הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ יוֹבֵל, אוֹמְרִים לוֹ פְּתַח אַתָּה רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים חֹמֶשׁ, וְכָל אָדָם אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן חֹמֶשׁ. מַעֲשֶׂה בְאֶחָד שֶׁהִקְדִּישׁ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ מִפְּנֵי רָעָתָהּ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, פְּתַח אַתָּה רִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלִּי בְאִסָּר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, לֹא אָמַר זֶה אֶלָּא בְּכַבֵּיצָה, שֶׁהַהֶקְדֵּשׁ נִפְדֶּה בְכֶסֶף וּבְשָׁוֶה כָסֶף. אָמַר לוֹ, הִגִּיעָתְךָ, נִמְצָא מַפְסִיד אִסָּר, וְשָׂדֵהוּ לְפָנָיו: In the case of one who consecrates his ancestral field during a period when the Jubilee Year is not observed, and therefore the field is not redeemed according to a fixed rate of fifty shekels per beit kor but according to its value, when the treasurer announces the sale of the field he says to the owner: You open the bidding first; how much do you offer for its redemption? This method is advantageous for the Temple treasury, as the owner gives an additional payment of one-fifth of the value of the field, and every other person does not give an additional one-fifth payment. There was an incident involving one who consecrated his field due to its inferior quality. The treasurers said to him: You open the bidding first. He said: It is hereby mine for an issar, a small sum. Rabbi Yosei says: That person did not say he would purchase it for an issar; rather, he said he would purchase it for an egg, as consecrated items may be redeemed with money or with the equivalent value of money. The treasurer said to him: The field has come into your possession based on your bid. As a result, he loses an issar and his field remains before him in his possession.
אָמַר אֶחָד, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלִּי בְעֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר בְּעֶשְׂרִים, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר בִּשְׁלשִׁים, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר בְּאַרְבָּעִים, וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר בַּחֲמִשִּׁים. חָזַר בּוֹ שֶׁל חֲמִשִּׁים, מְמַשְׁכְּנִין מִנְּכָסָיו עַד עָשֶׂר. חָזַר בּוֹ שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים, מְמַשְׁכְּנִין מִנְּכָסָיו עַד עָשֶׂר. חָזַר בּוֹ שֶׁל שְׁלשִׁים, מְמַשְׁכְּנִין מִנְּכָסָיו עַד עָשֶׂר. חָזַר בּוֹ שֶׁל עֶשְׂרִים, מְמַשְׁכְּנִים מִנְּכָסָיו עַד עָשֶׂר. חָזַר בּוֹ שֶׁל עֶשֶׂר, מוֹכְרִים אוֹתָהּ בְּשָׁוְיָהּ וְנִפְרָעִים מִשֶּׁל עֶשֶׂר אֶת הַמּוֹתָר. הַבְּעָלִים אוֹמְרִים בְּעֶשְׂרִים, וְכָל אָדָם אוֹמְרִים בְּעֶשְׂרִים, הַבְּעָלִים קוֹדְמִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מוֹסִיפִין חֹמֶשׁ: If one said: The field is hereby mine for ten sela, and one other person said: It is mine for twenty, and one said for thirty, and one said for forty, and one said for fifty; and then the one who bid fifty reneged on his offer, the treasurer repossesses from his property up to ten sela and the field is redeemed by the one who bid forty. This ensures that the Temple treasury does not lose. If the one who bid forty sela subsequently reneged on his offer, the treasurer repossesses from his property up to ten sela and the field is redeemed by the one who bid thirty. If the one who bid thirty subsequently reneged on his offer, the treasurer repossesses from his property up to ten sela and the field is redeemed by the one who bid twenty. If the one who bid twenty reneged on his offer, the treasurer repossesses from his property up to ten sela and it is redeemed by the one who bid ten. If the one who bid ten reneged on his offer, the treasurer sells the field at its value and collects the remainder from the property of the one who bid ten, to complete the sum of ten sela. If the owner says he will pay twenty sela and any other person says he will pay twenty sela, the offer of the owner takes precedence, due to the fact that he adds one-fifth.
