3ג׳
1 א

חֶזְקַת הַבָּתִּים וְהַבּוֹרוֹת וְהַשִּׁיחִין וְהַמְּעָרוֹת וְהַשּׁוֹבָכוֹת וְהַמֶּרְחֲצָאוֹת וּבֵית הַבַּדִּין וּבֵית הַשְּׁלָחִין וְהָעֲבָדִים וְכָל שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה פֵרוֹת תָּדִיר, חֶזְקָתָן שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם. שְׂדֵה הַבַּעַל, חֶזְקָתָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, וְאֵינָהּ מִיּוֹם לְיוֹם, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בָאֶמְצַע, הֲרֵי שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, חֹדֶשׁ בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וְחֹדֶשׁ בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בָּאֶמְצַע, הֲרֵי אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּשְׂדֵה לָבָן. אֲבָל בִּשְׂדֵה אִילָן, כָּנַס אֶת תְּבוּאָתוֹ, מָסַק אֶת זֵיתָיו, כָּנַס אֶת קֵיצוֹ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים:

The legal period of chazakah [a presumption of ownership, generally regarding landed property, established by unchallenged, publicly known possession for a certain period of time, together with a legally acceptable claim regarding how the property came into the possessor’s hands] for houses, cisterns, trenches, caves, dovecotes, bath-houses, olive-presses, irrigated fields and slaves and anything which continually produces a yield is three complete years . The legal period of possession [in order to establish ownership] for a field irrigated by rain water is three years and they need not be completed. Rabbi Yishmael says: Three months during the first year, and three months during the last year and twelve months during the middle year, which makes eighteen months. Rabbi Akiva says: One month during the first year and one month during the last year and twelve months during the middle year, which makes fourteen months. Rabbi Yishmael said: When does this apply? With regards to a grain field, but when it comes to a field of trees , if he brought in his produce (grapes), harvested the olives and gathered in his fig harvest, this counts as three years.

2 ב

שָׁלֹשׁ אֲרָצוֹת לַחֲזָקָה, יְהוּדָה וְעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְהַגָּלִיל. הָיָה בִיהוּדָה וְהֶחֱזִיק בַּגָּלִיל, בַּגָּלִיל וְהֶחֱזִיק בִּיהוּדָה, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא עִמּוֹ בַמְּדִינָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, לֹא אָמְרוּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים אֶלָּא כְדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא בְאַסְפַּמְיָא, וְיַחֲזִיק שָׁנָה, וְיֵלְכוּ וְיוֹדִיעוּהוּ שָׁנָה, וְיָבֹא לְשָׁנָה אַחֶרֶת:

There are three separate areas of land for the purposes of chazakah; [obtaining land through demonstrating ownership for an extended period of time]: Judea, The Eastern Side of the Jordan and the Galilee. If the owner of a piece of land in the Galilee was currently living in Judea and someone occupied on that person's land in the Galilee, that person would not acquire said land and vice versa. One can only acquire the land if they are living in the same region. Rabbi Yehuda says, the reason it takes three years to acquire land through occupying it is so that if the owner were in Spain the squatter could squat for one year, people traveling to inform the owner would take one year and then one year to return with the owner's objection.

3 ג

כָּל חֲזָקָה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ טַעֲנָה, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. כֵּיצַד, אָמַר לוֹ, מָה אַתָּה עוֹשֶׂה בְתוֹךְ שֶׁלִּי, וְהוּא אָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לִי אָדָם דָּבָר מֵעוֹלָם, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. שֶׁמָּכַרְתָּ לִי, שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לִי בְמַתָּנָה, אָבִיךָ מְכָרָהּ לִי, אָבִיךָ נְתָנָהּ לִי בְמַתָּנָה, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. וְהַבָּא מִשּׁוּם יְרֻשָּׁה, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ טַעֲנָה. הָאֻמָּנִין וְהַשֻּׁתָּפִים וְהָאֲרִיסִין וְהָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפִּין, אֵין לָהֶם חֲזָקָה. אֵין לָאִישׁ חֲזָקָה בְּנִכְסֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא לָאִשָּׁה חֲזָקָה בְּנִכְסֵי בַעְלָהּ, וְלֹא לָאָב בְּנִכְסֵי הַבֵּן, וְלֹא לַבֵּן בְּנִכְסֵי הָאָב. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמַחֲזִיק, אֲבָל בְּנוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה, וְהָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ, וְהַמַּחֲזִיק בְּנִכְסֵי הַגֵּר, נָעַל וְגָדַר וּפָרַץ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

