the woman: their occurrences are unfortunate. One who injures them is liable, and when they injure others they are exempt. However, they [might] pay after some time—[if the] woman becomes divorced or the slave is freed, then they are liable to pay.

5 ה

הַמַּכֶּה אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ וְעָשָׂה בָהֶן חַבּוּרָה, וְהַחוֹבֵל בַּחֲבֵרוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, פָּטוּר מִכֻּלָּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא נִדּוֹן בְּנַפְשׁוֹ. וְהַחוֹבֵל בְּעֶבֶד כְּנַעֲנִי שֶׁלּוֹ, פָּטוּר מִכֻּלָּן:

One who strikes his father or his mother and wounds them, and one who injures his fellow on shabbat, is exempt from all [five] because he will be judged for his life. One who injures his own Canaanite slave (a Gentile), he is exempt from all [five].

6 ו

הַתּוֹקֵעַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ סֶלַע. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, מָנֶה. סְטָרוֹ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָאתַיִם זוּז. לְאַחַר יָדוֹ, נוֹתֵן לוֹ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. צָרַם בְּאָזְנוֹ, תָּלַשׁ בִּשְׂעָרוֹ, רָקַק וְהִגִּיעַ בּוֹ רֻקּוֹ, הֶעֱבִיר טַלִּיתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ, פָּרַע רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק, נוֹתֵן אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. זֶה הַכְּלָל הַכֹּל לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲפִילוּ עֲנִיִּים שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, רוֹאִין אוֹתָם כְּאִלּוּ הֵם בְּנֵי חוֹרִין שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מִנִּכְסֵיהֶם, שֶׁהֵם בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם, יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד שֶׁפָּרַע רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה בַּשּׁוּק, בָּאת לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, וְחִיְּבוֹ לִתֵּן לָהּ אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, תֶּן לִי זְמַן. וְנָתַן לוֹ זְמַן. שְׁמָרָהּ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פֶּתַח חֲצֵרָהּ וְשָׁבַר אֶת הַכַּד בְּפָנֶיהָ, וּבוֹ כְּאִסָּר שֶׁמֶן. גִּלְּתָה אֶת רֹאשָׁהּ, וְהָיְתָה מְטַפַּחַת וּמַנַּחַת יָדָהּ עַל רֹאשָׁהּ. הֶעֱמִיד עָלֶיהָ עֵדִים, וּבָא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אָמַר לוֹ, רַבִּי, לָזוֹ אֲנִי נוֹתֵן אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת זוּז. אָמַר לוֹ, לֹא אָמַרְתָּ כְּלוּם. הַחוֹבֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, פָּטוּר. אֲחֵרִים שֶׁחָבְלוּ בּוֹ, חַיָּבִין. וְהַקּוֹצֵץ נְטִיעוֹתָיו, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי, פָּטוּר. אֲחֵרִים שֶׁקָּצְצוּ אֶת נְטִיעוֹתָיו, חַיָּבִים:

One who shouts at his fellow, he gives him a sela (twenty zuz). Rabbi Yehudah in the name of Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: "a maneh (one hundred zuz)". One who slaps his fellow, he gives him two hundred zuz; with the back of the hand, he gives him four hundred zuz. If he split his ear, plucked his hair, spit [at him] and his spit touched him, stripped his cloak from him, or uncovered the head of a woman in the street, he gives him four hundred zuz. (This is the principle:) it is all according to the person's honour. Rabbi Akiva says: "Even the poor of Israel, we see them as if they are free people who have lost their property, because they are children of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob." (And) there was an incident of someone uncovering the head of a woman in the street. She came before Rabbi Akiva, and he required him to give her four hundred zuz. He said to him, "Rabbi, give me time." So he gave him time. [The man] watched her stand at the entrance of her courtyard, broke a pitcher in front of her, and in it was issar [eight prutot] of oil. She uncovered her head and scooped [the oil], and rubbed her hands on her head. He placed witnesses against her and he came before Rabbi Akiva. He said to him, "Rabbi, to her I gave four hundred zuz?!" He replied, "You haven't said anything." One who injures himself, even though he is not permitted, he is exempt. Others who wound him are liable. And one who cuts his own shoots, even though he is not permitted, he is exempt. Others who cut his shoots are liable.

7 ז

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ, אֵין נִמְחָל לוֹ עַד שֶׁיְּבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כ) וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת וְגוֹ'. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַמּוֹחֵל אַכְזָרִי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אַבְרָהָם אֶל הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּרְפָּא אֱלֹהִים אֶת אֲבִימֶלֶךְ וְגוֹ'. הָאוֹמֵר סַמֵּא אֶת עֵינִי, קְטַע אֶת יָדִי, שְׁבֹר אֶת רַגְלִי, חַיָּב. עַל מְנָת לִפְטֹר, חַיָּב. קְרַע אֶת כְּסוּתִי, שְׁבֹר אֶת כַּדִּי, חַיָּב. עַל מְנָת לִפְטֹר, פָּטוּר. עֲשֵׂה כֵן לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, עַל מְנָת לִפְטֹר, חַיָּב, בֵּין בְּגוּפוֹ בֵּין בְּמָמוֹנוֹ:

Even when he gives him [the payment], he will not be forgiven until he seeks it [pardon] from him, as it says, "Therefore, restore [Abraham's] wife[—he is a prophet and will intercede for you]" (Genesis 20:7). And from where do we know the forgiver should not be cruel? As it says, "Abraham prayed to God and God healed Avimelech" (Genesis 20:17). One who says, "Put out my eye," "Cut off my hand," "Break my leg," he [who did the act] is liable. [One who says, "Put out my eye] on the condition that you will be exempt," he is liable. "Tear my clothes," "Break my vessel", he is liable. [If it was said] on the condition that you will be exempt, he is exempt. "Do this to so-and-so on the condition that you will be exempt," he is liable whether it is his body or his property.