9ט׳
1 א

הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַיּוֹבֵל, אֵינוֹ מֻתָּר לִגְאוֹל פָּחוּת מִשְּׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה), בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר לָךְ. הָיְתָה שְׁנַת שִׁדָּפוֹן וְיֵרָקוֹן אוֹ שְׁבִיעִית, אֵינָהּ עוֹלָה מִן הַמִּנְיָן. נָרָהּ אוֹ הוֹבִירָהּ, עוֹלָה לוֹ מִן הַמִּנְיָן. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, מְכָרָהּ לוֹ לִפְנֵי רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹכֵל מִמֶּנָּה שָׁלשׁ תְּבוּאוֹת לִשְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים:

If one sold his field [of possession] at the time when the Jubilee was in force, he may not redeem it for two years, as it says: “According to the number of the years of the crops he shall sell to you” (Leviticus 25:15). If there was a year of blight or mildew, or a seventh year, it is not included in the count. If he only broke the ground [without planting] or left it fallow [for a year], that year is included in the count. Rabbi Elazar says: if he sold it to him before Rosh Hashanah, and it was still full of fruit, he enjoys three crops in two years.

2 ב

מְכָרָהּ לָרִאשׁוֹן בְּמָנֶה, וּמָכַר הָרִאשׁוֹן לַשֵּׁנִי בְּמָאתַיִם, אֵינוֹ מְחַשֵּׁב אֶלָּא עִם הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָכַר לוֹ. מְכָרָהּ לָרִאשׁוֹן בְּמָאתַיִם, וּמָכַר הָרִאשׁוֹן לַשֵּׁנִי בְּמָנֶה, אֵינוֹ מְחַשֵּׁב אֶלָּא עִם הָאַחֲרוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), לָאִישׁ, לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָהּ. לֹא יִמְכֹּר בְּרָחוֹק וְיִגְאֹל בְּקָרוֹב, בְּרָע וְיִגְאֹל בְּיָפֶה. לֹא יִלְוֶה וְיִגְאַל, וְלֹא יִגְאַל לַחֲצָאִים. וּבַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מֻתָּר בְּכֻלָּן. זֶה חֹמֶר בַּהֶדְיוֹט מִבַּהֶקְדֵּשׁ:

If he sold it to the first for one hundred [dinar] and the first sold it to the second for two hundred, then he need reckon only with the first, as it says, “With the man to whom he sold” (Leviticus 25:27). If he sold it to the first for two hundred, and the first sold it to the second for one hundred, then he need reckon only with the second, as it says: “With the man” (ibid)— the man in possession of the field. One may not sell a distant field in order to redeem a near one, or a poor field in order to redeem a good one. One may not borrow [money] in order to redeem, nor redeem it in halves. But in the case of objects consecrated, all these [things] are permitted. In this respect the laws concerning a person’s [property] are more stringent than those concerning sacred things.

3 ג

הַמּוֹכֵר בַּיִת בְּבָתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה, הֲרֵי זֶה גוֹאֵל מִיָּד, וְגוֹאֵל כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִין רִבִּית וְאֵינָהּ רִבִּית. מֵת הַמּוֹכֵר, יִגְאַל בְּנוֹ. מֵת הַלּוֹקֵחַ, יִגְאַל מִיַּד בְּנוֹ. אֵינוֹ מוֹנֶה לוֹ שָׁנָה אֶלָּא מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), עַד מְלֹאת לוֹ שָׁנָה תְמִימָה. וּכְשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר תְּמִימָה, לְהָבִיא חֹדֶשׁ הָעִבּוּר. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, יִתֵּן לוֹ שָׁנָה וְעִבּוּרָהּ:

If one sold a house among the houses of a walled city, he may redeem it at once and at any time during twelve months. This is a kind of interest, yet it is not interest. If the seller died, his son may redeem it. If the purchaser died, it may be redeemed from his son. One counts the year only from the time that he sold it, as it is said, “Before a full year has elapsed” (Leviticus 25:30). When it says a “a full” [year], an intercalated month is included. Rabbi says: he [always] gives him a year and its intercalation.

4 ד

הִגִּיעַ יוֹם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא נִגְאַל, הָיָה חָלוּט לוֹ, אֶחָד הַלּוֹקֵחַ וְאֶחָד שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לַצְּמִיתוּת. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה נִטְמָן יוֹם שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, שֶׁיְּהֵא חָלוּט לוֹ. הִתְקִין הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁיְּהֵא חוֹלֵשׁ אֶת מְעוֹתָיו בַּלִּשְׁכָּה, וִיהֵא שׁוֹבֵר אֶת הַדֶּלֶת וְנִכְנָס. אֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַלָּה, יָבֹא וְיִטֹּל אֶת מְעוֹתָיו:

If the [last] day of the twelve months has arrived and it was not redeemed, it becomes his permanent [possession]. This applies whether he bought it or received it as a gift, as it is said: “beyond reclaim” (Leviticus 25:30). In earlier times, he [the buyer] would hide on the last day of the twelve months, so that [the house] might become his permanent [possession]. Hillel enacted that he [the seller] could deposit his money in the [Temple] chamber and break down the door and enter, and that the other [the buyer], whenever he wanted, might come and take his money.

