10י׳
1 א

גֵּט פָּשׁוּט, עֵדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ. וּמְקֻשָּׁר, עֵדָיו מֵאֲחוֹרָיו. פָּשׁוּט שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֵדָיו מֵאֲחוֹרָיו וּמְקֻשָּׁר שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֵדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִים. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מְקֻשָּׁר שֶׁכָּתְבוּ עֵדָיו מִתּוֹכוֹ, כָּשֵׁר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ פָשׁוּט. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל כְּמִנְהַג הַמְּדִינָה:

A simple document - it's witnesses [sign] within. A sewn document - its witnesses sign on the outside. A simple [document] whose witnesses signed on the outside, or a sewn [document] whose witnesses signed within - both are invalid. Rabbi Hanina ben Gamliel says: A sewn document whose witnesses signed within is valid, since it can be made into a simple [document]. Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel says: Everything according to the custom of the land.

2 ב

גֵּט פָּשׁוּט, עֵדָיו בִּשְׁנָיִם. וּמְקֻשָּׁר, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. פָּשׁוּט שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ עֵד אֶחָד, וּמְקֻשָּׁר שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ שְׁנֵי עֵדִים, שְׁנֵיהֶם פְּסוּלִין. כָּתַב בּוֹ זוּזִין מְאָה דְאִנּוּן סִלְעִין עֶשְׂרִין, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא עֶשְׂרִין. זוּזִין מְאָה דְאִנּוּן תְּלָתִין סִלְעִין, אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא מָנֶה. כְסַף זוּזִין דְּאִנּוּן, וְנִמְחַק, אֵין פָּחוּת מִשְּׁתָּיִם. כְּסַף סִלְעִין דְּאִנּוּן, וְנִמְחַק, אֵין פָּחוּת מִשְּׁנָיִם. דַּרְכּוֹנוֹת דְּאִנּוּן, וְנִמְחַק, אֵין פָּחוּת מִשְּׁתָּיִם. כָּתוּב בּוֹ מִלְמַעְלָה מָנֶה וּמִלְּמַטָּה מָאתַיִם, מִלְמַעְלָה מָאתַיִם וּמִלְּמַטָּה מָנֶה, הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַתַּחְתּוֹן. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה כוֹתְבִין אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹן, שֶׁאִם תִּמָּחֵק אוֹת אַחַת מִן הַתַּחְתּוֹן, יִלְמַד מִן הָעֶלְיוֹן:

A simple document [is legitimate] with two witnesses. A sewn document: with three. A simple [document] that has only one witness, or a sewn [document] that has only two - both are invalid. If he wrote in it: “100 zuz which are 20 sela,” he can claim only 20 sela. If he wrote “100 zuz which are 30 sela,” he can claim only 100 zuz. “Silver zuzim which are …”, and [the rest] was erased - not less that two zuzim. “Silver selaim which are …”, and [the rest] was erased, not less than two selaim. “Darkonot which are …”, and the rest was erased, no less than two darkonot. If “one maneh” was written a the top and “200 zuz” was written at the bottom, or “200 zuz” was written at the top and “one maneh” at the bottom, everything goes according to [what is written] at the bottom. If so, why do they write the one at the top? So that, if a letter from the lower figure below was erased, they can ascertain from the one above.

3 ג

כּוֹתְבִין גֵּט לָאִישׁ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין אִשְׁתּוֹ עִמּוֹ, וְהַשּׁוֹבֵר לָאִשָּׁה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בַּעְלָהּ עִמָּהּ, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּהֵא מַכִּירָן, וְהַבַּעַל נוֹתֵן שָׂכָר. כּוֹתְבִין שְׁטָר לְלֹוֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מַלְוֶה עִמּוֹ, וְאֵין כּוֹתְבִין לְמַלְוֶה, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא לֹוֶה עִמּוֹ, וְהַלֹּוֶה נוֹתֵן שָׂכָר. כּוֹתְבִין שְׁטָר לְמוֹכֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לוֹקֵחַ עִמּוֹ. וְאֵין כּוֹתְבִין לְלוֹקֵחַ, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא מוֹכֵר עִמּוֹ, וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן שָׂכָר:

One may write a writ of divorce for a man even if his wife is not with him, or a receipt for a woman even if her husband is not with her, provided that he recognizes them - and the husband pays the fee. One may write a document for the debtor even though the creditor is not with him, but one may not write a document for the creditor unless the debtor is with him - and the debtor pays the fee. One may write a deed of sale for the seller even though the buyer is not with him, but one may not write it for the buyer unless the seller is with him - and the buyer pays the fee.

