3ג׳
1 א

הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת הַכַּד בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וּבָא אַחֵר וְנִתְקַל בָּהּ וּשְׁבָרָהּ, פָּטוּר. וְאִם הֻזַּק בָּהּ, בַּעַל הֶחָבִית חַיָּב בְּנִזְקוֹ. נִשְׁבְּרָה כַדּוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְהֻחְלַק אֶחָד בַּמַּיִם, אוֹ שֶׁלָּקָה בַחֲרָסֶיהָ, חַיָּב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, חַיָּב. בְּאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן, פָּטוּר:

If a man left a jug in the public domain and another came and stumbled over it and broke it, he is exempt. And if he was injured by it, the owner of the jug is liable for his injury. If a man’s jug broke in the public domain, and another slipped on the water, or was hurt by the potsherds, he is liable. Rabbi Judah says: “If he [broke the jug] with intention, he is liable, But if he broke it without intention he is not liable.”

2 ב

הַשּׁוֹפֵךְ מַיִם בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְהֻזַּק בָּהֶן אַחֵר, חַיָּב בְּנִזְקוֹ. הַמַּצְנִיעַ אֶת הַקּוֹץ, וְאֶת הַזְּכוּכִית, וְהַגּוֹדֵר אֶת גְּדֵרוֹ בְּקוֹצִים, וְגָדֵר שֶׁנָּפַל לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְהֻזְּקוּ בָהֶן אֲחֵרִים, חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן:

1. If a man poured out water in the public domain, and another was injured thereby, he is liable for his injury. 2. If a man hid thorns or glass [in the public domain] or made his fence out of thorns, or if his fence fell into the public domain and others were thereby injured, he is obligated for their injury.

3 ג

הַמּוֹצִיא אֶת תִּבְנוֹ וְאֶת קַשּׁוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לִזְבָלִים, וְהֻזַּק בָּהֶן אַחֵר, חַיָּב בְּנִזְקוֹ, וְכָל הַקּוֹדֵם בָּהֶן זָכָה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְקַלְקְלִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִזִּיקוּ, חַיָּבִין לְשַׁלֵּם, וְכָל הַקּוֹדֵם בָּהֶן זָכָה. הַהוֹפֵךְ אֶת הַגָּלָל בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְהֻזַּק בָּהֶן אַחֵר, חַיָּב בְּנִזְקוֹ:

If a man put out his chopped straw and stubble into the public domain to make them into fertilizer, and another was injured thereby, he is liable for his injury, and whoever comes first may take possession of them. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: “Whoever leaves things that are disruptive in the public domain, and these cause damage, must make restitution, and whoever comes first may take possession of them. If a man turned over a piece of cattle dung in the public domain and another was injured thereby, he is liable for injury.

4 ד

שְׁנֵי קַדָּרִין שֶׁהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וְנִתְקַל הָרִאשׁוֹן וְנָפַל, וְנִתְקַל הַשֵּׁנִי בָּרִאשׁוֹן, הָרִאשׁוֹן חַיָּב בְּנִזְקֵי שֵׁנִי:

Two pot-sellers were walking one behind the other and the first stumbled and fell, and the second fell on the first, the first one is liable for the injury caused to the second.

5 ה

זֶה בָּא בְחָבִיתוֹ, וְזֶה בָּא בְקוֹרָתוֹ, נִשְׁבְּרָה כַדּוֹ שֶׁל זֶה בְּקוֹרָתוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, פָּטוּר, שֶׁלָּזֶה רְשׁוּת לְהַלֵּךְ וְלָזֶה רְשׁוּת לְהַלֵּךְ. הָיָה בַעַל קוֹרָה רִאשׁוֹן, וּבַעַל חָבִית אַחֲרוֹן, נִשְׁבְּרָה חָבִית בַּקּוֹרָה, פָּטוּר בַּעַל הַקּוֹרָה. וְאִם עָמַד בַּעַל הַקּוֹרָה, חַיָּב. וְאִם אָמַר לְבַעַל הֶחָבִית עֲמֹד, פָּטוּר. הָיָה בַעַל חָבִית רִאשׁוֹן וּבַעַל קוֹרָה אַחֲרוֹן, נִשְׁבְּרָה חָבִית בַּקּוֹרָה, חַיָּב. וְאִם עָמַד בַּעַל חָבִית, פָּטוּר. וְאִם אָמַר לְבַעַל קוֹרָה עֲמֹד, חַיָּב. וְכֵן זֶה בָא בְנֵרוֹ וְזֶה בְפִשְׁתָּנוֹ:

