5ה׳
1 א

שׁוֹר שֶׁנָּגַח אֶת הַפָּרָה וְנִמְצָא עֻבָּרָהּ בְּצִדָּהּ, וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נְגָחָהּ יָלְדָה, אִם מִשֶּׁנְּגָחָהּ יָלְדָה, מְשַׁלֵּם חֲצִי נֶזֶק לַפָּרָה וּרְבִיעַ נֶזֶק לַוָּלָד. וְכֵן פָּרָה שֶׁנָּגְחָה אֶת הַשּׁוֹר וְנִמְצָא וְלָדָהּ בְּצִדָּהּ, וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נָגְחָה יָלְדָה, אִם מִשֶּׁנָּגְחָה יָלְדָה, מְשַׁלֵּם חֲצִי נֶזֶק מִן הַפָּרָה וּרְבִיעַ נֶזֶק מִן הַוָּלָד:

If an ox gored a cow [and it died] and its newly born offspring was found [dead] at its side, and it is not known if the cow gave birth before the ox gored, or if after the ox gored the cow gave birth, he [ox's owner] pays half damages for the cow and one quarter damages for the newborn. And if a cow gored an ox and its [cow] newly born young was found at its side, and it is not known if it gave birth before she gored, or if after she gored she gave birth, he [cow's owner] pays half damages from the [value of the] cow and one quarter damages [from the value] of the newborn.

2 ב

הַקַּדָּר שֶׁהִכְנִיס קְדֵרוֹתָיו לַחֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, וְשִׁבְּרָתַן בְּהֶמְתּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, פָּטוּר. וְאִם הֻזְּקָה בָהֶן, בַּעַל הַקְּדֵרוֹת חַיָּב. וְאִם הִכְנִיס בִּרְשׁוּת, בַּעַל חָצֵר חַיָּב. הִכְנִיס פֵּרוֹתָיו לַחֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, וַאֲכָלָתַן בְּהֶמְתּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, פָּטוּר. וְאִם הֻזְּקָה בָהֶן, בַּעַל הַפֵּרוֹת חַיָּב. וְאִם הִכְנִיס בִּרְשׁוּת, בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר חַיָּב:

A potter who brought his pots into the courtyard of a householder without permission, and the householder’s cattle broke them, he [the homeowner] is exempt. And if they [cattle] were injured by them the owner of the pots is liable. But if he brought them in with permission, the owner of the courtyard is liable. If one brought his produce into the courtyard of a householder without permission, and the householder’s cattle ate it, he is exempt. And if the cattle were injured by it the owner of the produce is liable. But if he brought it in with permission the owner of the courtyard is liable.

3 ג

הִכְנִיס שׁוֹרוֹ לַחֲצַר בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, וּנְגָחוֹ שׁוֹרוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, אוֹ שֶׁנְּשָׁכוֹ כַלְבּוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, פָּטוּר. נָגַח הוּא שׁוֹרוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, חַיָּב. נָפַל לְבוֹרוֹ וְהִבְאִישׁ מֵימָיו, חַיָּב. הָיָה אָבִיו אוֹ בְנוֹ לְתוֹכוֹ, מְשַׁלֵּם אֶת הַכֹּפֶר. וְאִם הִכְנִיס בִּרְשׁוּת, בַּעַל הֶחָצֵר חַיָּב. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, בְּכֻלָּן אֵינוֹ חַיָּב, עַד שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל עָלָיו לִשְׁמֹר:

If he brought his ox into the courtyard of a householder without permission and the householder’s ox gored it or the householder’s dog bit it, he is exempt. If it gored the ox of the household, he is liable. If it fell into his cistern and polluted its water, he is liable. If his [the homeowner's] father or son was in [the cistern and it killed them] then he must pay the ransom price. But if he had brought his ox in by permission the owner of the courtyard is liable. Rabbi says: In all of these cases he is not liable until he agrees to watch over it [the ox].

4 ד

שׁוֹר שֶׁהָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהִכָּה אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְיָצְאוּ יְלָדֶיהָ, פָּטוּר מִדְּמֵי וְלָדוֹת. וְאָדָם שֶׁהָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לַחֲבֵרוֹ וְהִכָּה אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְיָצְאוּ יְלָדֶיהָ, מְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי וְלָדוֹת. כֵּיצַד מְשַׁלֵּם דְּמֵי וְלָדוֹת, שָׁמִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה כַּמָּה הִיא יָפָה עַד שֶׁלֹּא יָלְדָה וְכַמָּה הִיא יָפָה מִשֶּׁיָּלָדָה. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, אִם כֵּן, מִשֶּׁהָאִשָּׁה יוֹלֶדֶת, מַשְׁבַּחַת. אֶלָּא שָׁמִין אֶת הַוְּלָדוֹת כַּמָּה הֵן יָפִין, וְנוֹתֵן לַבַּעַל. וְאִם אֵין לָהּ בַּעַל, נוֹתֵן לְיוֹרְשָׁיו. הָיְתָה שִׁפְחָה וְנִשְׁתַּחְרְרָה, אוֹ גִיּוֹרֶת, פָּטוּר:

If an ox intended [to gore] another ox and struck a woman and her offspring came forth, its owner is not liable for the value of the offspring. But if a man intended to strike his fellow and struck a woman and her offspring came forth, he must pay the value of the offspring. How does he pay the value of the offspring? They assess the value [on the slave market] of the woman before she gave birth and the value after she gave birth. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: If so, once a woman gives birth she is more valuable. Rather, they assess how much the offspring would be worth [were they to be sold as slaves], and he pays it to the husband, or if she has no husband, to his heirs. If she was a freed slave or a convert he is exempt.