5 ה

כֹּל שֶׁהוּא לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה, הֲרֵי הוּא כְבָתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה, חוּץ מִן הַשָּׂדוֹת. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף הַשָּׂדוֹת. בַּיִת הַבָּנוּי בַּחוֹמָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ כְבָתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כֹּתֶל הַחִיצוֹן הִיא חוֹמָתוֹ:

Whatever is within the [city] wall is regarded as the houses in a walled city, with the exception of fields. Rabbi Meir says: even fields. A house built into the wall: Rabbi Judah says: it is not considered a house within a walled city. Rabbi Shimon says: its outer wall is regarded as its [city] wall.

6 ו

עִיר שֶׁגַּגּוֹתֶיהָ חוֹמָתָהּ, וְשֶׁאֵינָהּ מֻקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה מִימוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן, אֵינָהּ כְּבָתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן בָּתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה, שָׁלשׁ חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי שְׁנֵי בָתִּים, מֻקָּפוֹת חוֹמָה מִימוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן, כְּגוֹן קַצְּרָה הַיְשָׁנָה שֶׁל צִפּוֹרִים, וְחַקְרָה שֶׁל גּוּשׁ חָלָב, וְיוֹדְפַת הַיְשָׁנָה, וְגַמְלָא, וּגְדוֹד, וְחָדִיד, וְאוֹנוֹ, וִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן:

A city whose roofs [look as if] they form its wall, or one that was not encompassed by a wall in the days of Joshua ben Nun, is not considered like houses in a walled city. [A house in any of] the following counts a house in a walled city: [those in a city] of no less than three courtyards, having two houses each, which have been encompassed by a wall in the days of Yehoshua bin Nun, such as the old stronghold of Tzippori, the fort of Gush-Halav, old Yodfat, Gamla, G’dod, Hadid, Ono, Jerusalem and other similar cities.

7 ז

בָּתֵּי הַחֲצֵרִים, נוֹתְנִים לָהֶם כֹּחַ הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבְּבָתֵּי עָרֵי חוֹמָה וְכֹחַ הַיָּפֶה שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת. נִגְאָלִין מִיָּד, וְנִגְאָלִין כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ כַּבָּתִּים, וְיוֹצְאִים בַּיּוֹבֵל וּבְגִרְעוֹן כֶּסֶף כַּשָּׂדוֹת. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן בָּתֵּי חֲצֵרִים, שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי שְׁנֵי בָתִּים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּקָּפִין חוֹמָה מִימוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּן נוּן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְבָתֵּי חֲצֵרִים:

Houses in unwalled cities—we accord to them the advantages of houses in a walled city and the advantages given to fields: They can be redeemed at once, and at any time within the twelve months like houses [in a walled city], and they return [to the owners] in the Jubilee or [at an earlier time] by [payment of a] reduced price like fields. The following are considered houses in unwalled cities: [a city which has] two courtyards, each having two houses, even though they have been encompassed by a wall since the days of Yehoshua bin Nun, they count as houses in courtyards.

8 ח

יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיָּרַשׁ אֲבִי אִמּוֹ לֵוִי, אֵינוֹ גוֹאֵל כַּסֵּדֶר הַזֶּה. וְכֵן לֵוִי שֶׁיָּרַשׁ אֶת אֲבִי אִמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֵינוֹ גוֹאֵל כַּסֵּדֶר הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה), כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם, עַד שֶׁיְהֵא לֵוִי וּבְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין הַדְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים אֶלָּא בְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם. אֵין עוֹשִׂים שָׂדֶה מִגְרָשׁ וְלֹא מִגְרָשׁ שָׂדֶה, וְלֹא מִגְרָשׁ עִיר וְלֹא עִיר מִגְרָשׁ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים. בְּעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם. אֲבָל בְּעָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, עוֹשִׂין שָׂדֶה מִגְרָשׁ וְלֹא מִגְרָשׁ שָׂדֶה, מִגְרָשׁ עִיר וְלֹא עִיר מִגְרָשׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲרִיבוּ אֶת עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם מוֹכְרִים לְעוֹלָם וְגוֹאֲלִים לְעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם:

If an Israelite inherited from his mother's father who was a Levite, he cannot redeem it according to the order prescribed here. Also if a Levite inherited from his mother's father who was an Israelite, he cannot redeem it according to the order prescribed here, as it says, “As for the houses of the cities of the Levites” (Leviticus 25:32)—[this order does not apply] unless he is a Levite and in the cities of the Levites - [these are] the words of Rabbi; The Sages say: these things apply to the cities of the Levites. One may not turn a field into pasture land, nor pasture land into a field, nor pasture land into a city, nor a city into pasture land. Rabbi Elazar said: When is this so? When it comes to the cities of the Levites, but when it comes to cities of Israelites one may turn a field into pasture land, pasture land into a field, pasture land into a city, but not a city into pasture land, in order that they should not destroy the cities of Israel. Priests and Levites may sell [a house] at any time and redeem it at any time, as it is said: “The Levites shall forever have the right of redemption” (Leviticus 25:32).