אָמַר אֶחָד, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלִּי בְעֶשְׂרִים וְאַחַת, הַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים עֶשְׂרִים וְשֵׁשׁ. בְּעֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁתַּיִם, הַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים עֶשְׂרִים וְשֶׁבַע. בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְשָׁלשׁ, הַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁמֹנֶה. בְּעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע, הַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים תִּשְׁעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים. בַּחֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים, הַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים שְׁלֹשִׁים, שֶׁאֵין מוֹסִיפִין חֹמֶשׁ עַל עִלּוּיוֹ שֶׁל זֶה. אָמַר אֶחָד, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלִּי בְּעֶשְׂרִים וָשֵׁשׁ, אִם רָצוּ הַבְּעָלִים לִתֵּן שְׁלֹשִׁים וְאֶחָד וְדִינָר, הַבְּעָלִים קוֹדְמִים. וְאִם לָאו, אוֹמְרִים, הִגִּיעָתְךָ: If the owner says he will pay twenty sela and one other person said: The field is hereby mine for a payment of twenty-one sela, the owner gives twenty-six sela and takes the field. He pays the twenty that he initially offered; plus five sela, which is one-fifth of the total future sum, i.e., one-quarter of his initial offer. In addition, he adds one sela, the difference between his initial offer and that of the other person, so that the Temple treasury will not receive less than the twenty-one sela offer proposed by the other person. If the owner says he will pay twenty sela and another person said: The field is hereby mine for a payment of twenty-two sela, the owner gives twenty-seven sela and takes the field. If the owner says he will pay twenty sela and another said: The field is hereby mine for a payment of twenty-three sela, the owner gives twenty-eight sela and takes the field. If the owner says he will pay twenty sela and another said: The field is hereby mine for a payment of twenty-four sela, the owner gives twenty-nine sela and takes the field. If the owner says he will pay twenty sela and another said: The field is hereby mine for a payment of twenty-five sela, the owner gives thirty sela, as the owner adds one-fifth only to the amount that he bid, and does not add one-fifth to the addition of that other person. If the owner said he will pay twenty sela and one other person said: The field is hereby mine for a payment of twenty-six sela, if the owner wished to pay thirty-one sela and a dinar the owner takes precedence; and if not, the treasurer says to the other person: The field has come into your possession based on your bid, as it is more than the Temple treasury can compel the owner to pay.
מַחֲרִים אָדָם מִצֹּאנוֹ וּמִבְּקָרוֹ, מֵעֲבָדָיו וּמִשִּׁפְחוֹתָיו הַכְּנַעֲנִים, וּמִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ. וְאִם הֶחֱרִים אֶת כֻּלָּן, אֵינָן מֻחְרָמִין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, מָה אִם לַגָּבֹהַּ, אֵין אָדָם רַשַּׁאי לְהַחֲרִים אֶת כָּל נְכָסָיו, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם חַיָּב לִהְיוֹת חָס עַל נְכָסָיו: A person may dedicate, for sacred or priestly use, some of his flock and some of his cattle, and some of his Canaanite slaves and maidservants, and some of his ancestral field. But if he dedicated all that he has of any type of property, they are not dedicated, i.e., the dedication does not take effect; this is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said: If for the Most High a person may not dedicate all his property, it is all the more so the case that a person should spare his property and not give all of it to others.
הַמַּחֲרִים בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ, עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים, וּשְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ, אֵינָן מֻחְרָמִים, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַחֲרִים דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ. כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם אֵינָן מַחֲרִימִין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּהֲנִים אֵינָן מַחֲרִימִין, שֶׁהַחֲרָמִים שֶׁלָּהֶם. הַלְוִיִּם מַחֲרִימִים, שֶׁאֵין הַחֲרָמִים שֶׁלָּהֶן. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, נִרְאִים דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּקַּרְקָעוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה), כִּי אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם הוּא לָהֶם, וְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּמִטַּלְטְלִים, שֶׁאֵין הַחֲרָמִים שֶׁלָּהֶם: In the case of one who dedicates his son or his daughter, or his Hebrew slave or maidservant, or his purchased field, those items are not considered dedicated, as a person may not dedicate an item that is not his. Priests and Levites may not dedicate their property; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: Priests may not dedicate their property, as all dedicated property is theirs; it is one of the priestly gifts, as the verse states: “Everything dedicated in Israel shall be yours” (Numbers 18:14). But Levites may dedicate their property, as dedicated property is not theirs. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: The statement of Rabbi Yehuda appears to be correct with regard to land, as it is stated about the land of the Levites: “But the fields of the open land surrounding their cities may not be sold, as that is their perpetual possession” (Leviticus 25:34), and they cannot renounce that land. And the statement of Rabbi Shimon appears to be correct with regard to movable property, which the Levites may dedicate, as dedicated property is not theirs. It is a gift for the priests, not the Levites.