This one comes carrying his jar and another one comes carrying his beam: this one’s jar is broken by that one’s beam, [The owner of the beam] is exempt, since this one has the right to walk along and this one has the right to walk along. If the owner of the beam came first and the owner of the jar came after, and the jar was broken by the beam, the owner of the beam is exempt. If the owner of the beam stopped [walking suddenly], he is liable. If [the owner of the beam had said] “Stop” to the owner of the jar, he is exempt. If the owner of the jar came first and owner of the beam came after, and the jar was broken by the beam, [the owner of the beam] is liable. If the owner of the jar stopped [walking suddenly],he is exempt. If [the owner of the jar had said} “Stop” to the owner of the beam, he is liable.

6 ו

שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהָיוּ מְהַלְּכִין בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֶחָד רָץ וְאֶחָד מְהַלֵּךְ, אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם רָצִים, וְהִזִּיקוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִין:

[If] two were walking along in the public domain, the one running and the other walking, or both running and they injured one another, neither is liable.

7 ז

הַמְבַקֵּעַ בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְהִזִּיק בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְהִזִּיק בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד וְהִזִּיק בִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד אַחֵר, חַיָּב:

[If] a man was splitting wood in the private domain and injured anyone in the public domain, or if he was in the public domain and injured anyone in the private domain, or if he was in a private domain and injured anyone in another private domain, he is liable.

8 ח

שְׁנֵי שְׁוָרִים תַּמִּים שֶׁחָבְלוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה, מְשַׁלְּמִים בַּמּוֹתָר חֲצִי נֶזֶק. שְׁנֵיהֶם מוּעָדִים, מְשַׁלְּמִים בַּמּוֹתָר נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם. אֶחָד תָּם וְאֶחָד מוּעָד, מוּעָד בַּתָּם מְשַׁלֵּם בַּמּוֹתָר נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם, תָּם בַּמּוּעָד מְשַׁלֵּם בַּמּוֹתָר חֲצִי נֶזֶק. וְכֵן שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁחָבְלוּ זֶה בָזֶה, מְשַׁלְּמִים בַּמּוֹתָר נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם. אָדָם בְּמוּעָד וּמוּעָד בְּאָדָם, מְשַׁלֵּם בַּמּוֹתָר נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם. אָדָם בְּתָם וְתָם בְּאָדָם, אָדָם בְּתָם מְשַׁלֵּם בַּמּוֹתָר נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם, תָּם בְּאָדָם מְשַׁלֵּם בַּמּוֹתָר חֲצִי נֶזֶק. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אַף תָּם שֶׁחָבַל בְּאָדָם, מְשַׁלֵּם בַּמּוֹתָר נֶזֶק שָׁלֵם:

If two oxen which were accounted harmless hurt one another, the owner pays half-damages for that one which suffered the greater hurt. If both were attested dangers full damages are payable for that one which suffered the greater hurt. If one was accounted harmless and the other was an attested danger, that which was an attested danger as against that which was accounted harmless must pay full damages for the greater hurt that the other has suffered, while that which was accounted harmless, as against that which was an attested danger, pays only half damages for the greater hurt that the other has suffered. So, too, if two men hurt one another, full damages are payable for that one which suffered the greater hurt. If a man and an ox which was accounted harmless hurt one another, the man as against the ox accounted harmless must pay full damages for the greater hurt that the other has suffered, while the ox accounted harmless, as against the man, pays only half damages for the greater hurt that the other suffered. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even if an ox accounted harmless hurt a man, full damages must be paid for that one which suffered the greater hurt.

