6ו׳
1 א

הַכּוֹנֵס צֹאן לַדִּיר, וְנָעַל בְּפָנֶיהָ כָּרָאוּי, וְיָצְאָה וְהִזִּיקָה, פָּטוּר. לֹא נָעַל בְּפָנֶיהָ כָּרָאוּי, וְיָצְאָה וְהִזִּיקָה, חַיָּב. נִפְרְצָה בַלַּיְלָה אוֹ שֶׁפְּרָצוּהָ לִסְטִים, וְיָצְאָה וְהִזִּיקָה, פָּטוּר. הוֹצִיאוּהָ לִסְטִים, לִסְטִים חַיָּבִים:

If a man brought his flock into a pen and shut it in properly and it went out and caused damage, he is exempt. If he had not shut it in properly and it went out and caused damage, he is liable. If the pen was broken through at night, or bandits broke through it, and the flock came out and caused damage, he is not liable. If the bandits brought out the flock, the bandits are liable.  Section one teaches that if a person were to properly enclose his flock and nevertheless the flock were to escape, the person is exempt. Since he fulfilled his responsibility he is not liable for damages. However, if he didn’t enclose the flock properly he will be liable.  Section two can be explained as an exception to the rule in section one that if he didn’t enclose the flock properly he is liable. Section two teaches that if the flock broke out at night (i.e. they broke the enclosed part of the fence) or bandits broke the fence, the owner is exempt, even though he did not properly lock the fence. The owner is not liable since the animals broke out against his control, even though they could have gone out through the main gate, thereby making him liable. If, on the other hand, they were to have broken the fence during the day, and he didn’t lock it properly, he is liable. (There are other explanations to this section). The final clause of the mishnah says that if the bandits physically let out the flock, they are liable if it causes damage.

2 ב

הִנִּיחָהּ בַּחַמָּה, אוֹ שֶׁמְּסָרָהּ לְחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, וְיָצְאָה וְהִזִּיקָה, חַיָּב. מְסָרָהּ לְרוֹעֶה, נִכְנָס רוֹעֶה תַּחְתָּיו. נָפְלָה לְגִנָּה וְנֶהֱנֵית, מְשַׁלֶּמֶת מַה שֶּׁנֶּהֶנֵית. יָרְדָה כְדַרְכָּהּ וְהִזִּיקָה, מְשַׁלֶּמֶת מַה שֶּׁהִזִּיקָה. כֵּיצַד מְשַׁלֶּמֶת מַה שֶּׁהִזִּיקָה, שָׁמִין בֵּית סְאָה בְּאוֹתָה שָׂדֶה, כַּמָּה הָיְתָה יָפָה וְכַמָּה הִיא יָפָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אָכְלָה פֵּרוֹת גְּמוּרִים מְשַׁלֶּמֶת פֵּרוֹת גְּמוּרִים. אִם סְאָה סְאָה, אִם סָאתַיִם סָאתָיִם:

If he left the flock in the sun, or he delivered it to the care of a deaf-mute, an idiot or a minor, and it came out and caused damage, he is liable. If he delivered it to a shepherd, the shepherd takes the place of the owner. If the flock fell into a garden and derived any benefit, he pays for the benefit. If the flock went down [into the garden] in its usual way and caused damage, he must pay for the damage it caused. How does he pay for the damage it caused? They assess what a seah’s space of ground in that field was worth before and what it is worth now. Rabbi Shimon says: “If they consumed fully grown produce he must repay with fully grown produce; if they destroyed on seah he must repay one seah, if two seah, two seahs.

3 ג

הַמַּגְדִּישׁ בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֶה שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, וַאֲכָלָתַן בְּהֶמְתּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה, פָּטוּר. וְאִם הֻזְּקָה בָהֶן, בַּעַל הַגָּדִישׁ חַיָּב. וְאִם הִגְדִּישׁ בִּרְשׁוּת, בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה חַיָּב:

If a man stacked his sheaves in his fellow’s field without his permission, and the owner of the field’s beast ate the sheaves, he is exempt. If [the beast] was injured by them, the owner of the stack is liable. If he made the stack with his permission, the owner of the field is liable.