5 ה

הַחוֹפֵר בּוֹר בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּפְתָחוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אוֹ בִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּפְתָחוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וּפְתָחוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אַחֵר, חַיָּב. הַחוֹפֵר בּוֹר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ שׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר וָמֵת, חַיָּב. אֶחָד הַחוֹפֵר בּוֹר, שִׁיחַ וּמְעָרָה, חֲרִיצִין וּנְעִיצִין, חַיָּב. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר בּוֹר, מַה בּוֹר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ כְדֵי לְהָמִית, עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, אַף כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ כְדֵי לְהָמִית, עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. הָיוּ פְחוּתִין מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ שׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר וָמֵת, פָּטוּר. וְאִם הֻזַּק בּוֹ, חַיָּב:

One who digs a pit in a private domain and opens it into the public domain, or in the public domain and opens it into a private domain, or in a private domain and opens it into another private domain, he is liable. One who digs a pit in the public domain and an ox or donkey fell into and died, he is liable. Whether one digs a pit, trench, or cavern, or trenches or channels he is liable. If so, why does it say “a pit” (Exodus 21:33)? Just as a pit which is deep enough to cause death [to the depth of] ten handbreadths, so anything that is deep enough to cause death, [to the depth of] ten handbreadths . If they were less than ten handbreadths deep and an ox or a donkey fell in and died, he is exempt; But if it was damaged he is liable.

6 ו

בּוֹר שֶׁל שְׁנֵי שֻׁתָּפִין, עָבַר עָלָיו הָרִאשׁוֹן וְלֹא כִסָּהוּ, וְהַשֵּׁנִי וְלֹא כִסָּהוּ, הַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב. כִּסָּהוּ הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּבָא הַשֵּׁנִי וּמְצָאוֹ מְגֻלֶּה וְלֹא כִסָּהוּ, הַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב. כִּסָּהוּ כָרָאוּי, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ שׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר וָמֵת, פָּטוּר. לֹא כִסָּהוּ כָרָאוּי, וְנָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ שׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר וָמֵת, חַיָּב. נָפַל לְפָנָיו מִקּוֹל הַכְּרִיָּה, חַיָּב. לְאַחֲרָיו מִקּוֹל הַכְּרִיָּה, פָּטוּר. נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ שׁוֹר וְכֵלָיו וְנִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ, חֲמוֹר וְכֵלָיו וְנִתְקָרְעוּ, חַיָּב עַל הַבְּהֵמָה וּפָטוּר עַל הַכֵּלִים. נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ שׁוֹר חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, חַיָּב. בֵּן אוֹ בַת, עֶבֶד אוֹ אָמָה, פָּטוּר:

A pit belonging to two partners: one went over it and did not cover it, and the other also went over it and did not cover it, the second one is liable. If the first one covered it and the second came and found it uncovered and did not cover it, the second one is liable. If he covered it properly and an ox or a donkey fell into it and died, he is exempt. If he did not cover it properly and an ox or a donkey fell into it and died, he is liable. If it [the animal] fell forward because of the sound of the digging, he is liable. But if [it fell] backward because of the sound of the digging, he is exempt. If an ox and its vessels fell into it and they broke, or if a donkey fell into it with its vessels and they were torn, he is liable for the beast but exempt for the vessels. If an ox that was deaf, mentally disabled or young fell in, the owner is liable. If a young boy, a young girl or a male slave or a female slave fell in, he is exempt.

7 ז

אֶחָד שׁוֹר וְאֶחָד כָּל בְּהֵמָה לִנְפִילַת הַבּוֹר, וּלְהַפְרָשַׁת הַר סִינַי, וּלְתַשְׁלוּמֵי כֶפֶל, וְלַהֲשָׁבַת אֲבֵדָה, לִפְרִיקָה, לַחֲסִימָה, לְכִלְאַיִם, וּלְשַׁבָּת. וְכֵן חַיָּה וָעוֹף כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר שׁוֹר אוֹ חֲמוֹר. אֶלָּא שֶׁדִּבֵּר הַכָּתוּב בַּהֹוֶה:

Both an ox and any other beast are alike under the laws concerning falling into a pit, separating from Mount Sinai, two-fold restitution, the restoring of lost property, unloading, muzzling, kilayim [prohibition against mixed coupling or plowing with two animals together], and the Sabbath. So too wild animals and birds. If so, why is was it said, “an ox or a donkey”? Rather that Scripture spoke in the present [of the more common animal].