Any [claim of ] chazakah which is not accompanied by a claim [of legal acquisition] is not valid chazakah. How is this so? If he said to him: “What are you doing on my property? And the other answered: “No one ever said anything to me”, this is not chazakah. “You sold it to me”, “You gave it to me as a gift”, “Your father sold it to me”, “Your father gave it to me as a gift”, this is chazakah. One who comes due to inheritance [from the previous owner], does not need to make a claim. Craftsmen, partners, sharecroppers and guardians cannot establish ownership through chazakah. A man cannot establish ownership through chazakah regarding his wife’s property, nor may a wife establish ownership through chazakah regarding her husband’s property, nor a father of his son’s property, nor a son of his father’s property. When is this so? When the person attempts to acquire the land through chazakah. But, when the property was given as a gift, or when brothers shared a piece of their inheritance, or when one claimed title by chazakah of a convert [who died without inheritors], and then he locked up, walled up or broke down anything, behold, this is chazakah.

4 ד

הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁאֲכָלָהּ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים, וְנִמְצְאוּ זוֹמְמִין, מְשַׁלְּמִין לוֹ אֶת הַכֹּל. שְׁנַיִם בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּשְׁנַיִם בַּשְּׁנִיָּה, וּשְׁנַיִם בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית, מְשָׁלְשִׁין בֵּינֵיהֶם. שְׁלֹשָׁה אַחִים וְאֶחָד מִצְטָרֵף עִמָּהֶם, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ עֵדֻיּוֹת, וְהֵן עֵדוּת אַחַת לַהֲזָמָה:

If there are two witnesses claiming that someone squatted on a piece of land for 3 years and they were found out to be false witnesses, they must pay the full value of the land the owner would have lost. If a 2 witnesses testify about the first year, 2 about the second year and 2 about the third year, then they split the value between them. If the witnesses were 3 brothers [who cannot testify as relatives cannot testify together], and one other witness joined them, they are considered to be 3 separate sets of witnesses but they must all be found to be false witnesses to require them to pay.

5 ה

אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם חֲזָקָה, וְאֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֲזָקָה. הָיָה מַעֲמִיד בְּהֵמָה בֶחָצֵר, תַּנּוּר, וְכִירַיִם, וְרֵחַיִם, וּמְגַדֵּל תַּרְנְגוֹלִין, וְנוֹתֵן זִבְלוֹ בֶחָצֵר, אֵינָהּ חֲזָקָה. אֲבָל עָשָׂה מְחִצָּה לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ גְּבוֹהָה עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, וְכֵן לַתַּנּוּר, וְכֵן לַכִּירַיִם, וְכֵן לָרֵחַיִם, הִכְנִיס תַּרְנְגוֹלִין לְתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, וְעָשָׂה מָקוֹם לְזִבְלוֹ עָמֹק שְׁלֹשָׁה אוֹ גָבוֹהַּ שְׁלֹשָׁה, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה:

These are the actions through which chazakah is established and these are the actions through which chazakah is not established. If he put a beast in a courtyard, or an oven or stoves or mill-stones, or raised fowl or put his manure in a courtyard, this is not chazakah. But if he built for his beast a partition ten hand-breadths high, so too for an oven, so too for a stove, so too for a mill-stone, [or] he brought fowl inside the house, or prepared for his manure a place three hand-breadths deep or three hand-breadths high, this is chazakah.