חֶרְמֵי כֹהֲנִים אֵין לָהֶם פִּדְיוֹן, אֶלָּא נִתָּנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בְּתֵירָא אוֹמֵר, סְתָם חֲרָמִים לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם כז), כָּל חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַה'. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, סְתָם חֲרָמִים לַכֹּהֲנִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), כִּשְׂדֵה הַחֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן תִּהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ. אִם כֵּן, לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר כָּל חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַה'. שֶׁהוּא חָל עַל קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים וְעַל קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים: Dedications of property for priests, unlike consecrations of property for Temple maintenance, have no redemption; rather, one gives it to the priests, and it is their property in every sense, like teruma. Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Dedications dedicated without specification of their purpose are designated for Temple maintenance, as it is stated: “Every dedicated item is most sacred to the Lord” (Leviticus 27:28). And the Rabbis say: Dedications dedicated without specification of their purpose are designated for priests, as it is stated with regard to one who consecrated a field and did not redeem it: “As a field dedicated; its possession shall be to the priest” (Leviticus 27:21), indicating that a non-specific dedication belongs to the priest. If so, why is it stated: “Every dedicated item is most sacred to the Lord”? This comes to teach that dedication takes effect on offerings of the most sacred order and offerings of lesser sanctity. If one consecrated an animal for sacrifice and then dedicated it, the dedication takes effect. Nevertheless, it does not take effect on the body of the animal; rather, it applies to the owner’s financial stake in the offering.
מַחֲרִים אָדָם אֶת קָדָשָׁיו, בֵּין קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים וּבֵין קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים. אִם נֶדֶר, נוֹתֵן אֶת הַדָּמִים. אִם נְדָבָה, נוֹתֵן אֶת טוֹבָתוֹ. שׁוֹר זֶה עוֹלָה, אוֹמְדִים כַּמָּה אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן בְּשׁוֹר זֶה לְהַעֲלוֹתוֹ עוֹלָה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי. הַבְּכוֹר, בֵּין תָּמִים בֵּין בַּעַל מוּם, מַחֲרִימִין אוֹתוֹ. כֵּיצַד פּוֹדִין אוֹתוֹ. הַפּוֹדִין אוֹמְדִים כַּמָּה אָדָם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן בִּבְכוֹר זֶה, לִתְּנוֹ לְבֶן בִּתּוֹ אוֹ לְבֶן אֲחוֹתוֹ. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, כָּתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר תַּקְדִּישׁ, וְכָתוּב אֶחָד אוֹמֵר אַל תַּקְדִּישׁ. אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר תַּקְדִּישׁ, שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר אַל תַּקְדִּישׁ, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר אַל תַּקְדִּישׁ, שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר תַּקְדִּישׁ. אֱמוֹר מֵעַתָּה, מַקְדִּישׁוֹ אַתָּה הֶקְדֵּשׁ עִלּוּי, וְאֵין אַתָּה מַקְדִּישׁוֹ הֶקְדֵּשׁ מִזְבֵּחַ: As the Sages delineated: A person may dedicate his sacrificial animals, both offerings of the most sacred order and offerings of lesser sanctity. If the offering he dedicated was the object of a vow, e.g., if he said: It is incumbent upon me to sacrifice a burnt offering, since he is obligated to replace such offerings they are considered his property, and therefore he gives their value to the priests. And if the offering he dedicated was a gift offering, e.g., if he said: This animal is a burnt offering, in which case he is not obligated to replace the animal, he gives the monetary benefit that he has in them. For example, if he said: This bull is a burnt offering, one estimates how much money a person would be willing to give in order to sacrifice the animal as a voluntary burnt offering, even though he is not permitted to do so. With regard to a firstborn animal, whether it is unblemished or whether it is blemished, its owner may dedicate it. And how does one assess the payment required to redeem it? One estimates how much an Israelite person would be willing to give in exchange for that firstborn in order to give it to a priest who is his daughter’s son or to a priest who is his sister’s son. Rabbi Yishmael says: One verse states: “All the firstborn males that are born of your herd and of your flock you shall consecrate to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 15:19), and one verse states: “However, the firstborn among animals that is born first to the Lord, a man shall not consecrate it” (Leviticus 27:26). It is impossible to say: “You shall consecrate,” as it is already stated: “A man shall not consecrate.” It is likewise impossible to say: “A man shall not consecrate,” as it is already stated: “You shall consecrate.” How, then, can these verses be reconciled? You can consecrate the firstborn animal by a consecration of value, i.e., an individual can donate to the Temple treasury the amount he would be willing to pay for the right to give the firstborn to a specific priest; and you cannot consecrate it by a consecration for the altar, as a firstborn may not be sacrificed for the sake of any other offering.