9 ט

שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה מָנֶה שֶׁנָּגַח שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה מָאתַיִם, וְאֵין הַנְּבֵלָה יָפָה כְלוּם, נוֹטֵל אֶת הַשּׁוֹר. שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה מָאתַיִם שֶׁנָּגַח שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה מָאתַיִם, וְאֵין הַנְּבֵלָה יָפָה כְלוּם, אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (שמות כא) וּמָכְרוּ אֶת הַשּׁוֹר הַחַי וְחָצוּ אֶת כַּסְפּוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וְכֵן הֲלָכָה, קִיַּמְתָּ וּמָכְרוּ אֶת הַשּׁוֹר הַחַי וְחָצוּ אֶת כַּסְפּוֹ, וְלֹא קִיַּמְתָּ (שם) וְגַם אֶת הַמֵּת יֶחֱצוּן, וְאֵיזֶה, זֶה שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה מָאתַיִם שֶׁנָּגַח שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה מָאתַיִם, וְהַנְּבֵלָה יָפָה חֲמִשִּׁים זוּז, שֶׁזֶּה נוֹטֵל חֲצִי הַחַי וַחֲצִי הַמֵּת, וְזֶה נוֹטֵל חֲצִי הַחַי וַחֲצִי הַמֵּת:

If an ox worth 100 gored an ox worth 200, and the carcass is not worth anything, [the owner of the gored ox] takes the [live] ox. If an ox worth 200 gored an ox worth 200 and the carcass is not worth anything, Rabbi Meir said, “If thus it was written, ‘they shall sell the live ox and divide its price, they shall also divide the dead animal’. Rabbi Judah said to him: “Such indeed is the halachah, but you have fulfilled the verse ‘they shall sell the live ox and divide its price’, and you have not fulfilled the verse ‘they shall also divide the dead animal’. What case is this? If an ox worth 200 gored an ox worth 200 and the corpse is worth 50, this one takes half of the live ox and half of the dead ox, and this one takes half of the live ox and half of the dead ox.

10 י

יֵשׁ חַיָּב עַל מַעֲשֵׂה שׁוֹרוֹ וּפָטוּר עַל מַעֲשֵׂה עַצְמוֹ, פָּטוּר עַל מַעֲשֵׂה שׁוֹרוֹ וְחַיָּב עַל מַעֲשֵׂה עַצְמוֹ. שׁוֹרוֹ שֶׁבִּיֵּשׁ, פָּטוּר, וְהוּא שֶׁבִּיֵּשׁ, חַיָּב. שׁוֹרוֹ שֶׁסִּמֵּא אֶת עֵין עַבְדּוֹ, וְהִפִּיל אֶת שִׁנּוֹ, פָּטוּר, וְהוּא שֶׁסִּמֵּא אֶת עֵין עַבְדּוֹ, וְהִפִּיל אֶת שִׁנּוֹ, חַיָּב. שׁוֹרוֹ שֶׁחָבַל בְּאָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, חַיָּב, וְהוּא שֶׁחָבַל בְּאָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ, פָּטוּר. שׁוֹרוֹ שֶׁהִדְלִיק אֶת הַגָּדִישׁ בְּשַׁבָּת, חַיָּב, וְהוּא שֶׁהִדְלִיק אֶת הַגָּדִישׁ בְּשַׁבָּת, פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מִתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ:

There is one who is obligated for the act of his ox and exempt from his own act, and one who is exempt from his own act and obligated on the act of his ox. [If] his ox caused embarrassment [to another person], he is exempt; [If, however] he caused embarrassment [to another person] he is obligated. [If] his ox put out the eye of his slave or knocked out his [slave’s] tooth, he is exempt [from freeing the slave]; [If, however] he put out the eye of his slave or knocked out his tooth, he is obligated to free the slave. [If] his ox injured his father or mother he is obligated; [If, however] he injured his father or mother he is exempt. [If] his ox lit a heap of produce on fire on Shabbat, he is obligated; [If, however] he lit a heap of produce on Shabbat he is exempt, because he is liable for his life.