6 ו

הַמַּרְזֵב אֵין לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְיֵשׁ לִמְקוֹמוֹ חֲזָקָה. הַמַּזְחִילָה יֶשׁ לָהּ חֲזָקָה. סֻלָּם הַמִּצְרִי אֵין לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְלַצּוֹרִי יֶשׁ לוֹ חֲזָקָה. חַלּוֹן הַמִּצְרִית אֵין לָהּ חֲזָקָה, וְלַצּוֹרִית יֶשׁ לָהּ חֲזָקָה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא חַלּוֹן הַמִּצְרִית, כָּל שֶׁאֵין רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹכָהּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ מַלְבֵּן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹכָהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ חֲזָקָה. הַזִּיז, עַד טֶפַח, יֶשׁ לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְיָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת. פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח, אֵין לוֹ חֲזָקָה, וְאֵין יָכוֹל לִמְחוֹת:

A gutter spout cannot cause title through chazakah but its place does confer title through chazakah. A gutter can give title through chazakah. An Egyptian ladder cannot give title through chazakah but a Tyrian ladder can. An Egyptian window cannot give title through chazakah but a Tyrian window can. What is an Egyptian window? One through which a man’s head may not enter. Rabbi Judah says: If it has a frame, even though a man’s head cannot enter through it, it can give title through chazakah.” A projection, if it extends a handbreadth or more can give title through chazakah, and the other [into whose premises it projects] can protest against it. But if it is less than a handbreadth it cannot give title through chazakah and the other cannot protest against it.

7 ז

לֹא יִפְתַּח אָדָם חַלּוֹנוֹתָיו לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. לָקַח בַּיִת בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, לֹא יִפְתְּחֶנָּה לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. בָּנָה עֲלִיָּה עַל גַּבֵּי בֵיתוֹ, לֹא יִפְתָּחֶנָּה לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין. אֶלָּא אִם רָצָה, בּוֹנֶה אֶת הַחֶדֶר לִפְנִים מִבֵּיתוֹ, וּבוֹנֶה עֲלִיָּה עַל גַּבֵּי בֵיתוֹ וּפוֹתְחָהּ לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ. לֹא יִפְתַּח אָדָם לַחֲצַר הַשֻּׁתָּפִין פֶּתַח כְּנֶגֶד פֶּתַח וְחַלּוֹן כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹן. הָיָה קָטָן, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ גָדוֹל. אֶחָד, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ שְׁנָיִם. אֲבָל פּוֹתֵחַ הוּא לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים פֶּתַח כְּנֶגֶד פֶּתַח וְחַלּוֹן כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹן. הָיָה קָטָן, עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ גָדוֹל. אֶחָד, עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתוֹ שְׁנָיִם:

One may not open a window into a jointly owned courtyard. If one bought a house in another [and adjoining] courtyard, that person may not open it into a jointly held courtyard. If one built an upper story over one's house, one may not make it open into the jointly held courtyard. However, one may, if one wishes, build another room within one's house or build an upper room over one's house and make it open into one's own house. One may not open a door into a jointly held courtyard directly opposite another’s door, or a window directly opposite another’s window. If the window was small one may not make it larger; if it was a single window one may not make it into two. But one may open a door into the public domain opposite another’s door, or a window opposite another’s window. If the window was small one may make it larger; if it was a single window one may make it into two.

8 ח

אֵין עוֹשִׂין חָלָל תַּחַת רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, בּוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מַתִּיר כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא עֲגָלָה מְהַלֶּכֶת וּטְעוּנָה אֲבָנִים. אֵין מוֹצִיאִין זִיזִין וּגְזֻזְטְרָאוֹת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אֶלָּא אִם רָצָה כּוֹנֵס לְתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ וּמוֹצִיא. לָקַח חָצֵר וּבָהּ זִיזִין וּגְזֻזְטְרָאוֹת, הֲרֵי זוֹ בְחֶזְקָתָהּ:

One may not hollow out a space underneath the public domain, cisterns, trenches or caves. Rabbi Eliezer permits it if it is such that a wagon loaded with stones can [safely] go over it. One may not build out projections and balconies into the public domain; but if he wants, he may withdraw [his wall] within his own domain and build out from it. If one bought a courtyard in which were already projections and balconies, they are under that person's rights of possession.