4 ד

אֵין כּוֹתְבִין שְׁטָרֵי אֵרוּסִין וְנִשּׂוּאִין אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶם, וְהֶחָתָן נוֹתֵן שָׂכָר. אֵין כּוֹתְבִין שְׁטָרֵי אֲרִיסוּת וְקַבְּלָנוּת אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶם, וְהַמְקַבֵּל נוֹתֵן שָׂכָר. אֵין כּוֹתְבִין שְׁטָרֵי בֵרוּרִין וְכָל מַעֲשֵׂה בֵית דִּין אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת שְׁנֵיהֶם, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם נוֹתְנִין שָׂכָר. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, שְׁנֵיהֶם כּוֹתְבִין שְׁנַיִם, לָזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ וְלָזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ:

One may not write documents of betrothal or marriage except with the consent of both parties - and the bridegroom pays the fee. One may not write documents of tenancy and sharecropping except with the consent of both parties - and the tenant pays the fee. One may not write documents of arbitration, or the document of any court action, except with the consent of both parties - and both parties pay the fee. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Two documents are written for the two parties, this one for himself, and that one for himself.

5 ה

מִי שֶׁפָּרַע מִקְצָת חוֹבוֹ וְהִשְׁלִישׁ אֶת שְׁטָרוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ, אִם לֹא נָתַתִּי לְךָ מִכָּאן וְעַד יוֹם פְּלוֹנִי תֶּן לוֹ שְׁטָרוֹ, הִגִּיעַ זְמַן וְלֹא נָתַן, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, יִתֵּן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִתֵּן:

One who had paid part of his debt and then [rather than write a partial receipt] gave the writ of obligation to a third party and said to him, “If I have given you [the remainder] by such-and-such a day, give [the lender] the writ.” The time came and he had not given the remainder: Rabbi Yose says: He shall give it to him. Rabbi Yehudah says: He shall not give it to him.

6 ו

מִי שֶׁנִּמְחַק שְׁטַר חוֹבוֹ, מְעִידִין עָלָיו עֵדִים, וּבָא לִפְנֵי בֵית דִּין וְעוֹשִׂין לוֹ קִיּוּם, אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בֶן פְּלוֹנִי נִמְחַק שְׁטָרוֹ בְּיוֹם פְּלוֹנִי, וּפְלוֹנִי וּפְלוֹנִי עֵדָיו. מִי שֶׁפָּרַע מִקְצָת חוֹבוֹ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יַחֲלִיף. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, יִכְתּוֹב שׁוֹבֵר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, נִמְצָא זֶה צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת שׁוֹמֵר שׁוֹבְרוֹ מִן הָעַכְבָּרִים. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, כָּךְ יָפֶה לוֹ, וְלֹא יוּרַע כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זֶה:

[A lender] whose writ of obligation was erased: witnesses shall testify about it, and he comes before the court and they write a verification: “So-and-so the son of so-and-so's writ of obligation was erased on such-and-such a day, and so-and-so and so-and-so are his witnesses.” If one had paid part of his debt, Rabbi Yehudah says: He should exchange [the writ of obligation for a new one]. Rabbi Yose says: He should write a receipt. Rabbi Yehudah said: It would turn out that this one will have to guard his receipt from mice. Rabbi Yose said to him: Such a thing is good for [the borrower], and it does not diminish the power of [the lender].

7 ז

שְׁנֵי אַחִין, אֶחָד עָנִי וְאֶחָד עָשִׁיר, וְהִנִּיחַ לָהֶן אֲבִיהֶן מֶרְחָץ וּבֵית הַבַּד, עֲשָׂאָן לְשָׂכָר, הַשָּׂכָר לָאֶמְצַע. עֲשָׂאָן לְעַצְמָן, הֲרֵי הֶעָשִׁיר אוֹמֵר לֶעָנִי, קַח לְךָ עֲבָדִים וְיִרְחֲצוּ בַמֶּרְחָץ, קַח לְךָ זֵיתִים וּבֹא וַעֲשֵׂם בְּבֵית הַבָּד. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהָיוּ בְעִיר אַחַת, שֵׁם אֶחָד יוֹסֵף בֶּן שִׁמְעוֹן וְשֵׁם אַחֵר יוֹסֵף בֶּן שִׁמְעוֹן, אֵין יְכוֹלִין לְהוֹצִיא שְׁטָר חוֹב זֶה עַל זֶה וְלֹא אַחֵר יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיא עֲלֵיהֶן שְׁטָר חוֹב. נִמְצָא לְאֶחָד בֵּין שְׁטָרוֹתָיו שְׁטָרוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף בֶּן שִׁמְעוֹן פָּרוּעַ, שְׁטָרוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶן פְּרוּעִין. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשׂוּ, יְשָׁלֵשׁוּ. וְאִם הָיוּ מְשֻׁלָּשִׁים, יִכְתְּבוּ סִימָן. וְאִם הָיוּ מְסֻמָּנִין, יִכְתְּבוּ כֹּהֵן. הָאוֹמֵר לִבְנוֹ, שְׁטָר בֵּין שְׁטָרוֹתַי פָּרוּעַ וְאֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶהוּ, שְׁטָרוֹת כֻּלָּן פְּרוּעִין. נִמְצָא לְאֶחָד שָׁם שְׁנַיִם, הַגָּדוֹל פָּרוּעַ וְהַקָּטָן אֵינוֹ פָרוּעַ. הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ עַל יְדֵי עָרֵב, לֹא יִפָּרַע מִן הֶעָרֵב. וְאִם אָמַר עַל מְנָת שֶׁאֶפָּרַע מִמִּי שֶׁאֶרְצֶה, יִפָּרַע מִן הֶעָרֵב. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, אִם יֵשׁ נְכָסִים לַלֹּוֶה, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ לֹא יִפָּרַע מִן הֶעָרֵב. וְכֵן הָיָה רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, הֶעָרֵב לָאִשָּׁה בִּכְתֻבָּתָהּ וְהָיָה בַעְלָהּ מְגָרְשָׁהּ, יַדִּירֶנָּה הֲנָאָה, שֶׁמָּא יַעֲשׂוּ קְנוּנְיָא עַל נְכָסִים שֶׁל זֶה וְיַחֲזִיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ:

