7ז׳
1 א

אֵין מַקְדִּישִׁין לִפְנֵי הַיּוֹבֵל פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁתֵּי שָׁנִים. וְלֹא גוֹאֲלִין לְאַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל פָּחוֹת מִשָּׁנָה. אֵין מְחַשְּׁבִין חֳדָשִׁים לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. אֲבָל הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מְחַשֵּׁב חֳדָשִׁים. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ בִשְׁעַת הַיּוֹבֵל, נוֹתֵן בְּזֶרַע חֹמֶר שְׂעֹרִים חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כָּסֶף. הָיוּ שָׁם נְקָעִים עֲמֻקִּים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים אוֹ סְלָעִים גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, אֵין נִמְדָּדִים עִמָּהּ. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן, נִמְדָּדִים עִמָּהּ. הִקְדִּישָׁהּ שְׁתַּיִם אוֹ שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים לִפְנֵי הַיּוֹבֵל, נוֹתֵן סֶלַע וּפֻנְדְיוֹן לְשָׁנָה. אִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נוֹתֵן דְּבַר שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן אֶת כֻּלּוֹ כְּאֶחָד:

One may not consecrate [a field of his possession] less than two years before the Jubilee, nor redeem it less than one year after the Jubilee. One does not reckon months to [the disadvantage of] the Temple fund, but the Temple fund does reckon months [to its own advantage]. If a man consecrated his field at a time when the law of the Jubilee is in force, he must give fifty shekel for [each section of field sufficient for] the sowing of a homer of barley. If the field contained ravines ten handbreadths deep or rocks ten handbreadths high, they are not included as part of the field. But if less than this, they are included. If he consecrated it two or three years before the Jubilee, he must give one sela and one pundion for each year. If he says: “I shall give for each year as it comes,” they do not listen to him, rather he must give for all the years together.

2 ב

אֶחָד הַבְּעָלִים, וְאֶחָד כָּל הָאָדָם. מַה בֵּין הַבְּעָלִים לְבֵין כָּל הָאָדָם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַבְּעָלִים נוֹתְנִים חֹמֶשׁ, וְכָל אָדָם אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן חֹמֶשׁ:

It is all the same whether the owner or anyone else [redeems the field]. What is the difference between the owner and any other man? The owner must add one fifth, whereas any other man need not add one fifth.

3 ג

הִקְדִּישָׁהּ וּגְאָלָהּ, אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה מִיָּדוֹ בַּיּוֹבֵל. גְּאָלָהּ בְּנוֹ, יוֹצְאָה לְאָבִיו בַּיּוֹבֵל. גְּאָלָהּ אַחֵר אוֹ אֶחָד מִן הַקְּרוֹבִים וּגְאָלָהּ מִיָּדוֹ, אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה מִיָּדוֹ בַּיּוֹבֵל. גְּאָלָהּ אֶחָד מִן הַכֹּהֲנִים וַהֲרֵי הִיא תַּחַת יָדוֹ, לֹא יֹאמַר הוֹאִיל וְהִיא יוֹצְאָה לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל וַהֲרֵי הִיא תַּחַת יָדִי, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁלִּי, אֶלָּא יוֹצְאָה לְכָל אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים:

If a man consecrated [his field] and then redeemed it, it does not go out of his possession in the Jubilee. If his son redeemed it, it reverts to his father in the Jubilee. If another person, or a relative redeemed it, and he redeemed it from his hand, it goes out [to the priests]. If one of the priests redeemed it, and it was still in his possession, he cannot say: “Since it goes out to the priests in the Jubilee, and since it is now in my possession, therefore it belongs to me.” Rather, it goes out of his possession to all his fellow priests.

4 ד

הִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל וְלֹא נִגְאֲלָה, הַכֹּהֲנִים נִכְנָסִים לְתוֹכָהּ וְנוֹתְנִים אֶת דָּמֶיהָ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, נִכְנָסִין, אֲבָל לֹא נוֹתְנִין. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לֹא נִכְנָסִין וְלֹא נוֹתְנִין, אֶלָּא נִקְרֵאת שְׂדֵה רְטוּשִׁים, עַד הַיּוֹבֵל הַשֵּׁנִי. הִגִּיעַ הַיּוֹבֵל הַשֵּׁנִי וְלֹא נִגְאֲלָה, נִקְרֵאת רְטוּשֵׁי רְטוּשִׁין עַד הַיּוֹבֵל הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. לְעוֹלָם אֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים נִכְנָסִין לְתוֹכָהּ, עַד שֶׁיִּגְאָלֶנָּה אַחֵר:

If the Jubilee arrived and it was not yet redeemed then the priests enter into possession of the land and they give its value - [these are] the words of Rabbi Judah; Rabbi Shimon says: they enter [into possession] but they do not give [its value]; Rabbi Eliezer says: they neither enter [into possession] nor give [its value] - rather, it is called an abandoned field until the second Jubilee. If the second jubilee has arrived and it was not yet redeemed, it is called a ‘twice abandoned field’ until the third Jubilee. The priests never enter into possession of the field until someone else had redeemed it.

5 ה

הַלּוֹקֵחַ שָׂדֶה מֵאָבִיו, מֵת אָבִיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִקְדִּישָׁהּ, הֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה. הִקְדִּישָׁהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מֵת אָבִיו, הֲרֵי הִיא כִּשְׂדֵה מִקְנָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמְרִים, כִּשְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כז), וְאִם אֶת שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ, שָׂדֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לִהְיוֹת שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה, יוֹצֵאת זוֹ, שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לִהְיוֹת שְׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּה. שְׂדֵה מִקְנָה אֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה לַכֹּהֲנִים בַּיּוֹבֵל, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַקְדִּישׁ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ. כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם מַקְדִּישִׁים לְעוֹלָם, וְגוֹאֲלִין לְעוֹלָם, בֵּין לִפְנֵי הַיּוֹבֵל, בֵּין לְאַחַר הַיּוֹבֵל:

If one bought a field from his father, and his father died and afterwards he consecrated it, it is considered a hereditary field. If he consecrated it and afterwards his father died, then it is considered a field [acquired by] purchase - [these are] the words of Rabbi Meir; Rabbi Judah and Rabbi Shimon say: it is considered a field of possession, as it is said: “And if a field which he has, which is not his hereditary field” (Leviticus 27:22) - a field which is not capable of becoming a hereditary field, thus excluding a field which is capable of becoming a hereditary field. A field [acquired by] purchase does not go out to the priests in the year of the Jubilee, for no man can consecrate an object not belonging to him. Priests and Levites may consecrate [their fields] at any time and redeem at any time, both before and after the jubilee.