11 יא

שׁוֹר שֶׁהָיָה רוֹדֵף אַחַר שׁוֹר אַחֵר, וְהֻזַּק, זֶה אוֹמֵר שׁוֹרְךָ הִזִּיק, וְזֶה אוֹמֵר לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא בְסֶלַע לָקָה, הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם רוֹדְפִים אַחַר אֶחָד, זֶה אוֹמֵר שׁוֹרְךָ הִזִּיק, וְזֶה אוֹמֵר שׁוֹרְךָ הִזִּיק, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּטוּרִין. אִם הָיוּ שְׁנֵיהֶן שֶׁל אִישׁ אֶחָד, שְׁנֵיהֶן חַיָּבִין. הָיָה אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן, הַנִּזָּק אוֹמֵר גָּדוֹל הִזִּיק, וְהַמַּזִּיק אוֹמֵר לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא קָטָן הִזִּיק. אֶחָד תָּם וְאֶחָד מוּעָד, הַנִּזָּק אוֹמֵר, מוּעָד הִזִּיק, וְהַמַּזִּיק אוֹמֵר לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא תָם הִזִּיק, הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. הָיוּ הַנִּזּוֹקִין שְׁנַיִם, אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן, וְהַמַּזִּיקִים שְׁנַיִם, אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן, הַנִּזָּק אוֹמֵר, גָּדוֹל הִזִּיק אֶת הַגָּדוֹל וְקָטָן אֶת הַקָּטָן, וּמַזִּיק אוֹמֵר לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא קָטָן אֶת הַגָּדוֹל וְגָדוֹל אֶת הַקָּטָן. אֶחָד תָּם וְאֶחָד מוּעָד, הַנִּזָּק אוֹמֵר, מוּעָד הִזִּיק אֶת הַגָּדוֹל וְתָם אֶת הַקָּטָן, וְהַמַּזִּיק אוֹמֵר לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא תָם אֶת הַגָּדוֹל וּמוּעָד אֶת הַקָּטָן, הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה:

If an ox was pursuing another ox and [the latter ox] was injured: this one claims “Your ox caused the injury, and this one claims “No, it was injured by a rock.” on the one who wishes to exact compensation lies the burden of proof. If two oxen were pursuing a third ox: this one claims “Your ox caused the injury”, and this one claims “Your ox caused the injury”, they are both exempt. However, if they were both owned by one man, they are both obligated. If one was big and was small: the [owner] of injured [ox] says that “The large one caused the injury”, and the [owner] of the injuring [ox] says, “The small one caused the injury”, [or] if one was a harmless ox and one was an attested danger (muad) the [owner] of the injured ox says, “The [ox which is an] attested danger caused the injury, and the owner of the injuring ox says, “The [ox which is] harmless caused the injury”, on the one who wishes to exact compensation lies the burden of proof. If two oxen were injured, one big and one small, and two oxen caused the injury, one big and one small: [the owner] of the injured oxen says, “The big ox injured the big ox and small ox injured the small ox,” and the [owner] of the injuring oxen says, “The small ox injured the big ox and the big ox injured the small ox”; [or] if one was harmless and one was an attested danger: the [owner] of the injured oxen says, “The [ox which is an] attested danger injured the big ox, and the harmless [ox] injured the small ox”, the owner of injuring oxen says, “No rather the harmless [ox] injured the large ox and the [ox which is an] attested danger injured the small ox”, on the one who wishes to exact compensation lies the burden of proof.