There are two brothers, one poor and one wealthy, and their father left them a bath house and an olive press. If he had built them to generate income, the income goes to the estate. If he made them for private use, the wealthy [brother] may say to the poor [brother], “Get yourself some slaves and they can wash in the bath house. Get yourself some olives and prepare them in the olive press.” Two men who were in the same city, one named Yoseph the son of Shimon and other named Yoseph the son of Shimon: they may not bring forth a writ of obligation against one another, and no other person may bring forth a writ of obligation against them. And if someone finds among his documents a document that states, “Yoseph son of Shimon's debt is paid,” both of their writs are [considered as] paid. What should they do? They should provide a third [generation with their names]. And if they were [similarly named] to the third [generation], they should write a physical description. And if they were described physically [in similar ways], they should write “kohen”. [If] one says to his son, "One of the writs of obligation among my documents has already been paid and I do not know which one it is," then all are [considered to be] paid. If, [among these documents,] there are two [documents] written to the same [debtor], the large one is [considered as] paid and the small one is not [considered as] paid. One who loaned money to his fellow on a guarantor’s security may not exact payment from the guarantor. But if he had said, “On the condition that I may exact payment from whom I wish,” then he may exact payment from the guarantor. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If the borrower had property, [whether he made the condition] or not, he may not exact payment from the guarantor. And thus did Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel also say: If one was a guarantor for a woman’s ketubah and her husband divorced her, [the husband] must disavow any further benefit from her, lest they conspire for the property of the guarantor and he takes his wife back.

8 ח

הַמַּלְוֶה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁטָר, גּוֹבֶה מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. עַל יְדֵי עֵדִים, גוֹבֶה מִנְּכָסִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. הוֹצִיא עָלָיו כְּתַב יָדוֹ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ, גּוֹבֶה מִנְּכָסִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. עָרֵב הַיּוֹצֵא לְאַחַר חִתּוּם שְׁטָרוֹת, גּוֹבֶה מִנְּכָסִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. מַעֲשֶׂה בָא לִפְנֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל וְאָמַר, גּוֹבֶה מִנְּכָסִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן נַנָּס, אֵינוֹ גוֹבֶה לֹא מִנְּכָסִים מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים וְלֹא מִנְּכָסִים בְּנֵי חוֹרִין. אָמַר לוֹ, לָמָּה. אָמַר לוֹ, הֲרֵי הַחוֹנֵק אֶת אֶחָד בַּשּׁוּק וּמְצָאוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ הַנַּח לוֹ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁלֹּא עַל אֱמוּנָתוֹ הִלְוָהוּ. אֶלָּא אֵיזֶהוּ עָרֵב שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב, הַלְוֵהוּ וַאֲנִי נוֹתֵן לְךָ, חַיָּב, שֶׁכֵּן עַל אֱמוּנָתוֹ הִלְוָהוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, הָרוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּחְכִּים, יַעֲסוֹק בְּדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ מִקְצוֹעַ בַּתּוֹרָה גָּדוֹל מֵהֶן, שֶׁהֵן כְּמַעְיָן הַנּוֹבֵעַ. וְהָרוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲסוֹק בְּדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, יְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן נַנָּס:

One who lent his fellow money by means of a document may collect [even] from property that has been transacted to another. If [he lent money] by means of witnesses, he may collect [only] from unencumbered property. If [the lender] brought forth [a loan document] that attested to [the borrower's] debt with [only the borrower's] signature, the creditor may collect the debt only from unencumbered property. [If] a guarantor's name appears after the signatures of witnesses, the creditor may collect the debt only from [the guarantor’s] unencumbered property. A case came before Rabbi Yishmael and he said, “He may collect only from unencumbered property.” Ben Nanas said to him: “He may recover the debt neither from transacted property nor from unencumbered property.” He said to him: “Why?” He answered, “If a man choked someone in the market, and his fellow found him and said ‘Leave him alone,' he is exempt [from being a guarantor], since [the lender] did not lend [the borrower money] based upon [the guarantor's] trustworthiness. Rather, which type of guarantor is liable? 'Lend him money and I will pay you' - he is liable, for [the lender] did indeed lend [the borrower] money based [the guarantors] trustworthiness." Rabbi Yishmael said: [If] one wishes to become wise, he should occupy himself with monetary laws, for there is no corner of Torah greater than them, for they are like a flowing spring. And [if] one wishes to occupy himself with monetary laws, let him serve Shimon ben Nanas.