4 ד

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה בְּיַד חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, פָּטוּר בְּדִינֵי אָדָם וְחַיָּב בְּדִינֵי שָׁמָיִם. שָׁלַח בְּיַד פִּקֵּחַ, הַפִּקֵּחַ חַיָּב. אֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָאוּר, וְאֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָעֵצִים, הַמֵּבִיא אֶת הָעֵצִים חַיָּב. אֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָעֵצִים, וְאֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָאוּר, הַמֵּבִיא אֶת הָאוּר חַיָּב. בָּא אַחֵר וְלִבָּה, הַמְּלַבֶּה חַיָּב. לִבְּתָה הָרוּחַ, כֻּלָּן פְּטוּרִין. הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה וְאָכְלָה עֵצִים, אוֹ אֲבָנִים, אוֹ עָפָר, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב) כִּי תֵצֵא אֵשׁ וּמָצְאָה קוֹצִים וְנֶאֱכַל גָּדִישׁ אוֹ הַקָּמָה אוֹ הַשָּׂדֶה, שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם הַמַּבְעִיר אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה. עָבְרָה גָּדֵר שֶׁהוּא גָּבוֹהַּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הָרַבִּים, אוֹ נָהָר, פָּטוּר. הַמַּדְלִיק בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, עַד כַּמָּה תַעֲבֹר הַדְּלֵקָה. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלוּ הוּא בְאֶמְצַע בֵּית כּוֹר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמּוֹת, כְּדֶרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם הַמַּבְעִיר אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה (שמות כב), הַכֹּל לְפִי הַדְּלֵקָה:

If a person sends forth fire in the hands of a deaf-mute, an idiot or a minor he is not liable by the laws of man, but he is liable by the laws of Heaven. If he sent it forth in the hands of a person of sound senses, the one of sound senses is liable. If one brought the fire, and then another brought the wood, he that brought the wood is liable. If one brought the wood and then another brought fire, he that brought the fire is liable. If another came and fanned the flames, the one who fanned the flame is liable. If the wind fanned the flame, they are all exempt. If a man sent forth fire, and it consumed wood or stones or dust, he is liable, for it says: “When a fire breaks out and spreads to thorns so that the stacked corn is consumed, or the standing corn, or the field, he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.” If it passed over a fence four cubits high, or over a public way, or over a river, he is exempt. If a man kindled fire within his own domain, how far may it spread [and he will still be liable]? Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah says: “It is looked at as if it was in the middle of a kor’s space.” [ Rabbi Eliezer says: “Sixteen cubits [in every direction] like a public highway.” Rabbi Akiva says: “Fifty cubits.” Rabbi Shimon says: “[It is said] ‘He that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution’, all is in accordance with the nature of the fire.”

5 ה

הַמַּדְלִיק אֶת הַגָּדִישׁ, וְהָיוּ בּוֹ כֵלִים וְדָלָקוּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא גָּדִישׁ שֶׁל חִטִּין אוֹ שֶׁל שְׂעֹרִים. הָיָה גְדִי כָפוּת לוֹ וְעֶבֶד סָמוּךְ לוֹ וְנִשְׂרַף עִמּוֹ, חַיָּב. עֶבֶד כָּפוּת לוֹ וּגְדִי סָמוּךְ לוֹ וְנִשְׂרַף עִמּוֹ, פָּטוּר. וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּמַדְלִיק אֶת הַבִּירָה, שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁלֵּם כָּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְהַנִּיחַ בַּבָּתִּים:

If a man set fire to a stack and in it there were utensils and these caught fire: Rabbi Judah says: “He must make restitution for what was therein.” But the Sages say: “He need only pay for a stack of wheat or barley.” If a kid was fastened to it [to the stack] and a slave stood near by, and they were burnt with it, he is liable. If there was a slave fastened to it [to the stack] and a kid stood near by and they were burnt with it, he is not liable. The Sages agree with Rabbi Judah that if a man set fire to a large building, he must make restitution for everything therein; for such is the custom among men to leave [their goods] in their houses.

6 ו

גֵּץ שֶׁיָּצָא מִתַּחַת הַפַּטִּישׁ וְהִזִּיק, חַיָּב. גָּמָל שֶׁהָיָה טָעוּן פִּשְׁתָּן וְעָבַר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְנִכְנַס פִּשְׁתָּנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַחֲנוּת, וְדָלְקוּ בְּנֵרוֹ שֶׁל חֶנְוָנִי וְהִדְלִיק אֶת הַבִּירָה, בַּעַל הַגָּמָל חַיָּב. הִנִּיחַ חֶנְוָנִי נֵרוֹ מִבַּחוּץ, הַחֶנְוָנִי חַיָּב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּנֵר חֲנֻכָּה פָּטוּר:

If a spark flew out from under the hammer and caused damage, he is liable. If a camel laden with flax passed by in the public domain and its load of flax entered into a shop and caught fire, the owner of the camel is liable. But if the shopkeeper left his light outside, the shopkeeper is liable. Rabbi Judah says: “If it was a Hannukah light, he is he is not liable.”